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Civil Services of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Civil Services refer to the civil services, the permanent executive branch of the Republic of India. The civil service system is the backbone of the administrative machinery of the country.[1][2]

In the parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. But a handful of ministers cannot be expected to deal personally with the manifold problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to carry out this policy.

The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants. The members of civil service serve at the pleasure of the President of India and Article 311 of the constitution protects them from politically motivated or vindictive action. Civil servants are employees of the Government of India or of the states; however, not all employees of the Government are civil servants. Civil servants in a personal capacity are paid from the Civil List. Senior civil servants may be called to account by Parliament.

As of year 2010, there were total 6.4 million government employees in India, and less than 50,000 civil servants to administer them.[3] The civil service system in India is rank-based and does not follow the tenets of the position-based civil services.[2]

In 2015, the Government of India approved the formation of Indian Skill Development Service.[4][5] Further, in 2016, the Government of India approved the formation of Indian Enterprise Development Service.[6]

History

Lord Warren Hastings laid the foundation of civil service and Charles Cornwallis reformed, modernised and rationalised it. Hence, Charles Cornwallis is known as the 'Father of Civil Service in India'. He introduced Covenanted Civil Services (Higher Civil Services) and Uncovenanted Civil Services (Lower Civil Services).

The present civil services of India is mainly based on the pattern of the former Indian Civil Service of British India. The civil services were divided into two categories - covenanted and uncovenanted. The covenanted civil service consisted of only Europeans (i.e., English personnel) occupying the higher posts in the government. The uncovenanted civil service was solely introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration.[8][9]

With the passing of the Government of India Act 1919, the Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India, were split into two – All India Services and Central Services.[10]

The All India and Central Services (Group A) were designated as Central Superior Services as early as 1924.[11] From 1924 to 1934, Administration in India consisted of 10 All India Services and 5 central departments, all under the control of Secretary of State for India, and 3 central departments under joint Provincial and Imperial Control.[11]

Modern era

The present modern civil service was formed after the partition of India in 1947. It was Sardar Patel's vision that the Civil Service should strengthen cohesion and national unity. The values of integrity, impartiality and merit remain the guiding principles of Indian civil services.[citation needed]

Since the early 20th century, Indian civil servants have been colloquially called "babus",[12] while Indian bureaucracy is called "babudom", as in the "rule of babus", especially in Indian media.[13][14][15]

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions located in New Delhi is "unofficially the Ministry of Civil Services" in India. The Ministry is responsible for training, reforms and pension for the civil service system in India.

Creation of new services

The constitution under Article 312[16] provides for All India Civil Services branches to be set up by giving the power to the Rajya Sabha (upper house of the Parliament of India) to resolve by a two-thirds majority to establish new all-India services. The Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service are set up under this constitutional provision.[17]

Power, purpose and responsibilities

An Indian diplomatic passport and an official passport which is generally issued to civil servants. As opposed to the deep blue passport issued to ordinary Indian citizens, the diplomatic passport is maroon coloured with the golden text 'Diplomatic Passport' printed on it, and the Hindi equivalent.

The responsibility of the civil services is to run the administration of India. The country is managed through a number of Central Government agencies in accordance with the policy directions given by the ministries.

The members of the civil services represent as administrators in the central government and state government; emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies; as tax collectors and revenue commissioners; as civil service commissioned police officers; as permanent representative(s) and employees in the United Nations and its agencies and as Chairman, Managing Director, full-time functional Director/Member of the Board of Management of various Public Sector Undertakings/ Enterprises, Corporations, Banks and financial institutions. Civil servants are employed to various agencies of India and can also be appointed as advisors or special duty officers or private secretaries to ministers of the Union and the State Government.[18][19]

All appointments in the rank of Joint Secretary to Government of India and above, other major appointments, empanelment and extension of tenure is done by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. However, all appointments in the rank below Joint Secretary in the federal government is done by the Civil Services Board.

Governance

Head of the Civil Services

The highest ranking civil servant is the Cabinet Secretary. He is ex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board; the chief of the Indian Administrative Service and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the Government of India. He also holds the 11th position in the Order of Precedence of India.

The position holder is accountable for ensuring that the Civil Service is equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges it faces and that civil servants work in a fair and decent environment.

Values and codes

Values

A member of the civil service in discharge of his/her functions is to be guided by maintaining absolute integrity, allegiance to the constitution and the law of the nation, patriotism, national pride, devotion to duty, honesty, impartiality and transparency.[20]

Codes

The Government of India promotes values and a certain standard of ethics of requiring and facilitating every civil servant:[20]

  • To discharge official duty with responsibility, honesty, accountability and without discrimination.
  • To ensure effective management, leadership development and personal growth.
  • To avoid misuse of official position or information.
  • To serve as instruments of good governance and foster social economic development.

Construction

The Higher Civil Services of India can be classified into two types - the All India Services and the Central Civil Services (Group A). The recruits are university graduates (or above) selected through a rigorous system of examinations: Civil Services Examination, Engineering Services Examination, Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist Examination, I.E.S./I.S.S. Examination, Combined Medical Services Examination, Central Armed Police Forces of Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) for Group A posts.

All India Services (Group A)

All appointments to All India Civil Services are made by the President of India.

Central Services (Group A)

The Central Civil Services (Group A) are concerned with the administration of the Union Government.[21] All appointments to Central Civil Services (Group A) are made by the President of India.

Central Services (Group B)

For Group B posts, the Combined Graduate Level Examination (CGLE) is conducted by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC).[a][22] All appointments to Group B are made by the authorities specified by a general or special order of the President.

  • Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Services
  • Botanical Survey of India, Group 'B'
  • Central Electrical Engineering Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Engineering Service, Group 'B'
  • Central Excise Service, Group ‘B’
  • Central Health Service, Group ‘B’
  • Central Power Engineering Service, Group ‘B’
  • Central Secretariat Official Language Service, Group ‘B’
  • Central Secretariat Service, Group 'B' (Section and Assistant Section Grade officers only)
  • Central Secretariat Stenographers’ Service, (Grade I, Grade II and Selection Grade officers only)
  • Customs Appraisers Service, Group ‘B’- (Principal Appraisers and Head Appraisers)
  • Customs Preventive Service, Group ‘B’ – (Chief Inspectors)
  • Defence Secretariat Service
  • DANICS
  • DANIPS
  • Geological Survey of India, Group 'B'
  • Indian Foreign Service, Group ‘B’ - (General Cadre, Grade I and General Cadre, Grade II only)
  • Indian Posts and Telegraphs Accounts and Finance Service, Group ‘B’ Telecommunication Wing.
  • Indian Posts & Telegraphs Accounts & Finance Service, Postal Wing, Group ‘B’
  • Income Tax Service, Group ‘B’
  • Indian Salt Service, Group ‘B’
  • India Meteorological Service, Group ‘B'
  • Survey of India, Group 'B'
  • Postal Superintendents’ Service, Group ‘B’
  • Postmasters’ Service, Group ‘B’
  • Railway Board Secretariat Service, Group ‘B’
  • Telecommunication Engineering Service, Group ‘B’
  • Telegraphs Traffic Service, Group ‘B
  • Zoological Survey of India, Group 'B'

State Services (Group B)

The Provincial Civil Services (also known as State Civil Services) examinations and recruitment are conducted by the individual states of India. The state civil services deal with subjects such as land revenue, agriculture, forests, education etc. The officers are recruited by different States through the respective State Public Service Commissions, and appointed by the Governor of that state.

  • Assistant Registrar Cooperative Societies
  • Block Development Officer
  • District Employment Officer
  • District Food and Supplies Controller/Officer
  • District Treasury Officer
  • District Welfare Officer
  • Excise and Taxation Officer
  • Provincial Civil Services, Class-II (PCS)
  • Provincial Police Services, Class-II (PPS)
  • Tehsildar/Talukadar/Assistant Collector
  • Any other Class-I/Class-II service notified as per rules by the concerned State, i.e. officers, lecturers, assistants, associate professors, or principals of Government Degree Colleges, Class I

Concerns and Reforms

As of 2011, in a duration of past three years over 450 chargesheets have been filed and a total of 943 cases are at different stages of investigation by CBI against civil servants.[25][26]

A study by the Hong Kong-based Political and Economic Risk Consultancy, released in 2012, ranked and rated Indian bureaucracy as the worst in Asia with a 9.21 rating out of 10. According to the study, India's inefficient and corrupt bureaucracy was responsible for most of the complaints that business executive have about the country.[28][29][30] A paper prepared in 2012 by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions states that corruption is prevalent at all levels in civil services and it is institutionalised.[31][32]

On 28 November 2011, the Department of Personnel and Training (DOPT) of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions created a proposal to retire and remove incompetent, inefficient and unproductive All India Service officers after 15 years of service, instead of tolerating them until their retirement. Former Cabinet Secretary TSR Subramanian welcomed this move with caution, saying, "Periodical weeding out is very good. But the process to determine who needs to be prematurely retired should be fair and transparent. There is a possibility that even good officers may be targeted because of political reasons,". Former UPSC chairman PC Hota echoed his sentiments remarking that, "We need drastic remedies. The situation has become terrible. The other day an officer in Delhi was arrested for disproportionate assets of Rs.31.5 million. She is just a 2000-batch IAS officer with 11 years of service. But at the same time, the officers' service records should be analysed before a decision against him was taken".[33][34][35] The proposal has been accepted and rule 16(3) of the All India Services (death-cum-retirement benefits) Rules of 1958 was amended on 31 January 2012.[33][35][36]

In October 2013, the Supreme Court of India, in the case of TSR Subramanian & Ors vs Union of India & Ors [37] ordered both Government of India and State governments to ensure fixed tenure to civil servants. The court asked senior bureaucrats to write down the oral instructions from politicians so that a record would be kept of all the decisions. This judgement was seen on the similar lines of the Supreme Court's 2006 judgement in Prakash Singh case on police reforms.[38][39] The judgement was welcomed by various bureaucrats and the media who hoped that it will help in giving freedom and independence to the functioning of bureaucracy.[40][41]

"Much of the deterioration in the functioning of bureaucracy is due to political interference."

Justice KS Radhakrishnan and Justice PC Ghose, Supreme Court of India[40]

In 2016, the Ministry of Finance for the first time, dismissed 72 and prematurely retired another 33 Indian Revenue Service officers for non-performance and on disciplinary grounds.[42][43][44][45][46] In 2016, it was reported that Government of India has decided to empower common man to seek prosecution of corrupt IAS officers.[47] Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (DOPT) has accepted to receive requests from private persons seeking sanction for prosecution in respect of IAS officers without any proper proposal and supporting documents. [47]

Civil Services Day

14th Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi at the Civil Services Day event in 2015. Also seen here Jitendra Singh and 30th Cabinet Secretary of India Ajit Seth.

The Civil Service Day is celebrated on 21 April every year.[48] The purpose for this day is to rededicate and recommit themselves to the cause of the people. It is observed by all Civil Services. This day gives civil servants the opportunity for introspection and thinking about future strategies to deal with the challenges being posed by the changing times.[49]

On this occasion, all officers of Central and State Governments are honoured for excellence in public administration by the Prime Minister of India. The 'Prime Minister Award for Excellence in Public Administration' is presented in three categories. Under this scheme of awards instituted in 2006, all the officers individually or as group or as organisation are eligible.[49]

The award includes a medal, scroll and a cash amount of 100,000 (US$1,600). In case of a group, the total award money is 500,000 (US$7,800) subject to a maximum of 100,000 (US$1,600) per person. For an organisation the cash amount is limited to 500,000 (US$7,800).[49]

See also

References

  1. ^ Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (8 June 2011). "The civil service system". New Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b United Nations Public Administration Network. "National Civil Service System in India : A Critical View" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  3. ^ Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (8 June 2010). "The year 2010 Civil Services Report: A Survey" (PDF). New Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  4. ^ "Government nod to raise new Group-A civil service cadre". Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  5. ^ "Govt approves formation of Indian Skill Development Service". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  6. ^ "Cabinet approves enterprise development cadre". Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  7. ^ P. N., Chopra (2003). A Comprehensive History of India, Volume 3. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788120725065. 
  8. ^ Meghna Sabharwal, Evan M. Berman "Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan (Public Administration and Public Policy," (2013)
  9. ^ "Civil Service". The British Library. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2015. 
  10. ^ Goel, S.L. Public Personnel Administration : Theory and Practice. Deep and Deep Publications, 2008. ISBN 9788176293952. 
  11. ^ a b Maheshwari, Shriram. Problems and Issues in Administrative Federalism. Allied Publishers. ISBN 9788170233428. 
  12. ^ "Yet to start work, Natgrid CEO highest paid babu". The Times of India. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  13. ^ Anand Parthasarathy (1–14 September 2001). "A barbed look at babudom: Will the typically British humour of Yes Minister work if transplanted to an Indian setting? Viewers of a Hindi satellite channel have a chance to find out.". Frontline, India's National Magazine from the publishers of The Hindu. Bureaucracy knows no bounds... 
  14. ^ "PM Modi tightens screws, gives babudom a new rush hour". The Times of India. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  15. ^ "Babu". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  16. ^ "Constitution of India, Article 312". 
  17. ^ "Official Government website". 
  18. ^ "Consolidated Instructions to the appointment of personal staff to Union Ministers" (PDF). Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  19. ^ "Why babus want to be private secys to ministers now". GovernanceNow.com. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  20. ^ a b Misra, P.K. (4 August 2010). "The Role of civil services in India (Standard Note: DOPT/Government of India)" (PDF). Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. Retrieved 2011-08-27. 
  21. ^ http://document.ccis.nic.in/WriteReadData/CircularPortal/D2/D02adm/OMUpdationoflistdated03.04.2017.pdf
  22. ^ Complete Civil Service Schedule of the Central Civil Services Group B of India." Central Civil Service Group B - Government of India, 20 April 2020.
  23. ^ "The Indian Administrative Service Meets Big Data". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  24. ^ "IAS Reforms: Cleaning Rust From the Frame". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  25. ^ "453 IAS,and other civil servants chargesheeted in last 3 yrs". New Delhi: Indian Express. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  26. ^ "Over 400 central officers booked in last 3 yrs". New Delhi: Zee News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  27. ^ "Merit-based civil service will boost growth". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  28. ^ "Indian bureaucrats worst in Asia, says PERC study". New Delhi: India Today. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
  29. ^ "Indian bureaucracy rated worst in Asia". New Delhi: CNN-IBN. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  30. ^ "Indian bureaucracy rates worst in Asia: 2012". New Delhi: Deccan Herald. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  31. ^ Sharma, Aman (14 April 2012). "Federal Government paper admits corruption at all levels in civil services". New Delhi: India Today. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  32. ^ "Background Paper for 2012 Civil Services Day: Discussions" (PDF). New Delhi: Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (India). 14 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  33. ^ a b "Lazy and incompetent babus of the All India Services to retire early". New Delhi: India Today. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  34. ^ "Corruption taint may lead to compulsory retirement for babus". New Delhi: India Today. 21 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  35. ^ a b "Proposal to retire incompetent officers after 15-year service". New Delhi: Rediff News. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2012. 
  36. ^ "Govt of India notification for amending Rule 16(3) of the All India Service (DCRB) Rules, 1958" (PDF). Govt of India. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  37. ^ "WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO(s). 82 OF 2011". Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  38. ^ "Prakash Singh Case". Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  39. ^ "SC asks states to file affidavit on police reforms". Hindustan Times. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  40. ^ a b "Supreme Court favours law to regulate transfer, posting of IAS officers". 31 October 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  41. ^ "SC to bureaucrats: Don't take oral instructions from netas". The Times Of India. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  42. ^ "For good governance, Finance Ministry fires 72 tax officers, retires 33 more". Business Standard. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  43. ^ "Government takes strict action against defaulting/non performing tax officials/officers". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  44. ^ "Absent for years, government sacks 11 IRS officers". The Indian Express. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  45. ^ "108 IRS officers under CBI probe for alleged corruption: Government". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  46. ^ "CBI seizes 2 crore in old currency from city residence of IRS officer". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  47. ^ a b "Centre to empower common man to punish corrupt babus". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  48. ^ "Civil Services Day". New Delhi: Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  49. ^ a b c "The Prime Minister's Awards for Excellence in Public Administration Award Scheme" (PDF). New Delhi: Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 

Notes

  1. ^ The Schedule of Central Civil Services for Group 'B'. The complete list as per Department of Personnel & Training, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Govt. of India

External links

Official

  • UPSC Union Public Service Commission, India
  • 7th Pay Commission chief recommends 'One Rank, One Pension' for Govt employees by The Indian Express
  • Prime Minister instructs DoPT for speedy empanelment of officers from all central services by The Times of India
  • "Not only IAS, MHA opens doors for all services". The Week. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. 

All India Civil Services

  • The All India Services Conduct Rules of 1968

Central Civil Services

  • The Central Civil Services Conduct Rules of 1964
  • Central Secretariat Manual of Office Procedure 14th Edition by Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions

Others

  • Governance in India
  • Civil Service Reform in India - Problems and Reforms
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