Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada)

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Chief of the Defence Staff
Chef d'état-major de la Défense
Emblem of Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada).svg
Badge of the Chief of the Defence Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Joe Dunford, and Canadian Chief of Defence Staff Gen. Jonathan Vance (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
General Jonathan Vance CMM MSC CD

since 17 July 2015
Her Majesty's Canadian Armed Forces
Type Commissioned officer
Status Currently constituted
Abbreviation CDS
Reports to Commander-in-Chief
Appointer Commander-in-Chief
Term length At Her Majesty's pleasure
Formation 1964
Deputy Vice Chief of the Defence Staff
Website Official page

The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS; French: chef d'état-major de la Défense) is the second most senior member of the Canadian Armed Forces (after the commander-in-chief) and heads the Armed Forces Council, having primary responsibility for command, control, and administration of the forces, as well as military strategy, plans, and requirements. The position is held by a senior member of one of the three main branches of the Canadian Armed Forces. The current CDS, since 17 July 2015, is Jonathan Vance.[1]

History

Until 1964, there existed a Chief of the Naval Staff, as head of the Royal Canadian Navy; a Chief of the General Staff, as head of the Canadian Army; and a Chief of the Air Staff, as head of the Royal Canadian Air Force. A position known as the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee existed, which had a loose coordination function, although it lacked the command and control responsibilities of the later position of Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS).[2]

The position of Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the positions of the three service chiefs were abolished in 1964 and replaced by the position of CDS. This change was based on a white paper initiated by Paul Hellyer, Minister of National Defence in the Cabinet headed by Lester B. Pearson.[3] Following the tabling of the white paper, the minister introduced legislation that took effect in August 1964. The newly established Chief of the Defence Staff was to "head all of Canada's military forces, backed by a defence headquarters that was integrated and restructured to reflect six so-called functional commands, replacing eleven former service commands. Functional described a command that was non-geographic and beyond any particular service or traditional arm."[3] In May 1967, Bill C-243 was passed by parliament and was effective as of 1 February 1968. The law dissolved the three armed services and created the Canadian Armed Forces under the command of the CDS.[4]

In 2011, the three functional commands—named Maritime Command, Land Force Command, and Air Command—had their original names reinstated, becoming once again the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force, respectively.[5]

Rank and command

The Chief of the Defence Staff follows in rank only the Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces, who appoints the CDS and is the person from whom the CDS receives his or her orders.[6] In practice, the commander-in-chief—the Canadian monarch, represented by the governor general—typically acts only on the advice of his or her ministers of the Crown, meaning the CDS normally reports directly to the Minister of National Defence.[6]

The CDS has been charged with four main priorities, each having multiple sub-priorities: The first is to conduct operations, which includes the successful implementation of domestic and international operations, protection of the forces through a culture of risk management, and ensuring that recruitment is at a level required to sustain the operational forces at full potential to meet their commitments.[7] Secondly, the CDS is expected to expand the regular and reserve forces to meet international and domestic obligations, which means the management of the Canadian Forces Recruiting Group so as to streamline the enlistment process of new forces members.[7] The third task is to implement the national defence strategy as outlined by the Queen-in-Council, requiring both the acquisition of new equipment and the strengthening of diplomatic relations via the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and North American Aerospace Defence Command."[7] Lastly, the CDS must enhance the forces' programme delivery while optimising the use of resources.[7]

The CDS is also the Chair of the Canadian Forces Decorations Advisory Committee, which reviews and recommends to the governor general members of the forces eligible to receive decorations for valour, bravery, and meritorious service, as well as Commander-in-Chief Unit Commendations.[8] This committee mirrors that for the Order of Military Merit, of which the CDS is ex-officio a member and the Principal Commander.[9] Separately, the CDS presents the Chief of the Defence Staff Commendation (French: Mention élogieuse du Chef d'état-major de la Défense)—in the form of a gold bar pin that bears three equilaterally spaced maple leaves—to recognise deeds or activities beyond the normal demands of duty,[10] as well as the Canadian Forces Medallion for Distinguished Service, which is given by the CDS on behalf of the entire forces.[11]

The CDS awards the Chief of the Defence Staff Commendation to recognise activity or service beyond regular expectations.[12][13] It can be presented to members of the Canadian Forces, civilian members of the Defence Team (in an overseas operation), and members of an allied foreign military (whose actions benefited Canada).[13] The insignia for wear has the form of a gold bar bearing three gold maple leaves and the award comes with a scroll bearing the citation.[13]

Chiefs of the Defence Staff

Chief of the Defence Staff Took office Left office Time in office Home Province Defence branch Appointed by Prime Minister Ref
1
Frank Robert Miller
Miller, Frank RobertAir Chief Marshal[a] Frank Robert Miller
(1908–1997)
1964 1966 1–2 years BC Royal Canadian Air Force Vanier, GeorgesGeorges Vanier Pearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson [14]
2
Jean-Victor Allard
Allard, Jean VictorGeneral Jean-Victor Allard
(1913–1996)
1966 1969 2–3 years QC Canadian Army Vanier, GeorgesGeorges Vanier Pearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson [15]
3
Frederick Ralph Sharp
Sharp, Frederick RalphGeneral Frederick Ralph Sharp
(1915–1992)
1969 1972 2–3 years SK Air Command Michener, RolandRoland Michener Trudeau, PierrePierre Trudeau [16]
4
Jacques Alfred Dextraze
Dextraze, Jacques AlfredGeneral Jacques Alfred Dextraze
(1919–1993)
1972 1977 4–5 years QC Mobile Command Léger, JulesJules Léger Trudeau, PierrePierre Trudeau [17]
5
Robert Hilborn Falls
Falls, Robert HilbornAdmiral Robert Hilborn Falls
(1924–2009)
1977 1980 2–3 years ON Maritime Command Léger, JulesJules Léger Trudeau, PierrePierre Trudeau [18]
6
Ramsey Muir Withers
Withers, Ramsey MuirGeneral Ramsey Muir Withers
(1930–2014)
1980 1983 2–3 years ON Mobile Command Schreyer, EdwardEdward Schreyer Trudeau, PierrePierre Trudeau [19]
7
Gérard Charles Édouard Thériault
Thériault, Gérard Charles ÉdouardGeneral Gérard Charles Édouard Thériault
(1932–1998)
1983 1986 2–3 years QC Air Command Schreyer, EdwardEdward Schreyer Trudeau, PierrePierre Trudeau [20]
8
Paul David Manson
Manson, Paul DavidGeneral Paul David Manson
(born 1934)
1986 1989 2–3 years BC Air Command Sauvé, JeanneJeanne Sauvé Mulroney, BrianBrian Mulroney [21]
9
John de Chastelain
de Chastelain, JohnGeneral John de Chastelain
(born 1937)
1989 January 1993 3–4 years AB Mobile Command Sauvé, JeanneJeanne Sauvé Mulroney, BrianBrian Mulroney [22]
10
John Rogers Anderson
Anderson, JohnAdmiral John Rogers Anderson
(born 1941)
January 1993 December 1993 11 months BC Maritime Command Hnatyshyn, RayRay Hnatyshyn Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien [23]
9
John de Chastelain
de Chastelain, JohnGeneral John de Chastelain
(born 1937)
January 1994 December 1995 1 year, 11 months AB Land Force Command Hnatyshyn, RayRay Hnatyshyn Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien [22]
11
Joseph Édouard Jean Boyle
Boyle, Joseph Édouard JeanGeneral Joseph Édouard Jean Boyle
(born 1937)
January 1996 8 October 1996 9 months ON Air Command LeBlanc, RoméoRoméo LeBlanc Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien [24]
-
Larry Murray
Murray, LarryVice-Admiral Larry Murray (Acting)
(born 1937)
8 October 1996 17 September 1997 344 days ON Maritime Command LeBlanc, RoméoRoméo LeBlanc Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien [25]
12
Maurice Baril
Baril, MauriceGeneral Maurice Baril
(born 1943)
17 September 1997 28 June 2001 3 years, 284 days QC Land Force Command LeBlanc, RoméoRoméo LeBlanc Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien [26]
13
Raymond Henault
Henault, RaymondGeneral Raymond Henault
(born 1949)
28 June 2001 17 June 2005 3 years, 354 days MB Air Command Clarkson, AdrienneAdrienne Clarkson Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien [27]
14
Rick Hillier
Hillier, RickGeneral Rick Hillier
(born 1955)
17 June 2005 1 July 2008 3 years, 14 days NL Land Force Command Clarkson, AdrienneAdrienne Clarkson Martin, PaulPaul Martin [28]
15
Walter Natynczyk
Natynczyk, WalterGeneral Walter Natynczyk
(born 1957)
1 July 2008 29 October 2012 4 years, 120 days MB Land Force Command/
Canadian Army
Jean, MichaëlleMichaëlle Jean Harper, StephenStephen Harper [29]
16
Thomas J. Lawson
Lawson, Thomas J.General Thomas J. Lawson
(born 1957)
29 October 2012 17 July 2015 2 years, 261 days ON Royal Canadian Air Force Johnston, DavidDavid Johnston Harper, StephenStephen Harper [30]
17
Jonathan Vance
Vance, JonathanGeneral Jonathan Vance
(born 1964)
17 July 2015 Incumbent 2 years, 278 days ON Canadian Army Johnston, DavidDavid Johnston Harper, StephenStephen Harper
Trudeau, JustinJustin Trudeau
[31]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This rank was used during the 20th century existence of the Royal Canadian Air Force and replaced with the rank of general in 1968 with the unification of the Canadian Forces. See Category:Canadian Forces Air Command generals for such officers. Miller was one of only two Canadian Air Chief Marshals, the other being Lloyd Samuel Breadner

References

  1. ^ Brewster, Murray (17 July 2015). "New defence chief pledges to end misconduct". CanWest. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  2. ^ Canadian Army (1949–1964), "Fonds of the Chief of the General Staff", in Department of National Defence, Histories > DHH Historical Research Centre > Research > DHH Archive Database > Reports > Miscellaneous Reports/Documents > DHH Archival Database Extract (PDF), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 40, 97/10, retrieved 22 September 2009 
  3. ^ a b Government of Canada. "Canadian Military History Gateway > Volume 3 (1872–2000) > CHAPTER 7: From Cold War to Present Day > Unification > Hellyer's Integration of the Three Services". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Government of Canada. "Canadian Military History Gateway > Volume 3 (1872–2000) > CHAPTER 7: From Cold War to Present Day > Unification > Implementing Unification". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  5. ^ Fitzpatrick, Meagan (16 August 2011). "Peter MacKay hails 'royal' renaming of military". CBC. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Department of National Defence. "CDS Home > Responsibilities > CDS – Responsibilities". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 13 October 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Chief of the Defence Staff > Priorities > About the CDS – Defence Priorities for 2009–2010". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  8. ^ Department of National Defence (2007), Honours & Recognition for the Men and Women of the Canadian Forces (PDF), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 105, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009, retrieved 22 September 2009 
  9. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > National Orders > Order of Military Merit". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  10. ^ Department of National Defence 2007, p. 66
  11. ^ Department of National Defence 2007, p. 80
  12. ^ Government of Canada (2013), Honours and Recognition for the Men and Women of the Canadian Armed Forces (PDF), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 17, retrieved 16 November 2015 
  13. ^ a b c Department of National Defence. "Chief of the Defence Staff Commendation". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  14. ^ Legault, Albert (1992). A Diplomacy of Hope: Canada and Disarmament. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 0-7735-0955-0. 
  15. ^ "General Jean-Victor Allard". Virtual Museum of Canada. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  16. ^ Preston, Richard (1991). To Serve Canada. University of Ottawa Press. ISBN 0-7766-0327-2. 
  17. ^ Horn, Bernd (2007). Loyal service: Perspectives on French-Canadian Military Leaders. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 1-55002-693-3. 
  18. ^ Martell, Paul (1974). World Military Leaders. Bowker. ISBN 0-8352-0785-4. 
  19. ^ "General Ramsey M. Withers". Conference of Defence Associations. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  20. ^ Marsh, James (2006). The Canadian Encyclopedia. Hurtig Publishers. ISBN 0-88830-330-0. 
  21. ^ "Gen. Paul D. MANSON". Canadian Who's Who 1997. Retrieved 21 March 2009. [permanent dead link]
  22. ^ a b Bernd, Horn (2001). Warrior Chiefs: Perspectives on Senior Canadian Military Leaders. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 1-55002-351-9. 
  23. ^ "Admiral John R. ANDERSON". Canadian Who's Who 1997. Retrieved 21 March 2009. [permanent dead link]
  24. ^ "General Joseph Édouard Jean BOYLE". Canadian Who's Who 1997. Retrieved 21 March 2009. [permanent dead link]
  25. ^ "Vice-Admiral Larry MURRAY". Canadian Who's Who 1997. Retrieved 21 March 2009. [permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "Assumption of Command of Lieutenant-General J.M.G. Baril". Governor General of Canada. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  27. ^ "NATO Biographies: Chairman of the Military Committee, General Raymond Henault". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  28. ^ "CBC News in Depth: Gen. Rick Hillier". CBC. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2009. 
  29. ^ "Deputy Minister General (retired) Walt Natynczyk". Veterans Affairs Canada. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2018. 
  30. ^ "General Thomas J. Lawson named Canada's New Chief of Defence Staff". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  31. ^ "New defence chief pledges to stamp out sexual misconduct". Global News. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 

External links

  • Department of National Defence: Chief of the Defence Staff
  • National Defence Act
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