Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA number 302
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
X-SAMPA e
Kirshenbaum e
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.

For the close-mid (near-)front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of this article follows this preference. However, a large number of linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] bed [bet] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [e] and mid [ɛ̝].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [example needed]
Catalan[3] més [mes] 'more' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[4] [orthographic
form needed
]
[ke̠ʔ¹] 'should' Near-front; realization of /ɛ/, which appears only in closed syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/, which appears only in closed syllables.[4]
Czech Brno accent[5] led [let] 'ice' Corresponds to [ɛ ~ ɛ̠ ~ ɛ̝̈] in standard Czech.[6] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[7][8] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Realized as mid [e̞ː] in the conservative variety;[9] most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[10] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[11] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
General Indian[12] play [pl̥e(ː)] 'play'
General Pakistani[13] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Multicultural London[14]
Scottish[15]
Singaporean[16]
Tyneside[17]
Ulster[18] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Faroese[19] frekur [ˈfɹeː(ʰ)kʊɹ] 'greedy' May be a diphthong [eɛː ~ eəː] instead.[20] See Faroese phonology
French[21][22] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
Georgian[23] მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
German Standard[24][25] Seele About this sound [ˈzeːlə] 'soul' See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[26] Jäger [ˈjeːɡɐ] 'hunter' Outcome of the /ɛː–eː/ merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.[26] See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[27] Bett [bet] 'bed' Common realization of /ɛ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[27] See Standard German phonology
Swabian accent[27] Contrasts with the open-mid [ɛ].[27] See Standard German phonology
Greek Sfakian[28] [example needed] Corresponds to mid [] in Modern Standard Greek.[29] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[30] hét [heːt̪] 'seven' Also described as mid [e̞ː].[31] See Hungarian phonology
Italian[32] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[33] [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
Limburgish Most dialects[34][35][36] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[37] měŕ [merʲ] 'measure!' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[37]
Luxembourgish[38] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].[38] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[39] le [leː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[40] dzień About this sound [d͡ʑeɲ̟] 'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[41] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Muntenian dialects[42] vezi [vezʲ] '(you) see' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[43] шея About this sound [ˈʂejə] 'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[44] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.[44]
Slovak Standard[45] dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' In standard Slovak, the backness varies between front and near-front; most commonly, it is realized as mid [e̞ː] instead.[46] See Slovak phonology
Dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ[30]
Sotho[47] ho jwetsa [hʊ̠ʒʷet͡sʼɑ̈] 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[47] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[48][49] se [s̪eː] 'see' Often diphthongized to [eə̯] (hear the word: About this sound [s̪eə̯]). See Swedish phonology
Upper Sorbian[37][50] wem [ɥem] 'I know' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[37][51] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Yoruba[52] [example needed]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[53] zied [zied̪] [translation needed] Allophone of /e/ that occurs mostly after /i/. In other environments, the most common realization is central [ɘ].[53]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /ɛ/".
  2. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  4. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  5. ^ Palková (1999), p. 187.
  6. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  9. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  10. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  11. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  12. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  13. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  14. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  15. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  16. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  17. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  18. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). 
  19. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  20. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  21. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  22. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  23. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  24. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  25. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  26. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 64–65.
  27. ^ a b c d Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  28. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  29. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  30. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  31. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  32. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  33. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  34. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  35. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  36. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  37. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  38. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  39. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  40. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  41. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  42. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  43. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 44.
  44. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  45. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 95.
  46. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  47. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  48. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  49. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  50. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  51. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  52. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  53. ^ a b Merrill (2008), pp. 109–110.

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