Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
ɤ̈
ə̝
IPA Number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
X-SAMPA @\
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Audio sample

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the schwaə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ë⟩ (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[2] transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩.

The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a lowering diacriticɘ̞⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

Conversely, ⟨ə⟩, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a raising diacritic ⟨ə̝⟩ to denote the close-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ə̝͑⟩ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ⟨ə⟩ is undefined for rounding).

To type this symbol on Windows, press and hold the ALT key while typing "600" using the number pad keys.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azerbaijani Tabriz[3] qız قیز [ɡɘz] 'girl' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩.
Cotabato Manobo[4] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
Dinka Luanyjang[5] ŋeŋ [ŋɘ́ŋ] 'jawbone' Short allophone of /e/.[5]
English Australian[6][7] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[8] [bɚ̝ːd] Rhotacized; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.
Cardiff[9] foot [fɘt] 'foot' Less often rounded [ɵ];[10] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[11] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Merger of /ə/ and /ɪ/ found in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
Southern American[12] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[12] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[13] kõrv [kɘrv] 'ear' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid back [ɤ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[13] See Estonian phonology
Irish Munster[14] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲə̝] 'salt water' Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[14] See Irish phonology
Jebero[15] [ˈiʃɘk] 'bat'
Kaingang[16] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[17]
Kalagan Kaagan[18] [miˈwə̝ːʔ] 'lost' Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[18]
Kensiu[19] [ɟɚ̝h] 'to trim' Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.[19]
Kera[20] [t͡ʃə̝̄wā̠a̠] 'fire' Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[20]
Korean[21] [ə̝ːɾɯ̽n] 'senior' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨əː⟩. See Korean phonology
Lizu[22] [Fkə̝][clarification needed] 'eagle' Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[22]
Mapudungun[23] elün [ë̝ˈlɘn] 'to leave (something)'
Mongolian[24] үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Mono[25] dœ [də̝] 'be (equative)' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[25]
Polish[26] mysz About this sound[mɘ̟ʂ]  'mouse' Somewhat fronted;[26] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[27] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian Some speakers[28] солнце About this sound[ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ]  'sun' Unstressed allophone of /ɨ/ after /t͡s/; other speakers realize it as near-close [ɨ̞].[28] See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[29] [example needed]
Temne[30] pər [pə̝́r] 'incite' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[30]
Vietnamese[31] v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Upper[32] [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'upstairs' Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[32] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[33]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[34] ne [nɘ] 'and' Most common realization of /e/.[34]

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  3. ^ Mokari & Werner (2016).
  4. ^ Kerr (1988:110)
  5. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  6. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  7. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  8. ^ Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  9. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  10. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  11. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  12. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  13. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  14. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  15. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  16. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  17. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  18. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  19. ^ a b Bishop (1996:230)
  20. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  21. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  22. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  23. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  24. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  25. ^ a b Olson (2004:235)
  26. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105) The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ⟨ɨ⟩ but one can see from the vowel chart at pag. 105 that the Polish sound is closer to [ɘ] than to [ɨ].
  27. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  28. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:38)
  29. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  30. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  31. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  32. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  33. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  34. ^ a b Merrill (2008:109–110)

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Bishop, Nancy (1996), "A preliminary description of Kensiu (Maniq) phonology" (PDF), Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 25
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013a), "Lizu" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 75–86, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000242 [permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013b), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157 [permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169 [permanent dead link]
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Cox, F.M. (2006), "The acoustic characteristics of /hVd/ vowels in the speech of some Australian teenagers", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 26: 147–179, doi:10.1080/07268600600885494
  • Durie, M.; Hajek, J. (1994), "A revised standard phonemic orthography for Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 14 (1): 93–107, doi:10.1080/07268609408599503
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano
  • Hillenbrand, James M. (2003), "American English: Southern Michigan" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 121–126, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001221
  • Hoang, Thi Quynh Hoa (1965), A phonological contrastive study of Vietnamese and English (PDF), Lubbock, Texas: Texas Technological College
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-06736-7
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X
  • Kerr, Harland (1988), "Cotabato Manobo Grammar" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 7 (1): 1–123, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Mokari, Payam Ghaffarvand; Werner, Stefan (2016), Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna (ed.), "An acoustic description of spectral and temporal characteristics of Azerbaijani vowels", Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52 (3), doi:10.1515/psicl-2016-0019
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (02): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0
  • Pearce, Mary (2011), "Kera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (2): 249–258, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000168
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Remijsen, Bert; Manyang, Caguor Adong (2009), "Luanyjang Dinka" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (1): 113–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003605, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-09
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21345-7
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370
  • Wendel, Åsa; Wendel, Dag (1978), "Kaagan-Kalagan phonemic statement" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 2 (1): 191–203, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11

External links

  • List of languages with [ɘ] on PHOIBLE
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