Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

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Charles V
Elderly Karl V.jpg
Reign 28 June 1519 – 27 August 1556[1]
Coronation
  • 26 October 1520 (Germany)
  • 22 February 1530 (Italy)
  • 24 February 1530 (Empire)
Predecessor Maximilian I
Successor Ferdinand I
King of Spain
Reign 23 January 1516 – 16 January 1556
Predecessor Joanna (Castile)
Ferdinand II (Aragon)
Successor Philip II
Co-monarch Joanna
Reign 25 September 1506 – 25 October 1555[2]
Predecessor Philip IV
Successor Philip V
Archduke of Austria
Reign 12 January 1519 – 28 April 1521
Predecessor Maximilian I
Successor Ferdinand I
Born (1500-02-24)24 February 1500
Ghent, Flanders, Habsburg Netherlands
Died 21 September 1558(1558-09-21) (aged 58)
Yuste, Spain
Burial El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain
Spouse Isabella of Portugal
Issue Illegitimate:
House Habsburg
Father Philip of Austria
Mother Joanna of Castile
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Charles V's signature

Charles V and I (German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Spanish: Carlos; Dutch: Karel) [a] (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four million square kilometers[3] and were the first to be described as "the empire on which the sun never sets".[4]

Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: the Houses of Valois-Burgundy (through his paternal grandmother), Habsburg, and Trastámara (his maternal grandparents were the Catholic Monarchs of Spain). He inherited the Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. As a Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe. He was also elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. From the Spanish House of Trastámara, he inherited the crowns of Castile, which was in the process of developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, and Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to Southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right and as a result he is often referred to as the first king of Spain.[5] The personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious (778–840).

Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realization of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies.[6] His reign was dominated by war and particularly by three major simultaneous conflicts: the Habsburg-Valois Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Ottoman advance, and the Protestant Reformation resulting in conflict with the German princes.[7] The wars with France, mainly fought in Italy, resulted in recovery of territory lost at the beginning of his reign and included the decisive defeat and capture of Francis I of France at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charles's reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios.

The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean. After crushing Hungarian forces in 1526, the Ottomans' advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand (who had become king of Hungary), continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him. He could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and although he won a decisive victory against the Princes at the Battle of Mühlberg, 1547, he was ultimately forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany on confessional lines.

While Charles did not typically concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three particularly dangerous rebellions in the vital territories of Castile, the Frisian lands, and later in his reign in the city of Ghent. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule.

Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain.

Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58. Upon Charles's abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, who had already been given the Austrian lands in 1521. The Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century (when the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg became extinct).

Heritage and early life

Portrait by Bernard van Orley, 1519

Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands.[8] The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ (who would later become his first prime minister), and also by Adrian of Utrecht (later Pope Adrian VI). It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was fluent in French and Dutch, later adding an acceptable Castilian Spanish (which Charles called the "divine language"[9]) required by the Castilian Cortes Generales as a condition for becoming King of Castile. He also gained a decent command of German (in which he was not fluent prior to his election), though he never spoke it as well as French.[10] A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is: "I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." A variant of the quote is attributed to him by Swift in his 1726 Gulliver's Travels, but there are many other variants and it is often attributed instead to Frederick the Great.[11]

From his Burgundian ancestors he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth he made frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Europe. In his words: "Paris is not a city, but a universe" (Lutetia non urbs, sed orbis). He was betrothed to both Louise and Charlotte of Valois, daughters of King Francis I of France, but they both died in childhood. Charles also inherited the tradition of political and dynastic enmity between the royal and the Burgundian ducal lines of the Valois dynasty. Charles was very attached to the Burgundian Low Countries where he had been raised. These lands were very rich and contributed significantly to the wealth of the Empire. He also spent much time there, mainly in Brussels. This stands in contrast with the attitude of his son Philip who only visited the Low Countries once.

Portrait by Jakob Seisenegger, 1533

Until the 1540s, Charles did not spend much time in Germany (apart from the Netherlands). He frequently was in Northern Italy (then part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). He never actually governed his Austrian dominions and made his brother Ferdinand the ruler of these lands in 1521, as well as his representative in the Holy Roman Empire during his absence. In spite of this, the Emperor had a close relationship with some German families, like the House of Nassau, many of which were represented at his court in Brussels. Some German princes or noblemen accompanied him in his military campaigns against France or the Ottomans, and the bulk of his army was generally composed of German troops, especially the Imperial Landsknechte.[12]

Indeed, in 1519, he was elected because he was considered a German prince while his main opponent was French. Nonetheless, in the long term, the growth of Lutheranism and Charles' staunch Catholicism alienated him from various German princes who finally fought against him in the 1540s and the 1550s. It is important to note, though, that other states of the Empire chose to support him in his war, and that he had the constant support of his brother, in spite of their strained personal relationship.[13] Whereas Charles spent much of his final years as a ruler trying to address the issue of religion in the Empire, it would ultimately be Ferdinand, by then much more popular in Germany, who would bring peace to the German lands.

Though Spain was the core of his personal possessions and though he had many Iberian ancestors, in his earlier years Charles felt as if he were viewed as a foreign prince. He became fluent in Spanish late in his life, as it was not his first language. Nonetheless, he spent much of his life in Spain, including his final years in a Spanish monastery, and his heir, later Philip II, was born and raised in Spain. Indeed, Charles's motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain. He had many Spanish counselors and, except for the revolt of the comuneros in the 1520s, Spain remained mostly loyal to him. Spain was also his most important military asset, as it provided a great number of generals, as well as the formidable Spanish tercios, considered the best infantry of its time. Many Spaniards, however, believed that their resources were being used to sustain a policy that was not in the country's interest.[14] They usually believed that Charles should have focused on the Mediterranean and North Africa instead of Northern or Central Europe.

Portrait gallery

Reign

Burgundy and the Low Countries

Charles V's European territories. Red represents the Crown of Aragon, magenta the Crown of Castile, orange his Burgundian inheritances, mustard yellow his Austrian inheritances, and pale yellow the balance of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté. Most of the holdings were fiefs of the German Kingdom (part of the Holy Roman Empire), except his birthplace of Flanders, which was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret of Austria (born as Archduchess of Austria and in both her marriages as the Dowager Princess of Asturias and Dowager Duchess of Savoy) acted as regent, as appointed by Emperor Maximilian until 1515. She soon found herself at war with France over the question of Charles' requirement to pay homage to the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. The outcome was that France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528.

From 1515 to 1523, Charles's government in the Netherlands also had to contend with the rebellion of Frisian peasants (led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama). The rebels were initially successful but after a series of defeats, the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated in 1523.

Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the annexation of Tournai, Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Guelders. The Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles's Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. In 1549, Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the Low Countries to be a unified entity of which his family would be the heirs.[15]

The Low Countries held an important place in the Empire. For Charles V personally they were his home, the region where he was born and spent his childhood. Because of trade and industry and the wealth of the region's cities, the Low Countries also represented an important income for the Imperial treasury.

The Burgundian territories were generally loyal to Charles throughout his reign. The important city of Ghent rebelled in 1539 due to heavy tax payments demanded by Charles. The rebellion did not last long, however, as Charles's military response, with reinforcement from the Duke of Alba,[15] was swift and humiliating to the rebels of Ghent.[16][17]

Spain

The city of Toledo was the imperial capital and main seat of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and his court.[18][19]
Exterior of The Palace of Charles V in Granada, built by Emperor Charles V upon his wedding to Isabel of Portugal in 1526.

In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid in 1506 and of Madrid in 1510, Charles was sworn as the Prince of Asturias, heir-apparent to his mother the Queen Joanna.[20] On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese Corts gathered in Saragossa and pledged an oath to Joanna as heiress-presumptive, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, modify the right of the succession, except by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cortes and the King.[21][22] So, upon the death of King Ferdinand II of Aragon, on 23 January 1516, Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, which consisted of Catalonia, Valencia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, while Charles became Governor General.[23] Nevertheless, the Flemings wished Charles to assume the royal title,[citation needed] and this was supported by his grandfather the emperor Maximilian I and Pope Leo X.

Thus, after the celebration of Ferdinand II's obsequies on 14 March 1516, Charles was proclaimed king of the crowns of Castile and Aragon jointly with his mother. Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the fait accompli, he acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king and imposed his enstatement throughout the kingdom.[24] Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of 1517. Jiménez de Cisneros came to meet him but fell ill along the way, not without a suspicion of poison, and he died before meeting the King.[25]

Charles V with Armor by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz (1605), copying Titian

Due to the irregularity of Charles assuming the royal title while his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive, the negotiations with the Castilian Cortes in Valladolid (1518) proved difficult.[26] In the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited from taking precious metals from Castile; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. The Cortes paid homage to him in Valladolid in February 1518. After this, Charles departed to the crown of Aragon. He managed to overcome the resistance of the Aragonese Cortes and Catalan Corts,[27] and he was finally recognized as king of Aragon and count of Barcelona jointly with his mother.[28] The Kingdom of Navarre had been invaded by Ferdinand of Aragon jointly with Castile in 1512, but he pledged a formal oath to respect the kingdom. On Charles's accession to the Spanish throne, the Parliament of Navarre (Cortes) required him to attend the coronation ceremony (to become Charles IV of Navarre), but this demand fell on deaf ears, and the Parliament kept piling up grievances.

Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Spanish kingdoms varied in their traditions. Castile was an authoritarian kingdom, where the monarch's own will easily overrode law and the Cortes. By contrast, in the kingdoms of the crown of Aragon, and especially in the Pyrenean kingdom of Navarre, law prevailed, and the monarchy was a contract with the people. This became an inconvenience and a matter of dispute for Charles V and later kings, since realm-specific traditions limited their absolute power. With Charles, government became more absolute, even though until his mother's death in 1555 Charles did not hold the full kingship of the country.

Soon resistance to the Emperor arose because of heavy taxation to support foreign wars in which Castilians had little interest, and because Charles tended to select Flemings for high offices in Spain and America, ignoring Castilian candidates. The resistance culminated in the Revolt of the Comuneros, which Charles suppressed. Immediately after crushing the Castilian revolt, Charles was confronted again with the hot issue of Navarre when King Henry II attempted to reconquer the kingdom. Main military operations lasted until 1524, when Hondarribia surrendered to Charles's forces, but frequent cross-border clashes in the western Pyrenees only stopped in 1528 (Treaties of Madrid and Cambrai).

After these events, Navarre remained a matter of domestic and international litigation still for a century (a French dynastic claim to the throne did not end until the French Revolution in 1789). Charles wanted his son and heir Philip II to marry the heiress of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret. Jeanne was instead forced to marry William, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg, but that childless marriage was annulled after four years. She next married Antoine de Bourbon, and both she and their son would oppose Philip II in the French Wars of Religion.

Castile became integrated into Charles's empire, and provided the bulk of the empire's financial resources as well as its most effective military units. The enormous budget deficit accumulated during Charles's reign resulted in Spain declaring bankruptcy during the reign of Philip II.[29]

Italy

The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Charles succeeded in re-capturing Milan in 1522, when Imperial troops defeated the Franco-Swiss army at Bicocca. Yet in 1524 Francis I of France retook the initiative, crossing into Lombardy where Milan, along with a number of other cities, once again fell to his attack. Pavia alone held out, and on 24 February 1525 (Charles's twenty-fifth birthday), Charles's Spanish forces captured Francis and crushed his army in the Battle of Pavia, yet again retaking Milan and Lombardy. Spain successfully held on to all of its Italian territories, though they were invaded again on multiple occasions during the Italian Wars.

In addition, Habsburg trade in the Mediterranean was consistently disrupted by the Ottoman Empire. In 1538 a Holy League consisting of all the Italian states and Spain was formed to drive the Ottomans back, but it was defeated at the Battle of Preveza. Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after Charles's death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

America

During Charles's reign, the Spanish territories in the Americas were considerably extended by conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro. They conquered the large Aztec and Inca empires and incorporated them into the Empire as the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru between 1519 and 1542. Combined with the circumnavigation of the globe by the Magellan expedition in 1522, these successes convinced Charles of his divine mission to become the leader of Christendom, which still perceived a significant threat from Islam. The conquests also helped solidify Charles's rule by providing the state treasury with enormous amounts of bullion. As the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo observed, "We came to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those in darkness, and also to acquire that wealth which most men covet."[30]

In 1528 Charles assigned a concession in Venezuela Province to Bartholomeus V. Welser, in compensation for his inability to repay debts owed. The concession, known as Klein-Venedig (little Venice), was revoked in 1546. In 1550, Charles convened a conference at Valladolid in order to consider the morality of the force used against the indigenous populations of the New World, which included figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas.

Charles V is credited with the first idea of constructing an American Isthmus canal in Panama as early as 1520.[31]

Holy Roman Empire

Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V on horseback under a canopy, by Jacopo Ligozzi, c. 1580. It describes the entry of the Pope and the Emperor into Bologna in 1530, when the latter was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by the former.

After the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian, in 1519, Charles inherited the Habsburg Monarchy. He was also the natural candidate of the electors to succeed his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor. He defeated the candidacies of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of England. The electors gave Charles the crown on 28 June 1519. On 26 October 1520 he was crowned in Germany and some ten years later, on 22 February 1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the last emperor to receive a papal coronation.[32][33]

Despite holding the imperial throne, Charles's real authority was limited by the German princes. They gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all cases of unrepentant heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alba, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.[15]

Charles abdicated as emperor in 1556 in favor of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until 24 February 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of emperor.

France

Francis I and Charles V made peace at the Truce of Nice in 1538. Francis actually refused to meet Charles in person, and the treaty was signed in separate rooms.

Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire while it still maintained ambitions in Italy. In 1520, Charles visited England, where his aunt, Catherine of Aragon, urged her husband, Henry VIII, to ally himself with the emperor. In 1508 Charles was nominated by Henry VII to the Order of the Garter.[34] His Garter stall plate survives in Saint George's Chapel.

The first war with Charles's great nemesis Francis I of France began in 1521. Charles allied with England and Pope Leo X against the French and the Venetians, and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. To gain his freedom, Francis ceded Burgundy to Charles in the Treaty of Madrid, as well as renouncing his support of Henry II's claim over Navarre.

Portrait, 1548, by Lambert Sustris (formerly attributed to Titian)

When he was released, however, Francis had the Parliament of Paris denounce the treaty because it had been signed under duress. France then joined the League of Cognac that Pope Clement VII had formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. In the ensuing war, Charles's sack of Rome (1527) and virtual imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in 1527 prevented the Pope from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII of England and Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon, so Henry eventually broke with Rome, thus leading to the English Reformation.[35][36] In other respects, the war was inconclusive. In the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated between Charles's aunt and Francis' mother, Francis renounced his claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy.

A third war erupted in 1536. Following the death of the last Sforza Duke of Milan, Charles installed his son Philip in the duchy, despite Francis's claims on it. This war too was inconclusive. Francis failed to conquer Milan, but he succeeded in conquering most of the lands of Charles's ally, the Duke of Savoy, including his capital Turin. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of uti possidetis ended the war but lasted only a short time. War resumed in 1542, with Francis now allied with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and Charles once again allied with Henry VIII. Despite the conquest of Nice by a Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French could not advance toward Milan, while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to another peace and restoration of the status quo ante bellum in 1544.

A final war erupted with Francis' son and successor, Henry II, in 1551. Henry won early success in Lorraine, where he captured Metz, but French offensives in Italy failed. Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further conduct of the war to his son, Philip II, and his brother, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire

Charles fought continually with the Ottoman Empire and its sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent. The defeat of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács in 1526 "sent a wave of terror over Europe."[37][38] The Muslim advance in Central Europe was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529.

Suleiman won the contest for mastery of the Mediterranean, in spite of Spanish victories such as the conquest of Tunis in 1535. The regular Ottoman fleet came to dominate the Eastern Mediterranean after its victories at Preveza in 1538 and Djerba in 1560 (shortly after Charles's death), which severely decimated the Spanish marine arm. At the same time, the Muslim Barbary corsairs, acting under the general authority and supervision of the sultan, regularly devastated the Spanish and Italian coasts, crippling Spanish trade and chipping at the foundations of Habsburg power.

In 1536 Francis I of France allied himself with Suleiman against Charles. While Francis was persuaded to sign a peace treaty in 1538, he again allied himself with the Ottomans in 1542 in a Franco-Ottoman alliance. In 1543 Charles allied himself with Henry VIII and forced Francis to sign the Truce of Crépy-en-Laonnois. Later, in 1547, Charles signed a humiliating[39] treaty with the Ottomans to gain himself some respite from the huge expenses of their war.[40]

Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance. Contacts were positive, but rendered difficult by enormous distances. In effect, however, the Safavids did enter in conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the Ottoman-Safavid War, forcing it to split its military resources.[41]

Charles V on horseback in Mühlberg. Titian, 1548, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

Protestant Reformation

As Holy Roman Emperor, Charles called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521, promising him safe conduct if he would appear. Initially dismissing Luther's theses as "an argument between monks", he later outlawed Luther and his followers in that same year but was tied up with other concerns and unable to take action against Protestantism. The Peasants' Revolt in Germany broke out from 1524 to 1526, and in 1531 the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League was formed. Charles delegated increasing responsibility for Germany to his brother Ferdinand while he concentrated on problems elsewhere.

In 1545, the opening of the Council of Trent began the Counter-Reformation, and Charles won to the Catholic cause some of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire.[citation needed] In 1546 (the year of Luther's natural death), he outlawed the Schmalkaldic League (which had occupied the territory of another prince). The next year his forces drove the League's troops out of southern Germany, and defeated John Frederick, Elector of Saxony and Philip of Hesse at the Battle of Mühlberg, capturing both. At the Augsburg Interim in 1548, he created a solution giving certain allowances to Protestants until the Council of Trent would restore unity. However, members of both sides resented the Interim and some actively opposed it. In 1552 Protestant princes, in alliance with Henry II of France, rebelled again, which caused Charles to retreat to the Netherlands.

Marriage

Empress Isabella of Portugal, Charles's wife. Portrait by Titian, 1548

During his lifetime, Charles V had several mistresses, but only during his bachelorhood and only once during his widowhood; there are no records of him ever having had any extramarital affairs during his marriage.

Negotiations for Charles's marriage first began shortly after his arrival in Spain, with the Spanish nobles expressing their wishes for him to marry his first cousin the Infanta Isabella of Portugal, daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal and Charles's aunt Queen Maria of Aragon, and sister of King John III of Portugal. The nobles desired for Charles to marry a princess of Spanish blood and a marriage to Isabella would secure an alliance between Spain and Portugal. The 18 year old King, however, ignored the nobles' advice, and instead of marrying Isabella, he sent his sister Eleanor of Austria to marry Isabella's widowed father King Manuel. In 1521, on the advice of his Flemish advisors, Charles became engaged to his other first cousin Princess Mary Tudor, daughter of his aunt Catherine of Aragon and King Henry VIII of England in order to secure an alliance with England. However, this engagement was very problematic; Mary Tudor was only 6 years old at the time, sixteen years Charles's junior, which meant that he would have to wait for her to be old enough to marry.

By 1525, Charles was no longer interested in an alliance with England and was determined to have legitimate children and heirs. He abandoned the idea of an English alliance, cancelled his engagement to Mary Tudor and decided to marry Isabella and form an alliance with Portugal. He wrote to his cousin King John, making a double marriage contract - Charles would marry Isabella and John would marry Charles's youngest sister Catherine of Austria. A marriage to Isabella was more beneficiary for Charles, as she was closer to him in age, was fluent in Spanish and provided him with a very handsome dowry of 900,000 Portuguese cruzados or Castilian folds that would help to solve his financial problems brought on by the Italian Wars.

Emperor Charles V and Empress Isabella. Peter Paul Rubens after Titian, 17th century

On 11 March 1526, Charles and Isabella were married at the Alcázar Palace in Seville. The marriage was originally a political arrangement, but on their first meeting, the couple fell deeply in love, with Isabella captivating the Emperor with her beauty and charm. Following their wedding, Charles and Isabella spent a long and happy honeymoon at the Alhambra in Granada. Wishing to establish their residence in the Alhambra palaces, Charles began the construction of the Palace of Charles V in 1527, which was intended as a permanent residence befitting an emperor and empress. However, the palace was not completed during their lifetime and remained roofless until the late 20th century.[42]

Despite the Emperor's long absences due to political affairs abroad, the marriage was a happy one, as both partners were always devoted and faithful to each other.[43] The Empress acted as regent of Spain during her husband's absences and she proved herself to be a good politician and ruler, thoroughly impressing the Emperor with many of her political gains and decisions.

The marriage lasted for thirteen years, until Isabella died at the age of 35 on 1 May 1539 after contracting a fever during the third month of her sixth pregnancy, which resulted in antenatal complications that caused the Empress to miscarry and give birth to a stillborn son. The Emperor was left so grief-stricken by his wife's death that he shut himself up in a monastery for two months where he prayed and mourned for her in solitude.[44] In the aftermath, Charles never recovered from Isabella's death; he dressed in black for the rest of his life, and, unlike most kings of the time, he never remarried. In memory of his wife, he commissioned the painter Titian to paint several posthumous portraits of Isabella; the portraits that were produced included Titian's Portrait of Empress Isabel of Portugal and La Gloria.[45] Charles kept these portraits with him whenever he travelled and they were among those that he later brought with him to the Monastery of Yuste in 1557 after his retirement.[46]

Charles also paid tribute to Isabella's memory with music, when in 1540, he commissioned the Flemish composer Thomas Crecquillon to compose new music as a memorial to her. Crecquillon composed his Missa 'Mort m'a privé' in memory of the Empress, which itself expresses the Emperor's grief and great wish for a heavenly reunion with his beloved wife.[47]

Health

Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity that became considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. This deformity may have been caused by the family's long history of inbreeding, which was commonly practiced in royal families of that era to maintain dynastic control of territory.[citation needed] He suffered from epilepsy[48] and was seriously afflicted with gout, presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat.[49] As he aged, his gout progressed from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of St. Yuste in a sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.[50]

Abdications and later life

Bronze bust, by Leone Leoni & Pompeo Leoni, 1553

Charles abdicated the parts of his empire piecemeal. First he abdicated the thrones of Sicily and Naples, both fiefs of the Papacy, and the Duchy of Milan to his son Philip in 1554. Upon Charles's abdication of Naples on 25 July, Philip was invested with the kingdom (officially "Naples and Sicily") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. The abdication of the throne of Sicily, sometimes dated to 16 January 1556, must have taken place before Joanna's death in 1555. There is a record of Philip being invested with this kingdom (officially "Sicily and Jerusalem") on 18 November 1554 by Julius. These resignations are confirmed in Charles's will from the same year.[51] The most famous—and public—abdication of Charles took place a year later, on 25 October 1555, when he announced to the States General of the Netherlands his abdication of those territories and the county of Charolais and his intention to retire to a monastery.[51] He abdicated as ruler of the Spanish Empire in January 1556, with no fanfare, and gave these possessions to Philip.[51] In September 1556, he abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor in favor of his brother Ferdinand, although the abdication was not formally accepted by the Electors of the Empire until 1558.[52] The delay had been at the request of Ferdinand, who had been concerned about holding a risky election in 1556.[51]

Charles retired to the Monastery of Yuste in Extremadura but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout. Some scholars think Charles decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe were symbols of his reign and his lack of time.[53]

Death

The bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella at the Basilica in El Escorial

In August 1558, Charles was taken seriously ill with what was later revealed to be malaria.[54] He died in the early hours of the morning on 21st September 1558, at the age of 58, holding in his hand the cross that his wife Isabella had been holding when she died.[55]

Charles was originally buried in the chapel of the Monastery of Yuste, but he left a codicil in his last will and testament asking for the establishment of a new religious foundation in which he would be reburied with Isabella.[56] Following his return to Spain in 1559, their son Philip undertook the task of fulfilling his father's wish when he founded the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. After the Monastery's Royal Crypt was completed in 1574, the bodies of Charles and Isabella were relocated and re-interred into a small vault directly underneath the altar of the famous Basilica of the Monastery, in accordance with Charles's wishes to be buried "half-body under the altar and half-body under the priest's feet" side by side with Isabella. They remained in this vault until 1654 when they were later moved into the Royal Pantheon of Kings by their great-grandson Philip IV, who, in doing so, disrespected his great-grandfather's wishes.[57]

On one side of the Basilica are bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella, with effigies of their daughter Maria of Austria and Charles's sisters Eleanor of Austria and Maria of Hungary behind them. Exactly adjacent to them on the opposite side of the Basilica are effigies of their son Philip with three of his wives and their ill-fated grandson Carlos, Prince of Asturias.

Issue

Charles and Isabella had six children, though only three survived to adulthood:

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes
Philip II of Spain
Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg 21 May 1527 –
13 September 1598
Only surviving son, successor of his father in the Spanish crown.
Maria
Maria of Spain 1557.jpg 21 June 1528 –
26 February 1603
Married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Ferdinand
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg 22 November 1529 –
13 July 1530
Died in infancy.
Joanna
Alonso Sánchez Coello - Portrait of Juana of Austria, Princess of Portugal - Google Art Project.jpg 26 June 1535 –
7 September 1573
Married her first cousin João Manuel, Prince of Portugal.
John
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg 19 October 1537 –
20 March 1538
Died in infancy.
Son
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg 21 April 1539 Stillborn.

Due to Philip II being a grandson of Manuel I of Portugal through his mother he was in the line of succession to the throne of Portugal, and claimed it after his uncle's death (Henry, the Cardinal-King, in 1580), thus establishing the Iberian Union.

Charles also had four illegitimate children:

Historians suspect he fathered Isabel of Castile, the illegitimate daughter of his step-grandmother Germaine of Foix.

Titles

Charles V, enthroned over his defeated enemies (from left): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse.
Equestrian armour of Emperor Charles V.
Title Date from Date to Regnal name
Blason fr Bourgogne.svg Titular Duke of Burgundy 25 September 1506 16 January 1556 Charles II
Coat of arms of Brabant.svg Duke of Brabant 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Modern Arms of Limburg.svg Duke of Limburg 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Austria coat of arms simple.svg Duke of Lothier 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Arms of the Count of Luxembourg.svg Duke of Luxemburg 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles III
Namur Arms.svg Margrave of Namur 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Arms of County of Burgundy.svg [58] Count Palatine of Burgundy 25 September 1506 5 February 1556 Charles II
Arms of Robert dArtois.svg Count of Artois 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Blason Charolais.svg [59] Count of Charolais 25 September 1506 21 September 1558 Charles II
Arms of Flanders.svg Count of Flanders 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles III
Hainaut Modern Arms.svg Count of Hainault 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Counts of Holland Arms.svg Count of Holland 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Coatofarmszeeland.PNG Count of Zeeland 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Guelders-Jülich Arms.svg Duke of Guelders 12 September 1543 25 October 1555 Charles III
Escudo de Zutphen 1581.png Count of Zutphen 12 September 1543 25 October 1555 Charles II
Arms of the Crown of Castile (15th Century).svg King of Castile and León 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
Arms Aragon-Sicily (Template).svg King of Aragon and Sicily 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
Coat of Arms of Catalonia.svg Count of Barcelona 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Charles I
Arms of Ferdinand I of Naples.svg King of Naples 14 March 1516 25 July 1554 Charles IV (with Joanna III, 14 March 1516 – 25 July 1554)
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg King of the Romans 28 June 1519 24 February 1530 Charles V
Holy Roman Empire Arms-double head.svg Holy Roman Emperor 24 February 1530 24 February 1558 Charles V
Austria coat of arms simple.svg Archduke of Austria 12 January 1519 12 January 1521 Charles I

The titles of King of Hungary, of Bohemia, and of Croatia, were incorporated into the imperial family during Charles's reign, but they were held, both nominally and substantively, by his brother Ferdinand, who initiated a four-century-long Habsburg rule over these eastern territories.

However, according Charles V testament, the titles of King of Hungary, of Dalmatia, and of Croatia and others were legated to his grandson, Infante Carlos, Prince of Asturias who was the son of Philip II of Spain, and who died young. Charles's full titulature went as follows:

Charles, by the grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, of Hungary, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaén, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Western and Eastern Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Drenthe, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen.

Coat of arms of Charles V

Coat of arms of Charles I of Spain and V of Germany according to the description: Arms of Charles I added to those of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Two Sicilies and Granada present in the previous coat, those of Austria, ancient Burgundy, modern Burgundy, Brabant, Flanders and Tyrol. Charles I also incorporates the pillars of Hercules with the inscription "Plus Ultra", representing the overseas empire and surrounding coat with the collar of the Golden Fleece, as sovereign of the Order ringing the shield with the imperial crown and Acola double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire and behind it the Spanish Cross of Burgundy. From 1520 added to the corresponding quarter to Aragon and Sicily, one in which the arms of Jerusalem, Naples and Navarre are incorporated.

In popular culture

References to Charles V include a large number of legends and folk tales; literary renderings of historical events connected to Charles's life and romantic adventures, his relationship to Flanders, and his abdication; and products marketed in his name.[60]

Literature

  • In De heerelycke ende vrolycke daeden van Keyser Carel den V, published by Joan de Grieck in 1674, the short stories, anecdotes, citations attributed to the emperor, and legends about his encounters with famous and ordinary people, depict a noble Christian monarch with a perfect cosmopolitan personality and a strong sense of humour. Converesely, in Charles De Coster's masterpiece Thyl Ulenspiegel (1867), after his death Charles V is consigned to Hell as punishment for the acts of the Inquisition under his rule, his punishment being that he would feel the pain of anyone tortured by the Inquisition. De Coster's book also mentions the story on the spectacles in the coat of arms of Oudenaarde, the one about a paysant of Berchem in Het geuzenboek (1979) by Louis Paul Boon, while Abraham Hans (nl) (1882–1939) included both tales in De liefdesavonturen van keizer Karel in Vlaanderen.
  • Lord Byron's Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte refers to Charles as "The Spaniard".
Eschutcheon of Charles V, watercolor, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art

Plays

  • Charles V appears as a character in the play Doctor Faustus by the Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe. In Act 4 Scene 1 of the A Text, Faustus attends Court by the Emperor's request and with the assistance of Mephistopheles conjures up spirits representing Alexander the Great and his paramour as a demonstration of his magical powers.

Opera

  • Ernst Krenek's opera Karl V (opus 73, 1930) examines the title character's career via flashbacks.
  • In the third act of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Ernani, the election of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor is presented. Charles (Don Carlo in the opera) prays before the tomb of Charlemagne. With the announcement that he is elected as Carlo Quinto he declares an amnesty including the eponymous bandit Ernani who had followed him there to murder him as a rival for the love of Elvira. The opera, based on the Victor Hugo play Hernani, portrays Charles as a callous and cynical adventurer whose character is transformed by the election into a responsible and clement ruler.
  • In another Verdi opera, Don Carlo, the final scene implies that it is Charles V, now living the last years of his life as a hermit, who rescues his grandson, Don Carlo, from his father Philip II and the Inquisition, by taking Carlo with him to his hermitage at the monastery in Yuste.

Food

  • A Flemish legend about Charles being served a beer at the village of Olen, as well as the emperor's lifelong preference of beer above wine, led to the naming of several beer varieties in his honor. The Haacht Brewery of Boortmeerbeek produces Charles Quint, while Het Anker Brewery in Mechelen produces Gouden Carolus, including a Grand Cru of the Emperor, brewed once a year on Charles V's birthday.[61][62][63][64] Grupo Cruzcampo brews Legado De Yuste in honor of Charles and attributes the inspiration to his Flemish origin and his last days at the monastery of Yuste.[citation needed]
  • Carlos V is the name of a popular chocolate bar in Mexico. Its tagline is "El Rey de los Chocolates" or "The King of Chocolates" and "Carlos V, El Emperador del Chocolate" or "Charles V, the Emperor of Chocolates."

TV and Film

Ancestors

See also

Notes

a. ^ Name in other languages:

  1. ^ Date of Charles's abdication; on 24 February 1558, the college of electors assembled at Frankfurt accepted the instrument of Charles V's imperial resignation and declared the election of Ferdinand as emperor p. 716, p. 182
  2. ^ Abdication of Brussels. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Hermann Wiesflecker. Maximilian I. Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ David Thomas; John A. Chesworth (24 July 2015). Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History: Volume 7. Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and South America (1500-1600). BRILL. p. 901. ISBN 978-90-04-29848-4. 
  5. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch (2 September 2004). Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490-1700. Penguin Books Limited. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-14-192660-5. 
  6. ^ Jean Berenger (22 July 2014). A History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-317-89570-1. 
  7. ^ William S. Maltby (25 March 2002). The Reign of Charles V. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-230-62908-0. 
  8. ^ Paul F. State (16 April 2015). Historical Dictionary of Brussels. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8108-7921-8. 
  9. ^ Cornelius August Wilkens (1897). "VIII. Juan de Valdés". Spanish Protestants in the Sixteenth Century. William Heinemann. p. 66. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Charles V, Pierre Chaunu and Michèle Escamilla
  11. ^ Burke, "Languages and communities in early modern Europe" p. 28; Holzberger, "The letters of George Santayana" p. 299
  12. ^ Charles V, Pierre Chaunu
  13. ^ Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Whaley
  14. ^ History of Spain, Joseph Perez
  15. ^ a b c Kamen, Henry (2005). Spain, 1469–1714: a society of conflict (3rd ed.). Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-78464-6. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. 
  16. ^ "Gentenaars Stropdragers". Archived from the original on 2014-01-04. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  17. ^ "GILDE van de STROPPENDRAGERS". Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  18. ^ Martínez Gil, Fernando (2007). "Corte renacentista". La invención de Toledo. Imágenes históricas de una identidad urbana. Almud, ediciones de Castilla-La Mancha. pp. 113–121. ISBN 84-934140-7-7. 
  19. ^ Martínez Gil, Fernando (1999). "Toledo es Corte (1480-1561)". Historia de Toledo. Azacanes. pp. 259–308. ISBN 84-88480-19-9. 
  20. ^ "Cortes de los antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla; Manuel Colmeiro (1883)". Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 2012-08-23.  ,"XXIII". Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  21. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Revista General de Información y Documentación 2003, vol 13, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid), page 137
  22. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Juana la Loca fabricada en los Países Bajos (1505–1506); José María de Francisco Olmos Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Revista General de Información y Documentación 2002, vol 12, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid), page 299
  23. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos, page 138 Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos, pp. 139–140 Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition.
  26. ^ "Cortes de los antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla". Archived from the original on February 24, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2016. ; Manuel Colmeiro (1883), chapter XXIV
  27. ^ Historia general de España; Modesto Lafuente (1861), pp. 51–52.
  28. ^ Fueros, observancias y actos de corte del Reino de Aragón; Santiago Penén y Debesa, Pascual Savall y Dronda, Miguel Clemente (1866) Archived 10 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine., page 64
  29. ^ Elliot, J.H. Imperial Spain 1469–1716. Penguin Books (New York: 2002), pg. 208.
  30. ^ Prescott, William Hickling (1873). History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a Preliminary View of Ancient Mexican Civilization, and the Life of the Conqueror, Hernando Cortes (3rd ed.). Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. ISBN 1-152-29570-5. 
  31. ^ Haskin, Frederic (1913). The Panama Canal. Doubleday, Page & Company. 
  32. ^ William Maltby, The Reign of Charles V (St. Martin's Press, 2002)
  33. ^ Claims that he gained the imperial crown through bribery have been questioned. H.J. Cohn, "Did Bribes Induce the German Electors to Choose Charles V as Emperor in 1519?" German History (2001) 19#1 pp 1–27
  34. ^ "Royal Collection - The Knights of the Garter under Henry VIII". www.royalcollection.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-16. 
  35. ^ Holmes (1993), p. 192
  36. ^ Froude (1891), p. 35, pp. 90-91, pp. 96-97 Note: the link goes to page 480, then click the View All option
  37. ^ Quoted from: Bryan W. Ball. A Great Expectation. Brill Publishers, 1975. ISBN 90-04-04315-2. Page 142.
  38. ^ Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  39. ^ In particular, in this Truce of Adrianople (1547) Charles was only referred to as "King of Spain" instead of by his extensive titulature. (see Crowley, p. 89)
  40. ^ Stanley Sandler (ed.). Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ISBN 1-57607-733-0. 
  41. ^ "A Habsburg-Persian alliance against the Ottomans finally brought a respite from the Turkish threat in the 1540s. This entanglement kept Suleiman tied down on his eastern border, relieving the pressure on Carlos V" in The Indian Ocean in world history? Milo Kearney – 2004 – p.112
  42. ^ Palace of Charles V, Alhambra.org
  43. ^ Henry Kamen (1997). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-300-07800-5. 
  44. ^ Henry Kamen (1997). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-300-07800-5. 
  45. ^ https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-glory/66149817-6f88-4e5f-a09a-81f63a84d145
  46. ^ https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-empress-isabel-of-portugal/d4eddf35-c76c-4c11-8f2b-099f7b71d696
  47. ^ http://www.brabantensemble.com/discography/thomas-crecquillon-missa-mort-ma-prive-motets-and-chansons/
  48. ^ H. Schneble. "German Epilepsy Museum Kork". Epilepsiemuseum.de. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  49. ^ "Tests confirm old emperor's gout diagnosis." His The Record. 4 August 2006, Nation.
  50. ^ Dr. Martyn Rady, University of London, lecture 2000.[citation needed]
  51. ^ a b c d Fernand Braudel (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. University of California Press. pp. 935–936. ISBN 978-0-520-20330-3. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  52. ^ Joachim Whaley (2012). Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume I: Maximilian I to the Peace of Westphalia, 1493-1648. OUP Oxford. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-19-873101-6. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  53. ^ Alonso, Jordi; J. de Zulueta; et al. (August 2006). "The severe gout of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (5): 516–20. doi:10.1056/NEJMon060780. PMID 16885558. 
  54. ^ de Zulueta, J. (June 2007). "The cause of death of Emperor Charles V". Parassitologia. 49 (1–2): 107–109. PMID 18412053. 
  55. ^ Henry Kamen (1997). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-300-07800-5. 
  56. ^ "El Escorial History - El Escorial". el-escorial.com. Retrieved 2017-07-19. 
  57. ^ https://www.delacuadra.net/escorial/textos/1997c-a-panteo.pdf
  58. ^ Tazón, Juan E. (2003). The Life and Times of Thomas Stukeley, 1525–1578. Google Libros. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  59. ^ Conde de Charolais, título que llevó el emperador hasta su muerte (Miscelánea de artículos publicados en la revista "Hidalguía"). Books.google.es. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  60. ^ Heymans, Frans (4 June 2007). "Keizer Karel in de literatuur". Overzichten (in Dutch). Literair Gent, an initiative by the Municipal Public Library of Ghent and 'Gent Cultuurstad'. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007. 
  61. ^ "Charles V". Global Beer Network, Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007. 
  62. ^ "Charles Quint Golden Blond". Haacht Brewery. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  63. ^ "Charles Quint Ruby Red". Haacht Brewery. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  64. ^ "Beers by Het Anker". Brewery Het Anker. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007. 

Bibliography

  • Atkins, Sinclair. "Charles V and the Turks," History Today (Dec 1980) 30#12 pp 13–18
  • Blockmans, W. P., and Nicolette Mout. The World of Emperor Charles V (2005)
  • Brandi, Karl. The emperor Charles V: The growth and destiny of a man and of a world-empire (1939)
  • Espinosa, Aurelio. "The Grand Strategy of Charles V (1500–1558): Castile, War, and Dynastic Priority in the Mediterranean," Journal of Early Modern History (2005) 9#3 pp 239–283.
  • Espinosa, Aurelio. "The Spanish Reformation: Institutional Reform, Taxation, and the Secularization of Ecclesiastical Properties under Charles V," Sixteenth Century Journal (2006) 37#1 pp 3–24. in JSTOR
  • Espinosa, Aurelio. The Empire of the Cities: Emperor Charles V, the Comunero Revolt, and the Transformation of the Spanish System (2008)
  • Ferer, Mary Tiffany. Music and Ceremony at the Court of Charles V: The Capilla Flamenca and the Art of Political Promotion. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2012. ISBN 9781843836995
  • Froude, James Anthony (1891). The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon. Kessinger Publishing, reprint 2005. ISBN 1417971096. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  • Holmes, David L. (1993). A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 1563380609. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  • Howell, Robert B. (2000), "The Low Countries: A Study in Sharply Contrasting Nationalisms", in Barbour, Stephen; Carmichael, Cathie, Language and nationalism in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 130–50, ISBN 0-19-823671-9 
  • Kleinschmidt, Harald. Charles V: The World Emperor excerpt and text search
  • Saint-Saëns, Alain, ed. Young Charles V. University Press of the South: New Orleans, 2000

Other languages

  • (in Italian) Salvatore Agati (2009). Carlo V e la Sicilia. Tra guerre, rivolte, fede e ragion di Stato, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2009, ISBN 978-88-7751-287-1
  • (in French) D'Amico, Juan Carlos. Charles Quint, Maître du Monde: Entre Mythe et Realite 2004, 290p.
  • (in German) Norbert Conrads: Die Abdankung Kaiser Karls V. Abschiedsvorlesung, Universität Stuttgart, 2003 (text)
  • (in German) Stephan Diller, Joachim Andraschke, Martin Brecht: Kaiser Karl V. und seine Zeit. Ausstellungskatalog. Universitäts-Verlag, Bamberg 2000, ISBN 3-933463-06-8
  • (in German) Alfred Kohler: Karl V. 1500–1558. Eine Biographie. C. H. Beck, München 2001, ISBN 3-406-45359-7
  • (in German) Alfred Kohler: Quellen zur Geschichte Karls V. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1990, ISBN 3-534-04820-2
  • (in German) Alfred Kohler, Barbara Haider. Christine Ortner (Hrsg): Karl V. 1500–1558. Neue Perspektiven seiner Herrschaft in Europa und Übersee. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2002, ISBN 3-7001-3054-6
  • (in German) Ernst Schulin: Kaiser Karl V. Geschichte eines übergroßen Wirkungsbereichs. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-17-015695-0
  • (in German) Ferdinant Seibt: Karl V. Goldmann, München 1999, ISBN 3-442-75511-5
  • (in German) Manuel Fernández Álvarez: Imperator mundi: Karl V. – Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation.. Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-7630-1178-1

External links

  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Charles V". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 
  • Genealogy history of Charles V and his ancestors
  • The Library of Charles V preserved in the National Library of France
  • Luminarium Encyclopedia biography of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Answers.com biographies of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  • New Advent biography of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
  • (in Italian) Charles V and the Tiburtine Sibyl
  • Charles V the Habsburg emperor, video
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 24 February 1500 Died: 21 September 1558
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip the Handsome
Duke of Brabant, Limburg,
Lothier and Luxembourg;
Count of Artois, Flanders, Hainaut,
Holland, Namur and Zeeland;
Count Palatine of Burgundy

1506–1555
Succeeded by
Philip the Prudent
Preceded by
Joanna of Castile
as sole ruler
King of Naples
1516–1554
with Joanna III (1516–1554)
King of Castile and León, Aragon,
Majorca, Valencia and Sicily;
Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne

1516–1556
with Joanna (1516–1555)
Preceded by
William the Rich
Duke of Guelders
Count of Zutphen

1543–1555
Preceded by
Maximilian I
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola
Count of Tyrol

1519–1521
Succeeded by
Ferdinand I
King of Germany
1519–1556
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Italy

1530–1556
Spanish royalty
Preceded by
Joanna
Prince of Asturias
1504–1516
Vacant
Title next held by
Philip (II)
Prince of Girona
1516
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