Char Dham

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Char Dham

Badrinath temple.jpgRameswaram Gopuram.jpgDwarkadheesh temple.jpgTemple-Jagannath.jpg

BadrinathRameswaram
DwarkaPuri

The Char Dham ("four abodes") are defined by the Pandavas in the Mahabharata as "Badrinath", "Kedarnath", "Gangotri" and "Yamunotri". They were four places which the Pandavas believed could cleanse people of their sins. In the modern day, Char Dham are the names of four pilgrimage sites in India that are widely revered by Hindus. It comprises Badrinath, Dwarka, Puri and Rameswaram. It is considered highly sacred by Hindus to visit Char Dham during one's lifetime. The Char Dham defined by Adi Shankaracharya consists of four Vaishnavite pilgrimages.[1]

The ancient pilgrimages sites in the Indian state of Uttarakhand viz. Yamunotri, Gangotri, Kedarnath, and Badrinath were known as Chota Char Dham to differentiate them from the bigger circuit of Char Dham sites.[2][3][4][5]

On 23 December 2016 the Indian prime minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Chardham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojana (Chardham highway project) to improve connectivity for these pilgrimage sites.[6]

Historical description

According to Hindu Dharma, Badrinath became prominent when Nar-Narayan, an avatar of Vishnu, did Tapasya there. At that time that place was filled with berry trees. In Sanskrit language berries are called "badri", so the place was named Badrika-Van, i.e. the forest of berries. The particular spot where the Nar-Narayan did Tapasya, a large berry tree formed covering Him to save Him from the rain and the sun. Local people believe that Mata Lakshmi became the berry tree to save Lord Narayan. Post Tapasya, Narayan said, people will always take Her Name before His Name, hence Hindus always refer "Lakshmi-Narayan ". It was therefore called Badri-Nath i.e. the Lord of Berry forest. This all happened in the Sathya/Sath-Yuga. So Badrinath came to be known as the first Dham.

The second place, Rameshwaram got its importance in the Tretha-Yuga when Lord Rama built a Shiva-Lingam here and worshiped it to get the blessings of Lord Shiva. The Name Rameshwaram means "Rama's Lord". Rama himself is an Avatar of Lord Vishnu.

The third Dhaam Dwarka got its importance in the Dwapara Yuga when Lord Krishna, The Supreme Lord, made Dwarka His residence instead of Mathura, His birthplace.[7]

The Four Shankaracharya Peeth (Seats) at the Chaar Dham school of Hinduism, created at least four Hindu monastic institutions. He organised the Hindu practitioners under four Maṭhas (Sanskrit: मठ) (institutions/monasteries), with the headquarters at Dvārakā in the West, Jagannatha Puri in the East, Sringeri Sharada Peetham in the South and Badrikashrama in the North.[8]

The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Adi Shankara, and their details.[9]

Shishya
(lineage)
Direction Maṭha Mahāvākya Veda Sampradaya
Padmapāda East Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) Rig Veda Bhogavala
Sureśvara South Sringeri Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda Bhūrivala
Hastāmalakācārya West Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ Tattvamasi (That thou art) Sama Veda Kitavala
Toṭakācārya North Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda Nandavala

The four associated places of the Char dhaams

In Hindu Puranas Hari (Vishnu) and Har (Shiv) are referred as eternal friends. It is said wherever there resides Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva also resides nearby. Chaar Dhaams are also not exception of this. So the Kedarnath is considered as the pair of Badrinath, Rangnath Swami is considered the pair of Rameshwaram. Somnath is considered as the pair of Dwarka. However one thing is also to be noted here that according to some traditions the Char Dham are Badrinath, Rangnath-Swami, Dwarka and Jagannath-Puri all the four of which are Vaishnav sites and their associated places are Kedarnath, Rameshwaram, Somnath and Lingaraja Temple, Bhubaneswar (or may be Gupteshwar) respectively.

Pilgrimage details

1. Puri

Puri located at the east, is located in the state of Odisha, India. Puri is one of the oldest cities in the eastern part of the country. It is situated on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. The main deity is Shri Krishna, celebrated as Lord Jagannatha. It is the only shrine in India, where goddess, Subhadra, sister of Lord Krishna is worshipped along with her brothers, Lord Jagannatha and Lord Balabhadra. The main temple here is about 1000 years old and constructed by Raja Choda Ganga Deva and Raja Tritiya Ananga Bhima Deva. Puri is the site of the Govardhana Matha, one of the four cardinal institutions or Mathas established by Adi Shankaracharya. Brahma, Vishnu & Maheswara three are together in all-time every place. In Kali yuga Sreemandir as jagannath temple in Puri. Jagannath-Vishnu, Balabhadra-Maheswara & Subhadra-Brahma. This is the plume for Oriya people to celebrate a special day in this Dham which is known as Ratha Yatra ("Chariot Festival").[10][11]

2. Rameswaram

Rameswaram located in the South is in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is situated in the Gulf of Mannar at the very tip of the Indian peninsula. According to legends, this is the place where Lord Ram along with his brother Laxman and devotee Hanuman built a bridge (Rama setu) to reach Sri lanka to rescue his wife Sita who had been abducted earlier by Ravan, the ruler of Sri Lanka. The Ramanatha Swamy Temple dedicated to Lord Shiva occupies a major area of Rameswaram. The temple is believed to have been consecrated by Shri Rama Chandra. Rameswaram is significant for the Hindus as a pilgrimage to Benaras is incomplete without a pilgrimage to Rameswaram. The presiding deity here is in the form of a Linga with the name Sri Ramanatha Swamy, it also is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas.

3. Dwarka

Dwarka located in the west is in the state of Gujarat,country India. The city derives its name from the word "dvar" meaning door or gate in the Sanskrit language. It is located confluence to where the Gomti River merges into the Arabian Sea. However, this river Gomti is not the same Gomti River which is tributary of Ganga River The city lies in the westernmost part of India. The legendary city of Dwaraka was the dwelling place of Lord Krishna. It is believed[who?] that due to damage and destruction by the sea, Dvaraka has submerged six times and modern day Dwarka is the 7th such city to be built in the area.[citation needed]

4. Badrinath

Badrinath is located in the state of Uttarakhand. It is in the Garhwal hills, on the banks of the Alaknanda River. The town lies between the Nar and Narayana mountain ranges and in the shadow of Nilkantha peak (6,560 m).

See also

References

  1. ^ Gwynne, Paul (2009), World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell Publication, ISBN 978-1-4051-6702-4 
  2. ^ Char Dham of Garhwal India, by Joe Windless, Sarina Singh, James Bainbridge, Lindsay Brown, Mark Elliott, Stuart Butler. Published by Lonely Planet, 2007. ISBN 1-74104-308-5. Page 468.
  3. ^ Chardham Yatra, by Savitri Dubey. Published by Alekh Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-88913-25-1
  4. ^ Welcome To Alekh Prakashan Archived 23 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Char Dham and Hemkund Sahib Yatra to restart from May 2014". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  6. ^ FE Online (December 27, 2016). "Chardham highway project: PM Modi lays foundation stone in Dehradun; here's why it's special". The Financial Express. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Chakravarti Mahadev-1994-The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages-Delhi-Motilal Banarsidass-Second Revised. ISBN 81-208-0053-2
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  9. ^ The Amnaya Peethams | Sringeri Sharada Peetham Archived 26 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Char Dham Yatra, by G. R. Venkatraman. Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1988.
  11. ^ Brockman, Norbert C. (2011), Encyclopedia of Sacred Places, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 978-1-59884-655-3 

External links

  • Media related to Char Dham Temples at Wikimedia Commons
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