Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA number 302
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
X-SAMPA e
Kirshenbaum e
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Listen

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.

For the close-mid (near-)front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] bed [bet] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [e] and mid [ɛ̝].[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed]
Catalan[4] més [mes] 'more' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[5] [ke̠ʔ¹] 'should' Near-front; realization of /ɛ/, which appears only in closed syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ ([ɪ̞]), which appears only in closed syllables.[5]
Czech Brno accent[6] led [let] 'ice' Corresponds to [ɛ ~ ɛ̠ ~ ɛ̝̈] in standard Czech.[7] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[8][9] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Realized as mid [e̞ː] in the conservative variety;[10] most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[11] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[12] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
General Indian[13] play [pl̥e(ː)] 'play'
General Pakistani[14] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Multicultural London[15]
Scottish[16]
Singaporean[17]
Tyneside[18]
Ulster[19] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Estonian[20] keha [ˈkeɦɑ̝ˑ] 'body' See Estonian phonology
Faroese[21] frekur [ˈfɹeː(ʰ)kʊɹ] 'greedy' May be a diphthong [eɛː ~ eəː] instead.[22] See Faroese phonology
French[23][24] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
Georgian[25] მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
German Standard[26][27] Seele About this sound [ˈzeːlə] 'soul' See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[28] Jäger [ˈjeːɡɐ] 'hunter' Outcome of the /ɛː–eː/ merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.[28] See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[29] Bett [bet] 'bed' Common realization of /ɛ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[29] See Standard German phonology
Swabian accent[29] Contrasts with the open-mid [ɛ].[29] See Standard German phonology
Greek Sfakian[30] [example needed] Corresponds to mid [] in Modern Standard Greek.[31] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[32] hét [heːt̪] 'seven' Also described as mid [e̞ː].[33] See Hungarian phonology
Italian[34] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[35] kre [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
Limburgish Most dialects[36][37][38] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[39] měŕ [merʲ] 'measure!' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[39]
Luxembourgish[40] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].[40] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[41] le [leː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[42] dzień About this sound [d͡ʑeɲ̟] 'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[43] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Muntenian dialects[44] vezi [vezʲ] '(you) see' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[45] шея About this sound [ˈʂejə] 'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Saterland Frisian[46] tään [te̠ːn] 'thin' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ ([ɪ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ is actually near-close [e̝ː].[46]
Shiwiar[47] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.[47]
Slovak Standard[48] dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' In standard Slovak, the backness varies between front and near-front; most commonly, it is realized as mid [e̞ː] instead.[49] See Slovak phonology
Dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ[32]
Sotho[50] ho jwetsa [hʊ̠ʒʷet͡sʼɑ̈] 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[50] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[51][52] se [s̪eː] 'see' Often diphthongized to [eə̯] (hear the word: About this sound [s̪eə̯]). See Swedish phonology
Upper Sorbian[39][53] wem [ɥem] 'I know' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[39][54] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Yoruba[55] [example needed]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[56] zied [zied̪] [translation needed] Allophone of /e/ that occurs mostly after /i/. In other environments, the most common realization is central [ɘ].[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /ɛ/".
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  5. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ Palková (1999), p. 187.
  7. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  8. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  10. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  12. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  13. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  14. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  15. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  16. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  17. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  18. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  19. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). 
  20. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  21. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  22. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  23. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  24. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  25. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  26. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  27. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  28. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 64–65.
  29. ^ a b c d Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  30. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  31. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  32. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  33. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  34. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  35. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  36. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  37. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  38. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  39. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  40. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  41. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  42. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  43. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  44. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  45. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 44.
  46. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  47. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  48. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 95.
  49. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  50. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  51. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  52. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  53. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  54. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  55. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  56. ^ a b Merrill (2008), pp. 109–110.

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