Close-mid back rounded vowel

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Close-mid back rounded vowel
o
IPA number 307
Encoding
Entity (decimal) o
Unicode (hex) U+006F
X-SAMPA o
Kirshenbaum o
Braille ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Listen

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩.

For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close near-back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Close-mid back protruded vowel

The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨o⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, the symbol for the close-mid back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨  ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨⟩ for the close-mid back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɤʷ⟩ (a close-mid back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

For the close-mid near-back protruded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩, see near-close near-back protruded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

Occurrence

Note: Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] bok [bok] 'goat' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [o] and mid [ɔ̝].[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed]
Bulgarian[4] уста [os̪ˈt̪a] 'mouth' Unstressed allophone of /u/ and /ɔ/.[4] See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[5] sóc [sok] 'I am' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[6] [ko¹] 'melon' Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.[6]
Czech Bohemian[7] oko [ˈoko] 'eye' Backness varies between back and near-back; may be realized as mid [] instead.[7] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[8][9] kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' Also described as near-close [o̝ː].[10][11] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[12] kool About this sound [koːɫ]  'cabbage' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [oʊ]. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[13] yawn [joːn] 'yawn' See Australian English phonology
Cockney[14] May be [oʊ] or [ɔo] instead.
New Zealand[15] See New Zealand English phonology
South African[16] General and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel. See South African English phonology
General Indian[17] go [ɡoː] 'go'
General Pakistani[18] Varies between [oː~əʊ~ʊ].
Multicultural London[19]
Scottish[20]
Singaporean[21]
Estonian[22] tool [toːlʲ] 'chair' See Estonian phonology
Faroese[23] tola [ˈtʰoːla] 'to endure' May be a diphthong [oɔː ~ oəː] instead.[24] See Faroese phonology
French[25][26] réseau About this sound [ʁezo]  'net' See French phonology
German Standard[27][28] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' See Standard German phonology
Southern accents[29] voll [fol] 'full' Common realization of /ɔ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[29] See Standard German phonology
Greek Sfakian[30] [example needed] Corresponds to mid [] in Modern Standard Greek.[31] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[32] kór [koːr] 'disease' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[33] ombra ['ombrä] 'shade' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[34] [pɪˈpo] 'toad'
Limburgish Most dialects[35][36][37] hoof [ɦoːf] 'garden' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[38] wocy [ˈβ̞ot̪͡s̪ɪ] '(two) eyes' Diphthongized to [u̯ɔ] in slow speech.[38]
Luxembourgish[39] Sonn [zon] 'sun' Sometimes realized as open-mid [ɔ].[39] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Stavangersk[40] lov [lo̟ːʋ] 'law' Near-back.[40] See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese[41] dois [d̪ojʃ] 'two' See Portuguese phonology
Saterland Frisian[42] doalje [ˈdo̟ːljə] 'to calm' Near-back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ʊ/ ([ʊ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ is actually near-close [o̝ː].[42]
Shiwiar[43] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.[43]
Slovak Some speakers[44] telefón [ˈte̞le̞foːn] 'telephone' Realization of /oː/ reported to occur in dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ, as well as - under Hungarian influence - in some other speakers. Corresponds to mid [o̞ː] in standard Slovak.[44] See Slovak phonology
Slovene moj [mòːj] 'my' See Slovene phonology
Sotho[45] pontsho [pʼon̩t͡sʰɔ] 'proof' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels.[45] See Sotho phonology
Swedish Central Standard[46][47] åka About this sound [²oːcä]  'travel' Often diphthongized to [oə̯]. See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian[48] молодь [ˈmɔlodʲ] 'youth' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[38][49] Bóh [box] 'god' Diphthongized to [u̯ɔ] in slow speech.[38][50] See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[51] bok [bok] 'billy-goat' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[52] [example needed]

Close-mid back compressed vowel

Close-mid back compressed vowel
ɤᵝ

There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, compression of the lips can be shown with ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɤ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɤ] and labial compression) or ⟨ɤᵝ⟩ ([ɤ] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.

Only Shanghainese is known to contrast it with the more typical protruded (endolabial) close-mid back vowel, but the height of both vowels varies from close to close-mid.[6]

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Shanghainese[6] [tɤᵝ¹] 'capital' Height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.[6]

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The rounded mid-high back vowel /ɔ/".
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ a b Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  5. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  6. ^ a b c d e Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328–329.
  7. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  8. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  10. ^ Uldall (1933), p. ?.
  11. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  12. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  13. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  14. ^ Wells (1982), p. 310.
  15. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  16. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116.
  17. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  18. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1009.
  19. ^ Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  20. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  21. ^ Deterding (2000).
  22. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  23. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  24. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  25. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  26. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  27. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  28. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  29. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  30. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  31. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  32. ^ Szende (1994), p. 94.
  33. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  34. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  35. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  36. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  37. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  38. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  39. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  40. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  41. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  42. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  43. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  44. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  45. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  46. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  47. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  48. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  49. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  50. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  51. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  52. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

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