Civil Protection Units

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Civil Protection Units
Yekîneyên Parastina Sivîl (YPS)
Flag of the YPS - Vertical.svg
Flag of the YPS
Active 20 December 2015–present
Country Turkey
Type Light infantry militia
Size unknown
Engagements Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978-present)

The Civil Protection Units (Kurdish: Yekîneyên Parastina Sivîl‎, pronounced [jɛkinɛjen parastɪna sɪvil]; YPS), also known as Civil Defense Units, is a primarily Kurdish rebel group and main armed force in Northern Kurdistan (Turkey).

History

It was claimed that the YPS was originally formed on 20 December 2015 by the Kurdish rebels as a version of the YPG in Northern Kurdistan (Turkey).[1][2] The YPS is mainly composed of members of the YDG-H, who have been operating since 2013. The YPS is currently training for conventional urban warfare against the Turkish government;[3][4] previous Kurdish rebel groups have followed predominantly guerilla tactics of warfare, however the new method of warfare seen in the Kurdish-Turkish conflict has led to speculation of civil war in Turkey.[5]

The YPS initially took a defensive posture in the Kurdish-Turkish conflict (1978-present) and has become a major opponent of the Turkish army (TSK) and Turkish government and has co-operated with Kurdish opposition fighters against TSK. Multiple branches of the YPS have been formed in Kurdish districts in Turkey, usually as a result of clashes or curfews imposed by the Turkish government.[6] One such formation is the Civil Defense Units-Women (YPS-Jin).[7]

YPS-Jin

The Civil Protection Units-Women' or Civil Defense Units-Women (Kurdish: Yekîneyên Parastina Sivîl a Jin‎, YPS-Jin)' is a Kurdish militia that was set up in 2016 as the female brigade of the YPS (Yekîneyên Parastina Sivîl, YPS) militia.[8] In 2016, YPS-Jin became established in Yüksekova, formerly known as Gever to fight against the Turkish forces in the area.[9] This is because the residents in the area declared autonomy from the Turkish government and the YPS-Jin established there to protect this newly found autonomy and defend against any state sanctioned attacks in the region.[9] The YPS-Jin protected the signing of the declaration of autonomy in Yüksekova, saying that life will be either free or not exist at all.[9]

Differences from Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)

YPS-Jin members standing in formation

The YDG-H is the youth portion of the militant wing of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) mostly between 15 and 25 years old.[10] Members of the YDG-H are often found to be part of the YPS today and share differences between the commands in the PKK. [11] One main difference from the PKK, is the willingness to negotiate and compromise with Turkish officials even with high casualty rates.[11] This has shown how YPS and YPS-Jin members show a disregard for their lives, which can be a result of growing up in conflict and becoming traumatized at a young age. [11] Unlike PKK, YPS does not have a strong hierarchy when it comes to decisions, however, YPS method of discipline is independent cells operating on their own ambition. [11]

Flag of YPS-J

Recruitment Efforts

In the Şırnak's Cizre district, many students are joining the ranks of YPS-Jin.[12] This is in part due to the ongoing conflict with the Turkish Government's role in terrorizing the Kurdish people in the region .[12] The YPS called upon all students, youths, and women to join the YPS and YPS-Jin in the fight against the Turkish government.[12]

Branches

See also

Graffiti supporting YPS in Italy

References

  1. ^ a b "Turkey: Five Dead After Attack on Police in Kurdish City". Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  2. ^ "#Bakur Revolt". Twitter. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  3. ^ "ANF - Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  4. ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/03/turkey-syria-pkk-isis-kobani-tactics-used-in-southeast.html
  5. ^ Chris Kilford More Chris Kilford. "Chris Kilford: Could Turkey be headed towards civil war?". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  6. ^ "ANF - Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  7. ^ "YPS-Jin Gever announces its establishment". ANF News. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  8. ^ "Yaşamak için YPS Jin". Özgür Gündem. 9 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  9. ^ a b c "YPS-Jin Gever announces its establishment". ANF News. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  10. ^ "YDG-H", Wikipedia, 2018-09-08, retrieved 2018-11-08
  11. ^ a b c d "The Kurdish Movement: Politicians and Fighters". www.csis.org. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  12. ^ a b c "University students join the ranks of YPS-Jin in Cizre". ANF News. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
  13. ^ "Nusaybin ve Diyarbakır'dan sonra YPS Silopi kuruldu". BestaNûçe Bestanuce.com. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  14. ^ "Silopi YPS kuruluşunu ilan etti". Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  15. ^ "Gever'de direniş sürüyor". BestaNûçe Bestanuce.com. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  16. ^ "Civil Defense Units (YPS) established in Nusaybin". BestaNûçe Bestanuce.com. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Amed'de YPS birliği ilan edildi". Özgür Gündem. 28 December 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  18. ^ "YPS Sur kuruldu". BestaNûçe Bestanuce.com. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  19. ^ "İdil'de YPS Jin kuruluşunu ilan etti". Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  20. ^ "Şırnak'ta Sivil Savunma Birlikleri (YPS) kuruldu - zernews.net". ZERNEWS - Ortadoğu, Türkiye, KürdistanKürdistan Son Dakika Haberleri - zernews.net. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
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