Chief of Naval Operations

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Chief of Naval Operations
CNO
ChiefOfNavalOperationsSeal.png
Seal of the Chief of Naval Operations
Flag of the United States Chief of Naval Operations.svg
Flag of the Chief of Naval Operations
ADM John M. Richardson, USN.jpg
Incumbent
Admiral John M. Richardson

since 18 September 2015
Department of the Navy
Member of Joint Chiefs of Staff
Reports to Secretary of Defense
Secretary of the Navy
Appointer The President
with Senate advice and consent
Term length 4 years
Renewable
Constituting instrument 10 U.S.C. § 5033
Formation 11 May 1915
First holder ADM William S. Benson
Deputy Vice Chief of Naval Operations
Website Official website

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the highest-ranking officer and professional head of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 5033) held by a four-star admiral who is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151) the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral John M. Richardson.

Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces. The CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense.

Responsibilities

The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is typically the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the U.S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.[1]

As per 10 U.S.C. § 5035, whenever there is a vacancy for the Chief of Naval Operations or during the absence or disability of the Chief of Naval Operations, and unless the President directs otherwise, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations performs the duties of the Chief of Naval Operations until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases.[2]

Department of the Navy

The CNO also performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 5033, such as presiding over the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV), exercising supervision of Navy organizations, and other duties assigned by the Secretary or higher lawful authority, or the CNO delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in OPNAV or in organizations below.[1][3]

Acting for the Secretary of the Navy, the CNO also designates naval personnel and naval forces available to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense.[3][4]

Joint Chiefs of Staff

The CNO is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U.S.C. § 151 and 10 U.S.C. § 5033. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Navy forces.

Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the President, the National Security Council (NSC), or the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) on a particular matter when the President, the NSC, or SECDEF requests such advice. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (other than the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) may submit to the Chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or advice or an opinion in addition to, the advice presented by the Chairman to the President, NSC, or SECDEF.

When performing his JCS duties, the CNO is responsible directly to the SECDEF, but keeps SECNAV fully informed of significant military operations affecting the duties and responsibilities of the SECNAV, unless SECDEF orders otherwise.[5]

Appointment

The Chief of Naval Operations is nominated by the President for appointment and must be confirmed by the Senate.[6] A requirement for being Chief of Naval Operations is having significant experience in joint duty assignments, which includes at least one full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment as a flag officer.[6] However, the president may waive those requirements if he determines that appointing the officer is necessary for the national interest.[6] By statute, the CNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.[6]

Official Residence

Number One Observatory Circle, located on the northeast grounds of the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, was built in 1893 for its superintendent. The Chief of Naval Operations liked the house so much that in 1923 he took over the house as his own official residence. It remained the residence of the CNO until 1974, when Congress authorized its transformation to an official residence for the Vice President.[7] The Chief of Naval Operations currently resides in Quarters A in the Washington Naval Yard.

Office of the Chief of Naval Operations

Organizational chart of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV).

The Chief of Naval Operations presides over the Navy Staff, formally known as the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV).[8][9] The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory organization within the executive part of the Department of the Navy, and its purpose is to furnish professional assistance to the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) and the CNO in carrying out their responsibilities.[10][11]

The OPNAV organization consists of:

Policy documents emanating from the CNO are issued in the form of OPNAV Instructions.

OPNAV is one of the three headquarters staffs in Department of the Navy mainly based at The Pentagon, with the others being the Office of the Secretary of the Navy and Headquarters, Marine Corps.

List of Chiefs of Naval Operations (1915–present)

The position of CNO replaced the position of Aide for Naval Operations, which was a position established by regulation rather than statutory law.[14] († - died in office)

Mullen (CNO in December 2006) with some of his predecessors: Clark, Watkins, Hayward and Johnson
Chief of Naval Operations Took office Left office Time in office
1
William S. Benson
Benson, WilliamAdmiral
William S. Benson
(1855–1932)
11 May 1915 25 September 1919 4 years, 137 days
2
Robert E. Coontz
Coontz, RobertAdmiral
Robert E. Coontz
(1864–1935)
1 November 1919 21 July 1923 3 years, 262 days
3
Edward W. Eberle
Eberle, EdwardAdmiral
Edward W. Eberle
(1864–1929)
21 July 1923 14 November 1927 4 years, 116 days
4
Charles F. Hughes
Hughes, CharlesAdmiral
Charles F. Hughes
(1866–1934)
14 November 1927 17 September 1930 3 years, 3 days
5
William V. Pratt
Pratt, WilliamAdmiral
William V. Pratt
(1869–1957)
17 September 1930 30 June 1933 2 years, 286 days
6
William H. Standley
Standley, WilliamAdmiral
William H. Standley
(1872–1963)
1 July 1933 1 January 1937 3 years, 184 days
7
William D. Leahy
Leahy, WilliamFleet Admiral
William D. Leahy
(1875–1959)
2 January 1937 1 August 1939 2 years, 211 days
8
Harold R. Stark
Stark, HaroldAdmiral
Harold R. Stark
(1880–1972)
1 August 1939 2 March 1942 2 years, 213 days
9
Ernest J. King
King, ErnestFleet Admiral
Ernest J. King
(1878–1956)
2 March 1942 15 December 1945 3 years, 288 days
10
Chester W. Nimitz
Nimitz, ChesterFleet Admiral
Chester W. Nimitz
(1885–1966)
15 December 1945 15 December 1947 2 years, 0 days
11
Louis E. Denfeld
Denfeld, LouisAdmiral
Louis E. Denfeld
(1891–1972)
15 December 1947 2 November 1949 1 year, 322 days
12
Forrest P. Sherman
Sherman, ForrestAdmiral
Forrest P. Sherman
(1896–1951)
2 November 1949 22 July 1951 † 1 year, 262 days
13
William M. Fechteler
Fechteler, WilliamAdmiral
William M. Fechteler
(1896–1967)
16 August 1951 17 August 1953 2 years, 1 day
14
Robert B. Carney
Carney, RobertAdmiral
Robert B. Carney
(1895–1990)
17 August 1953 17 August 1955 2 years, 0 days
15
Arleigh A. Burke
Burke, ArleighAdmiral
Arleigh A. Burke
(1901–1996)
17 August 1955 1 August 1961 5 years, 349 days
16
George W. Anderson Jr.
Anderson, GeorgeAdmiral
George W. Anderson Jr.
(1906–1992)
1 August 1961 1 August 1963 2 years, 0 days
17
David L. McDonald
McDonald, DavidAdmiral
David L. McDonald
(1906–1997)
1 August 1963 1 August 1967 4 years, 0 days
18
Thomas H. Moorer
Moorer, ThomasAdmiral
Thomas H. Moorer
(1912–2004)
1 August 1967 1 July 1970 2 years, 334 days
19
Elmo R. Zumwalt
Zumwalt, ElmoAdmiral
Elmo R. Zumwalt
(1920–2000)
1 July 1970 29 June 1974 3 years, 363 days
20
James L. Holloway III
Holloway, JamesAdmiral
James L. Holloway III
(born 1922)
29 June 1974 1 July 1978 4 years, 2 days
21
Thomas B. Hayward
Hayward, ThomasAdmiral
Thomas B. Hayward
(born 1924)
1 July 1978 30 June 1982 3 years, 364 days
22
James D. Watkins
Watkins, JamesAdmiral
James D. Watkins
(1927–2012)
30 June 1982 30 June 1986 4 years, 0 days
23
Carlisle A.H. Trost
Trost, CarlisleAdmiral
Carlisle A.H. Trost
(born 1930)
1 July 1986 29 June 1990 3 years, 363 days
24
Frank B. Kelso II
Kelso, FrankAdmiral
Frank B. Kelso II
(1933–2013)
29 June 1990 23 April 1994 3 years, 298 days
25
Jeremy M. Boorda
Boorda, JeremyAdmiral
Jeremy M. Boorda
(1939–1996)
23 April 1994 16 May 1996 † 2 years, 23 days
26
Jay L. Johnson
Johnson, JayAdmiral
Jay L. Johnson
(born 1946)
16 May 1996 21 July 2000 4 years, 66 days
27
Vern Clark
Clark, VernAdmiral
Vern Clark
(born 1944)
21 July 2000 22 July 2005 5 years, 1 day
28
Michael Mullen
Mullen, MichaelAdmiral
Michael Mullen
(born 1946)
22 July 2005 29 September 2007 2 years, 130 days
29
Gary Roughead
Roughead, GaryAdmiral
Gary Roughead
(born 1951)
29 September 2007 23 September 2011 3 years, 298 days
30
Jonathan W. Greenert
Greenert, JonathanAdmiral
Jonathan W. Greenert
(born 1953)
23 September 2011 18 September 2015 3 years, 360 days
31
John M. Richardson
Richardson, JohnAdmiral
John M. Richardson
(born 1960)
18 September 2015 Incumbent 3 years, 59 days

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Chief of Naval Operations". United States Navy. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  2. ^ "10 USC 5035. Vice Chief of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  3. ^ a b 10 USC 5013(f). Secretary of the Navy
  4. ^ 10 USC 165. Combatant commands: administration and support
  5. ^ "10 USC 5033. Chief of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d "10 USC 5033. Chief of Naval Operations". Retrieved 24 September 2007.
  7. ^ "The Vice President's Residence". The White House. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  8. ^ navy.mil Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Chief of Naval Operations − Responsibilities. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
  9. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 5033 - Chief of Naval Operations: general duties". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  10. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 5031 - Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: function; composition". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  11. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 5032 - Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: general duties". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  12. ^ 10 U.S. Code § 5036 - Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations
  13. ^ "National Nuclear Security Administration". National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy 2009. Department of Energy www.Energy.gov. Archived from the original on June 5, 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  14. ^ "Navy - Chief of Naval Operations". International Military Digest. 1 (1): 68. June 1915. Retrieved 21 May 2015.

External links

  • Chief of Naval Operations page
  • Office of the Chief of Naval Operations organization
  • "Chief of Naval Operations". Lists of Commanding Officers and Senior Officials of the US Navy. Naval Historical Center. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2007.

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