Classful network

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Map of the prototype Internet in 1982, showing 8-bit-numbered networks (ovals) only, interconnected by routers (rectangles).

A classful network is a network addressing architecture used in the Internet from 1981 until the introduction of Classless Inter-Domain Routing in 1993. The method divides the IP address space for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) into five address classes based on the leading four address bits. Classes A, B, and C provide unicast addresses for networks of three different network sizes. Class D is for multicast networking and the class E address range is reserved for future or experimental purposes.

Since its discontinuation, remnants of classful network concepts have remained in practice only in limited scope in the default configuration parameters of some network software and hardware components, most notably in the default configuration of subnet masks.

Background

In the original address definition, the most significant eight bits of the 32-bit IPv4 address was the network number field which specified the particular network a host was attached to. The remaining 24 bits specified the local address, also called rest field (the rest of the address), which uniquely identified a host connected to that network.[1] This format was sufficient at a time when only a few large networks existed, such as the ARPANET (network number 10), and before the wide proliferation of local area networks (LANs). As a consequence of this architecture, the address space supported only a low number (254) of independent networks. It became clear early in the growth of the network that this would be a critical scalability limitation.[citation needed]

Introduction of address classes

Expansion of the network had to ensure compatibility with the existing address space and the IPv4 packet structure, and avoid the renumbering of the existing networks. The solution was to expand the definition of the network number field to include more bits, allowing more networks to be designated, each potentially having fewer hosts. Since all existing network numbers at the time were smaller than 64, they had only used the 6 least-significant bits of the network number field. Thus it was possible to use the most-significant bits of an address to introduce a set of address classes while preserving the existing network numbers in the first of these classes.[citation needed]

The new addressing architecture was introduced by RFC 791 in 1981 as a part of the specification of the Internet Protocol.[2] It divided the address space into primarily three address formats, henceforth called address classes, and left a fourth range reserved to be defined later.

The first class, designated as Class A, contained all addresses in which the most significant bit is zero. The network number for this class is given by the next 7 bits, therefore accommodating 128 networks in total, including the zero network, and including the IP networks already allocated. A Class B network was a network in which all addresses had the two most-significant bits set to 1 and 0 respectively. For these networks, the network address was given by the next 14 bits of the address, thus leaving 16 bits for numbering host on the network for a total of 65536 addresses per network. Class C was defined with the 3 high-order bits set to 1, 1, and 0, and designating the next 21 bits to number the networks, leaving each network with 256 local addresses.

The leading bit sequence 111 designated an at-the-time unspecified addressing mode ("escape to extended addressing mode"),[2] which was later subdivided as Class D (1110) for multicast addressing, while leaving as reserved for future use the 1111 block designated as Class E.[3]

Classful addressing definition

Class Leading
bits
Size of network
number
bit field
Size of rest
bit field
Number
of networks
Addresses
per network
Total addresses
in class
Start address End address Default subnet mask in dot-decimal notation CIDR notation
Class A 0 8 24 128 (27) 16,777,216 (224) 2,147,483,648 (231) 0.0.0.0 127.0.0.0[a] 255.0.0.0 /8
Class B 10 16 16 16,384 (214) 65,536 (216) 1,073,741,824 (230) 128.0.0.0 191.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 /16
Class C 110 24 8 2,097,152 (221) 256 (28) 536,870,912 (229) 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 /24
Class D (multicast) 1110 not defined not defined not defined not defined 268,435,456 (228) 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 not defined not defined
Class E (reserved) 1111 not defined not defined not defined not defined 268,435,456 (228) 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 not defined not defined

The number of addresses usable for addressing specific hosts in each network is always 2N - 2, where N is the number of rest field bits, and the subtraction of 2 adjusts for the use of the all-bits-zero host portion for network address and the all-bits-one host portion as a broadcast address. Thus, for a Class C address with 8 bits available in the host field, the maximum number of hosts is 254.

Today, IP addresses are associated with a subnet mask. This was not required in a classful network because the mask was implicitly derived from the IP address itself; Any network device would inspect the first few bits of the IP address to determine the class of the address.

The blocks numerically at the start and end of classes A, B and C were originally reserved for special addressing or future features, i.e., 0.0.0.0/8 and 127.0.0.0/8 are reserved in former class A; 128.0.0.0/16 and 191.255.0.0/16 were reserved in former class B but are now available for assignment; 192.0.0.0/24 and 223.255.255.0/24 are reserved in former class C. While the 127.0.0.0/8 network is a Class A network, it is designated for loopback and cannot be assigned to a network.[4]

Class D is reserved for multicast and cannot be used for regular unicast traffic.

Class E is reserved and cannot be used on the public Internet. Many older routers will not accept using it in any context.[citation needed]

Bit-wise representation

In the following table:

  • n indicates a bit used for the network ID.
  • H indicates a bit used for the host ID.
  • X indicates a bit without a specified purpose.
Class A
  0.  0.  0.  0 = 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
127.255.255.255 = 01111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
                  0nnnnnnn.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH

Class B
128.  0.  0.  0 = 10000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
191.255.255.255 = 10111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
                  10nnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH

Class C
192.  0.  0.  0 = 11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
223.255.255.255 = 11011111.11111111.11111111.11111111
                  110nnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.HHHHHHHH

Class D
224.  0.  0.  0 = 11100000.00000000.00000000.00000000
239.255.255.255 = 11101111.11111111.11111111.11111111
                  1110XXXX.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX

Class E
240.  0.  0.  0 = 11110000.00000000.00000000.00000000
255.255.255.255 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
                  1111XXXX.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX

Replacement methods

The first architecture change extended the addressing capability in the Internet, but did not prevent IP address exhaustion. The problem was that many sites needed larger address blocks than a Class C network provided, and therefore they received a Class B block, which was in most cases much larger than required. In the rapid growth of the Internet, the pool of unassigned Class B addresses (214, or about 16,000) was rapidly being depleted. Classful networking was replaced by Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), starting in 1993 with the specification of RFC 1518 and RFC 1519, to attempt to solve this problem.

Before the introduction of address classes, the only address blocks available were what later became known as Class A networks.[5] As a result, some organizations involved in the early development of the Internet received address space allocations far larger than they would ever need.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 127.0.0.0 through 127.255.255.255 are reserved for loopback addresses. Although reserved, they are still part of the class A address group.

References

  1. ^ Postel, J., ed. (January 1980). "Internet Header Format". DoD standard Internet Protocol. IETF. sec. 3.1. doi:10.17487/RFC0760. RFC 760. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc760#section-3.1. Retrieved 2013-11-08. 
  2. ^ a b RFC 791, Internet Protocol, Information Sciences Institute (September 1981).
  3. ^ RFC 988, Host Extensions for IP Multicasting, S.E. Deering (July 1986)
  4. ^ RFC 5735
  5. ^ Clark, David D. (June 1978). A proposal for addressing and routing in the Internet. IETF. IEN 46. https://tools.ietf.org/rfcmarkup?url=https://www.ietf.org/rfc/ien/ien46.txt. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 

External links

  • IANA, Current IPv4 /8 delegations
  • Overview of IP addressing, both classless and classful (404)
  • Postel, Jon, RFC 790 "Assigned Numbers", September 1981, which includes a list of Class A networks as of that date.
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