Clair Engle

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Clair Engle
Clair Engle.jpg
United States Senator
from California
In office
January 3, 1959 – July 30, 1964
Preceded by William F. Knowland
Succeeded by Pierre Salinger
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 2nd district
In office
August 31, 1943 – January 3, 1959
Preceded by Harry L. Englebright
Succeeded by Harold T. Johnson
Member of the California Senate
In office
1936
Personal details
Born (1911-09-21)September 21, 1911
Bakersfield, California
Died July 30, 1964(1964-07-30) (aged 52)
Washington, D.C., United States
Resting place Oak Hill Cemetery, Red Bluff, California
Nationality American
Political party Democrat
Alma mater California State University-Chico
University of California Hastings College of the Law

Clair Engle (September 21, 1911 – July 30, 1964) was an American politician of the Democratic Party and a United States Senator from California. He is best remembered for participating in the vote breaking the filibuster of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in the US Senate while partially paralyzed and unable to speak, shortly before his death from a brain tumor.[1]

Early life

Engle was born in Bakersfield to Fred Engle, a rancher who had been a teacher and a lawyer, and his wife, Carita. His parents named him after his aunt, who had assisted in his birth, and his name would become the source of many folksy stories over the years.

Like his two brothers, he was active in outdoor activities as well as attended public schools in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Fellow students at Red Bluff High School elected him their student body president.

In 1928, he enrolled at Chico State Teachers College, and he graduated in 1930. He then attended University of California Hastings College of the Law, and graduated in 1933. Although Engle had a reputation for straight-laced religiosity at both institutions, he eloped to marry his first wife, Hazel.[2] They divorced in 1948 and Engle married his second wife, Lucretia Caldwell, of San Jose and a congressional secretary.[3]

Early career

Admitted to the California bar in 1933, Engle set up a practice in Corning, and soon ran for District Attorney of Tehama County. He won at just 23 and held that office from 1934 to 1942.

In 1942, he won election to the California Senate, representing Tehama, Glenn and Colusa Counties but ended up serving in that body for little more than a year. His main accomplishment was passing a law to allow conversion of unused fairgrounds to house migrant farmworkers to ease a severe labor shortage.[2]

U.S. Representative

On August 31, 1943, Engle was elected as a Democrat to represent California's 2nd congressional district in the 78th Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Harry Lane Englebright. Although the district had more Republican than Democratic voters, Englebright's widow and another candidate split the Republican vote.

Engle was elected to a full term in 1944 and re-elected to the following six Congresses, serving until January 3, 1959. Then, the district had 18 counties in northern California, and only the district in Nevada was physically larger. Thus, Engle used his pilot's license to campaign and meet with constituents. He was dubbed the flying congressman and once flew solo to his home in California from the Hybla Valley Airport in Alexandria, Virginia.[4]

He was sometimes jokingly referred to as "Congressman Fireball" because of the his activity, his colorful language, the location of the geologically-active Mount Lassen in his district, and the clouds of smoke from his cigars.[3]

In the U.S. House of Representatives he became Chairman of the U.S. House Committee on War Claims for the 79th Congress and Chairman of the UnitedU.S. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs for the 84th Congress and the 85th Congress.

He sponsored several major expansions of the California Central Valley Project as well as the Saline Water Conversion Research Program, and a low-interest loan program relating to small irrigation projects. He also became known as a key supporter of the Taft–Hartley Act, which did not prevent him from being nominated by both parties when he sought re-election.[5]

U.S. Senator

Engle won election as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 1958, the year of a Democratic landslide. He defeated former Governor Goodwin J. Knight, thus being the first Democrat elected to that Senate seat in the 20th century. He thus succeeded William F. Knowland, who had given up the seat in an unsuccessful run for Governor of California, losing to Pat Brown.

He began his term on January 3, 1959. He worked with Senator Thomas Kuchel to pass the San Luis water project, the West Coast powertie and the Point Reyes National Seashore. He also promoted federal public transit assistance and civil rights legislation to assist his urban constituents.[2]

However, on August 24, 1963, Senator Engle underwent surgery to remove a brain tumor, which left him partially paralyzed, forcing him to miss several Senate sessions, and he ultimately withdrew from his re-election campaign. On April 13, 1964, the gravity of Engle's health problems was clearly evident as he attempted to introduce a resolution calling for a delay in constructing the Bodega Bay Nuclear Power Plant at Bodega Head, located in Sonoma County. He was given permission, but was unable to speak, so a colleague presented the resolution instead.

Engle officially ended his re-election campaign on April 28, 1964, just four days after undergoing his second brain operation in eight months. However, he chose not to endorse either of the remaining Democratic challengers, California State Controller Alan Cranston and former Presidential press secretary Pierre Salinger. That decision came as because state Democratic leaders refused to endorse him unless he provided details concerning his health.

On June 10, 1964, during the roll call for the historic, successful effort to break the filibuster on what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964, when the clerk reached "Mr. Engle", there was no reply. The tumor had robbed Engle of his ability to speak. Slowly lifting an arm, he pointed to his eye, thereby signaling his affirmative vote ("aye").[6] The cloture vote was 71-29, four votes more than the two thirds required to end the filibuster.[7] Nine days later, the Senate approved the Act itself.

Death and legacy

Engle died in Washington, D.C., a month and a half later, aged 52. He was survived by his parents, widow and daughter from his first marriage, Yvonne Engle Childs. The Senate Chaplain led the memorial service at Fort Myer, Virginia, at which Chief Justice Earl Warren attended. Approximately 3000 mourners attended his funeral in Red Bluff at the First Methodist Church. He was buried in the Oak Hill cemetery.[3]

Trinity Lake, in California's Trinity County, was renamed for Clair Engle, but the name Trinity Lake continued to be commonly used; eventually, the lake's original name was restored.

His papers are held in the library at California State University, Chico.[8]

The city of Shasta Lake named a park and community center after him.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fallows, James. "What John McCain Can Learn From Clair Engle". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-07-25. 
  2. ^ a b c "Death of Sen. Clair Engle: Half century later". Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Times, Special To The New York (31 July 1964). "Senator Clair Engle Of California Dies". Retrieved 10 April 2017 – via NYTimes.com. 
  4. ^ "Rep. Engle On Solo Plane Trip Home". The Bakerfield Californian. Bakerfield, California. August 8, 1947 – via Newspapers.com open access publication – free to read. 
  5. ^ "Engle, Clair – UC Davis Department of Animal Science". Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  6. ^ The NewsHour, Democratic Senator Johnson in Critical Condition, Dec. 14, 2006. Retrieved Dec. 29, 2006.
  7. ^ Associated Press account of June 10, 1964, as reported in 'The Oakland Tribune'
  8. ^ "Clair Engle Collection". Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  9. ^ "Shasta Lake, CA - Official Website - Parks". Retrieved 10 April 2017. 

External links

  • California State University, Chico, Clair Engle Collection, MSS 177, Special Collections, Meriam Library, California State University, Chico. California State University, Chico, Claire Engle Collection, MSS 177, Special Collections, Meriam Library.[1][permanent dead link]
  • University of California, Davis, Department of Animal Science, Memorial Book Listing Clair Engle's legislative accomplishments [2]
  • Oral history interview [3]
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Harry Lane Englebright
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 2nd congressional district

1943–1959
Succeeded by
Harold T. Johnson
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
William F. Knowland
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from California
1959 – 1964
Served alongside: Thomas Kuchel
Succeeded by
Pierre Salinger
Preceded by
Arthur L. Miller
Nebraska
Chair of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs
1955–1959
Succeeded by
James A. Haley
Florida
Party political offices
Preceded by
William F. Knowland
Democratic nominee for
U.S. Senator from California (Class 1)

1958
Succeeded by
Pierre Salinger
Political offices
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