Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA number 302
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
X-SAMPA e
Kirshenbaum e
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.

For the close-mid (near-)front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of this article follows this preference. However, a large number of linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] meter [ˈmëˑtɐr] 'meter' Near-front. Allophone of /eə/ in less stressed words and in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words. In the latter case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ëə̯ ~ ë̯ə ~ ëə].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [example needed]
Catalan[3] séc [s̠ek] 'fold' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[4] /ih [e̠ʔ˥] 'one' Near-front. Realization of /ɛ/ in open syllables and /ɪ/ in closed syllables.[4]
Czech Brno accent[5] led [let] 'ice' Corresponds to [ɛ ~ ɛ̠ ~ ɛ̝̈] in standard Czech.[6] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[7][8] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Realized as mid [e̞ː] in the conservative variety;[9] most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[10] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[11] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
General Indian[12] play [pl̥e(ː)] 'play'
General Pakistani[13] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Multicultural London[14]
Scottish[15]
Singaporean[16]
Tyneside[17]
Ulster[18] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
French[19] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
Georgian[20] მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
German Standard[21][22] Seele About this sound [ˈzeːlə] 'soul' See Standard German phonology
Hungarian[23] hét [heːt̪] 'seven' Also described as mid [e̞ː].[24] See Hungarian phonology
Italian[25] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[26] [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
Limburgish Most dialects[27][28][29] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[30] měŕ [merʲ] 'measure!' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[30]
Luxembourgish[31][32] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].[32] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[33] le [leː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[34] dzień About this sound [d͡ʑeɲ̟] 'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[35] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Muntenian dialects[36] vezi [vezʲ] '(you) see' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[37] шея About this sound [ˈʂejə] 'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[38] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.[38]
Slovak Standard[39] dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' In standard Slovak, the backness varies between front and near-front; most commonly, it is realized as mid [e̞ː] instead.[40] See Slovak phonology
Dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ[23]
Sotho[41] ho jwetsa [hʊ̠ʒʷet͡sʼɑ̈] 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[41] See Sotho phonology
Upper Sorbian[30][42] wem [ɥem] 'I know' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[30][43] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Yoruba[44] [example needed]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[45] zied [zied̪] [translation needed] Allophone of /e/ that occurs mostly after /i/. In other environments, the most common realization is central [ɘ].[45]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  2. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  4. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  5. ^ Palková (1999), p. 187.
  6. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  9. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  10. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  11. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  12. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  13. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  14. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  15. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  16. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  17. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  18. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). 
  19. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  20. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  21. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  22. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  23. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  24. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  25. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  26. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  27. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  28. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  29. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  30. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  31. ^ Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  32. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  33. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  34. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  35. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  36. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  37. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 44.
  38. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  39. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 95.
  40. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  41. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  42. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  43. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  44. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  45. ^ a b Merrill (2008), pp. 109–110.

Bibliography

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  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dankovičová, Jana (1999), "Czech", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 70–74, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Deterding, David (2000), "Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Low, Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99 
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