Chirala

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Chirala
Kshirapuri
Town
Clock Tower Centre in Chirala
Clock Tower Centre in Chirala
Chirala is located in Andhra Pradesh
Chirala
Chirala
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 15°49′29″N 80°21′08″E / 15.8246°N 80.3521°E / 15.8246; 80.3521Coordinates: 15°49′29″N 80°21′08″E / 15.8246°N 80.3521°E / 15.8246; 80.3521
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Prakasam
Government
 • Type Municipal council
 • Body Chirala Municipality
Area[1]
 • Total 13.30 km2 (5.14 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 3 m (10 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 87,200
 • Density 6,600/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 523 155
Telephone code +91–8594
Vehicle registration AP-27
Website Chirala Municipality

Chirala (About this sound pronunciation ) also known as Kshirapuri is a town in Prakasam district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipality and the headquarters of Chirala mandal in Ongole revenue division.[4][5] As of 2011 census of India, it had a population of 87,200 and an urban agglomeration population of 162,471.[3][6]

Etymology

The city was also known as Kshirapuri, which translates as the sea looks as white as milk. The name got transformed to Chirala, where Chira means Sari.[7]

History

Chirala has earned a unique place in the history of the freedom struggle, which completed its 400 years on April 27, 2004, corresponding with the Telugu calendar `Vaishakha Shuddha Saptami. The foundation for present-day Chirala was laid in 1604 AD by two Yadavas, Minchala Papayya and Minchala Perayya. The town was carved out of Sudhaanagaram, the original name of Paata Chirala (Old Chirla), that was granted to Chirala Anantaraju by Goparaju Ramanna, Minister of the Kakatiya king, Ganapati Deva, during Saka 1067 (1145 AD) as mentioned in the records obtained from the Madras Oriental Library. His descendant, Chirala Venkata Krishnudu, leased out the present Chirala area to the Yadavas for raising a new township. Thus, present-day Chirala was born on Vaishakha Shuddha Saptami of Vishwavasu Vatsaram or Vishwavasu Samvatsaram (Year name as per Telugu calendar), corresponding to 1604 AD.

In the new township, a Venugopalaswamy temple was constructed in 1619 and that of Malleswaraswamy in 1620, while that of Gangamma was built a little later. As the temples did not have any chariots, Chirala Ramanna Pantulu built two chariots for the two temples towards the middle of the 19th century. Now a lot of temples have come up.

With the advent of a railway station on the Madras-Calcutta-New Delhi main line, Chirala developed commercially with its population reaching a little over two lakhs and fifty thousand, while Paata Chirala, which once traded through the ancient port of Motupalli, shrunk to become an obscure village with a population of just 5,000.

Anuguraju of the Hyheya dynasty, who ruled over Palanadu, visited Paata Chirala along with his entourage that included the famous socio-religious reformer, Brahma Naidu, during the twelfth century and left behind the idol of Chennakeshava Swamy, his family deity with his consorts and weapons, used by Palanadu warriors. The ancient Aadikeshava Swamy temple, originally built by the Cholas during the eleventh century, and now in a dilapidated condition, is being rebuilt by Shri Arulananda Swamy, head of Shri Lalitaananda Ashram of Oodarevu, near here.

Chirala, which was regarded as a health resort by Britishers, got a medical facility as early as in 1906 with the opening of the Edward VII Coronation Memorial Hospital. Dr. Mary Baer, an American, also opened the Dr. Baer Missionary Hospital in 1912 when Chirala and its neighboring villages did not have medical facilities except at Guntur.

This city was a stage for the well known Chirala – Perala movement, which was led by Andhra Ratna Duggirala Gopalakrishnayya garu. He has fought against British municipalities which levied higher taxation on the people.

Geography

The coordinates of the city are 15°49′29″N 80°21′08″E / 15.8246°N 80.3521°E / 15.8246; 80.3521 and is located at an altitude of 3 m (9.8 ft) from the coast of Bay of Bengal.[2]

Climate

The city experiences tropical climate with the average annual temperature records at 28.5 °C (83.3 °F). Hot summers and cool winters are observed due to its proximity to the coast of Bay of Bengal. It receives both South west monsoon and North-east monsoon as well. The precipitation is very high with an annual rainfall of about 200 millimetres (8 in) and the month of October receives a maximum rainfall of 197 millimetres (8 in).[8]

Governance

Municipal office

Civic administration

Chirala Municipality is the civic governing body of the city. It is a first grade municipality, constituted on 1 April 1948 and has a jurisdictional area of 13.57 km2 (5.24 sq mi) with 33 election wards.[1][9] The present municipal commissioner of the city is P.Sreenivasa Rao.[10] The constituents of Chirala urban agglomeration include, Chirala Municipality, census towns of Chirala, Vetapalem; out growths of Ipurupalem , and Kothapeta.[11]

Economy

Chirala Beach

Handloom weaving industry is one of the main occupation the city.[12]

Demographics

As of 2011 census of India, the city had a population of 87,200 with 23,070 households. It shows 2.04% growth in population, compared to 2001 Census of India which was recorded as 85,455.[13] The total population constitute, 42,927 males and 44,273 females —a sex ratio of 1031 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[14] 8,389 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 4,253 are boys and 4,136 are girls —a ratio of 973 girls per 1000 boys. The average literacy rate stands at 78.80% with 62,099 literates, higher than the national average of 73.00%.[4][15]

The urban agglomeration population of Chirala is 162,471.[7][16]

Transport

Chirala railway station main entrance

The city is also well connected with National and state highways. The National Highway 214A passes through the city, which connects Digamarru and Ongole.[17] State Highway 48, also referred as Guntur-Bapatla-Chirala Road connects the city with Guntur.[18] State Highway 45 connects it with Piduguralla, which passes through Narasaraopet and Chilakaluripet.[19] Public transport includes, the buses operated by state run APSRTC services. Chirala railway station is an A–Category station in Vijayawada Railway Division of South Central Railway zone. It is located on the Howrah-Chennai main line of Indian Railways.[20]

Education

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[21][22] The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Municipalities, Municipal Corporations & UDAs" (PDF). Directorate of Town and Country Planning. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Chirala, India". fallingrain.com. 
  3. ^ a b "Census 2011". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "District Census Handbook – Prakasam" (PDF). Census of India. p. 16–17,44. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "Guntur District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 141,175. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  6. ^ "Agglomerations & Cities". townpopulation.de. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "About Chirala Municipality". chirala.cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  8. ^ "CLIMATE: CHIRALA". Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  9. ^ "Municipality Profile". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration, Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "Key Contacts". chirala.cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  11. ^ "Name of Urban Agglomeration and its State constituent Units-2011" (PDF). Census of India. p. 23. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  12. ^ Murali, S (14 October 2015). "Chirala weavers upbeat over heavy procurement orders". The Hindu. Chirala. Retrieved 2 March 2016. 
  13. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  14. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  15. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  16. ^ "Chirala Metropolitan Urban Region Population 2011 Census". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  17. ^ "National Highways in A.P". AP Online Portal. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  18. ^ Samuel Jonathan, P (8 October 2015). "Nizampatnam backwaters beckon adventure geeks". The Hindu. Guntur. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  19. ^ "Road Maps". Roads and Buildings Department. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  20. ^ "Vijayawada division – A Profile" (PDF). South Central Railway. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  21. ^ "School Eduvation Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  22. ^ "The Department of School Education - Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 

External links

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