Singapore Changi Airport

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Singapore Changi Airport
新加坡樟宜机场 / 新加坡樟宜機場
Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura
சிங்கப்பூர் சாங்கி விமான நிலையம்
Singapore Changi Airport logo.svg
Airport of Singapore, Crowne Plaza.JPG
Summary
Airport type Public / Military
Owner Government of Singapore[1]
Operator
Serves Singapore
Location Changi, Singapore
Opened 1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
Hub for
Focus city for
  • Qantas
  • Time zone SST (UTC+08:00)
    Elevation AMSL 6.66 m / 22 ft
    Coordinates 01°21′33.16″N 103°59′21.5″E / 1.3592111°N 103.989306°E / 1.3592111; 103.989306Coordinates: 01°21′33.16″N 103°59′21.5″E / 1.3592111°N 103.989306°E / 1.3592111; 103.989306
    Website www.changiairport.com
    Map
    SIN is located in Singapore
    SIN
    SIN
    Location in Singapore
    SIN is located in Southeast Asia
    SIN
    SIN
    SIN (Southeast Asia)
    Runways
    Direction Length Surface
    m ft
    02L/20R[N 1] 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
    02C/20C 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
    02R/20L[N 2] 2,750 9,022 Asphalt
    Statistics (2017)
    Passenger Movements Increase 62,219,573
    Air Freight Movements (tons) Increase 2,125,226
    Aircraft Movements Increase 373,201

    Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SIN, ICAO: WSSS), or simply Changi Airport, is the major civilian airport for Singapore, and one of the largest transportation hubs in Southeast Asia. It is currently rated the World's Best Airport by Skytrax,[5] for the sixth consecutive year since 2013[6] and is one of the world's busiest airports by international passenger and cargo traffic. The airport is located in Changi, at the eastern end of Singapore, approximately 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) northeast[7] from Marina Bay (Singapore's Downtown Core), on a 13-square-kilometre (5.0 sq mi) site. It is operated by Changi Airport Group and it is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Scoot, Jetstar Asia Airways and BOC Aviation.

    Overview of Changi Airport

    Map of the Singapore Airport with Expansions

    Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to 400 cities in around 100 countries and territories worldwide. Each week, about 7,200 flights land or depart from Changi, or, about one every 80 seconds.

    For the 2017 full year figures published by the airport, the airport handled 62,219,573 passengers (a 6.0% increase over the previous year), the most in its 36-year history.[4] This made it the sixth busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the second busiest in Asia. In December 2017, Changi Airport registered a total of 5.86 million passenger movements, the highest the airport has ever achieved in a month since it opened in 1981. Its daily traffic movement record was also broken on 22 December 2017, with 208,043 passengers passing through during that day. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is also one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 2.125 million tonnes of cargo in 2017. The total number of commercial aircraft movements increased by 3.1% from the previous year to 373,201 in 2017.[4] In April 2017, the airport handled more than a billion passengers for the first time.[8][9]

    The airport has won over 557 awards since its opening, including 26 "Best Airport" awards in 2017 alone.[10] Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its high standards in airport service quality.[11]

    Passenger Terminals

    Changi Airport has four main passenger terminals arranged in an elongated inverted 'U' shape. Currently, the airport has a designed total annual handling capacity of 85 million passengers.

    • Terminal 1, opened in 1981, is located at the northern end.
    • Terminal 2, opened in 1990, is located to the eastern end.
    • Terminal 3, opened in 2008, is located to the western end.
    • Terminal 4, opened on 31 October 2017, is located on the southern side, at the site of the former budget terminal.

    There is also a privately run luxury terminal called the JetQuay CIP Terminal. It is similar to the Lufthansa First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport, but is open to all passengers travelling in all classes on all airlines with an access fee.

    Former Terminal

    The short-lived Budget Terminal was opened on 26 March 2006 and closed on 25 September 2012 to make way for a larger Terminal 4, which opened in 2017.[12]

    Future Terminals and projects

    • Terminal 5 is set to be ready in the late 2020s. It is expected to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum.[13] The airport terminal structure is projected to be larger than all the previous terminals combined. It will be built on reclaimed land to the east of the present terminals. It will be funded through the newly increased levy. [14]
    • Jewel Changi Airport, set to open in early 2019, is a multi-use structure interconnecting Terminals 1, 2 and 3. Part of this project will help expand Terminal 1 to handle 24 million passengers per year.

    Operations

    Terminal 2 Check-in area
    Terminal 3 airside area
    Aerial view of Singapore Changi Airport. The forested area to the right of the airfield has since been cleared for Terminal 5.

    Passenger operations

    As the airport only handles international passenger traffic, all terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.

    After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic, which hit the 30-million mark for the first time in 2004. In March 2008, prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 on the global economy, the airport was predicted to handle 50 million passengers by 2012[15] due to the opening of casinos in Singapore and the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. As predicted, the airport surpassed the 50-million mark in 2012.[11]

    On 18 December 2017, the airport surpassed the 60-million mark for the first time.[16][17]

    By end-2018, Firefly, the sole turboprop operator in Changi Airport will move to Seletar Airport to make way for their jet operations. [18][19]

    Cargo operations

    The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group (CAG) manages the Changi Airfreight Centre[20] located in the north of the airport premises.[21] The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth busiest in Asia.[22] Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport. Changi airport has initiated attempts to expand into the perishable air cargo market. In 2015, Changi Airport handled 1,853,087 tonnes of air freight. Air Cargo World awarded the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award to Changi Airport for handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.[23]

    The airport handled 2,006,300 tonnes of cargo in 2016, making it the 13th top cargo airport in the world and the sixth in the Asia Pacific region.[24]

    In 2017, the airport handled 2,125,226 tonnes of cargo. The top five cargo markets for the airport were China, Australia, Hong Kong, United States and India.[25]

    Key markets and destinations

    In 2017, Indonesia was the largest market for the airport, followed by Malaysia, China, Thailand, Australia, India, Hong Kong, Philippines, Japan and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur was the top destination for travellers in the airport, followed by Jakarta, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Manila, Tokyo, Denpasar/Bali, Ho Chi Minh City, Taipei and Sydney.[26]

    Safety and security

    The Changi Airport Group (CAG) manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, and manages AVSEC-related projects.[21] The airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division.[27] The Airport Emergency Services handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters. It operates from two main fire stations (Station 1 by Runway 1 along West Perimeter Road and Station 2 by Runway 2 along Changi Coast Road), one sub-station (Domestic Fire Station), and one sea rescue base near the airport.[28]

    The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force (SPF). The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport are performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services. Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Changi Airport Terminal Services respectively.[29] On 29 April 2008, CAAS signed its then biggest single security contract for all airport related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Singapore Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre.[30] It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks such as screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.[31]

    Since the 11 September 2001 attacks and the naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been tightened. Singapore Armed Force and Singapore Police Force officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, has been deployed to patrol the terminals at random intervals.[32] Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also dispatched to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge", imposed since 2002.[33]

    In 2005, an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done before check-in within public view. The screening of carry-on luggage and travellers are mostly conducted at individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen security of the airfield, while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.

    Airlines and destinations

    Passenger

    Airlines Destinations
    Air China Beijing–Capital, Chengdu, Yinchuan
    Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
    Air India Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai
    Air India Express Chennai, Coimbatore, Kochi, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli
    Air Mauritius Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi (begins 31 October 2018)[34], Kuala Lumpur–International, Mauritius
    Air New Zealand Auckland
    Air Niugini Port Moresby
    AirAsia Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching, Langkawi, Miri, Penang
    All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
    Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
    Bangkok Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Koh Samui
    Batik Air Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
    Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka
    British Airways London–Heathrow, Sydney
    Cathay Pacific Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong
    Cebu Pacific Cebu, Clark, Davao, Iloilo, Manila
    China Airlines Kaohsiung, Surabaya, Taipei–Taoyuan
    China Eastern Airlines Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Kunming, Quanzhou, Shanghai–Pudong, Yantai
    China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Shenzhen[35]
    Delta Air Lines Tokyo–Narita
    Druk Air Kolkata, Paro
    Emirates Brisbane, Colombo, Dubai–International, Melbourne
    Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Kuala Lumpur–International
    Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
    EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan
    Fiji Airways Nadi
    Finnair Helsinki
    Firefly Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur–Subang, Kuantan
    Garuda Indonesia Amsterdam (ends 28 October 2018),[Note 1][36] Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Medan, Surabaya
    Hebei Airlines Hangzhou, Shijiazhuang
    IndiGo Bangalore, Chennai
    Indonesia AirAsia Bandung, Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Medan, Semarang, Yogyakarta
    Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
    Jet Airways Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai
    Jetstar Airways Denpasar/Bali, Melbourne, Perth
    Jetstar Asia Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Clark,[37] Da Nang, Darwin, Denpasar/Bali, Guiyang, Haikou, Hat Yai,[38] Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–International, Manila, Medan, Naha, Osaka–Kansai, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Sanya, Shantou, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Taipei–Taoyuan, Yangon
    Jetstar Pacific Airlines Ho Chi Minh City
    KLM Amsterdam, Denpasar/Bali
    Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
    Lion Air Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
    LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin [39][40]
    Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
    Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching, Miri
    Malindo Air Kuala Lumpur–International
    Charter: Kota Kinabalu[41]
    Myanmar Airways International Yangon
    Myanmar National Airlines Mandalay, Yangon
    Norwegian Air Shuttle
    operated by Norwegian Air UK
    London–Gatwick[42][43]
    Philippine Airlines Manila
    Philippines AirAsia Cebu
    Qantas Brisbane, London–Heathrow,[44] Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
    Qatar Airways Doha
    Regent Airways Dhaka
    Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
    Saudia Jeddah
    Scoot Amritsar, Athens, Bangalore, Bangkok–Don Mueang, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Berlin–Tegel,[45][46] Cebu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Clark, Dalian, Denpasar/Bali, Dhaka, Gold Coast, Guangzhou, Haikou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbin, Hat Yai, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Hyderabad, Ipoh, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Jeddah, Jinan, Kalibo, Kaohsiung, Kochi, Krabi, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuantan [47] Kuching, Langkawi, Lucknow, Macau, Malé, Manila, Melbourne, Nanchang, Nanjing, Nanning, Ningbo, Osaka–Kansai, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Penang, Perth, Phuket, Qingdao, Quanzhou, Sapporo–Chitose, Seoul–Incheon, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tiruchirapalli, Tokyo–Narita, Wuxi, Xi'an, Zhengzhou
    Shenzhen Airlines Shenzhen
    Sichuan Airlines Chengdu, Hangzhou,[48] Nanning[48]
    SilkAir Balikpapan, Bandung, Bangalore, Cairns, Cebu, Changsha, Chengdu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Coimbatore, Colombo, Da Nang, Darwin, Davao, Denpasar/Bali, Fuzhou, Guilin, Hanoi, Hiroshima, Hyderabad, Kathmandu, Kochi, Koh Samui, Kolkata, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kunming, Lombok, Luang Prabang, Makassar, Malé, Manado, Mandalay, Medan, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Semarang, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Vientiane, Visakhapatnam, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yangon, Yogyakarta
    Seasonal Charter: Naha[49][50]
    SilkAir
    operated for Air Timor
    Dili
    Singapore Airlines Adelaide, Ahmedabad, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Beijing–Capital, Brisbane, Canberra, Cape Town, Chennai, Christchurch, Colombo, Copenhagen, Delhi, Denpasar/Bali, Dhaka, Dubai–International, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Ho Chi Minh City, Istanbul–Atatürk, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Malé, Manchester, Manila, Melbourne, Milan–Malpensa, Moscow–Domodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, Nagoya–Centrair, Newark (resumes 11 October 2018),[51] New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Perth, Rome–Fiumicino, San Francisco, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Stockholm–Arlanda, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Wellington, Yangon, Zürich
    Seasonal: Sapporo–Chitose
    Spring Airlines Shanghai–Pudong
    SriLankan Airlines Colombo
    Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
    Thai AirAsia Bangkok–Don Mueang, Krabi, Phuket
    Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
    Thai Lion Air Bangkok–Don Mueang
    Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk
    United Airlines Los Angeles (ends 27 October 2018),[52] San Francisco
    US-Bangla Airlines Dhaka
    Uzbekistan Airways Kuala Lumpur–International, Tashkent
    VietJet Air Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
    Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
    West Air Chongqing, Urumqi
    XiamenAir Dalian, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Xi'an
    A Singapore Airlines Airbus A380 parked at Terminal 2
    1. ^ Garuda Indonesia flights from Jakarta to Amsterdam on Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday include a stop-over at Singapore. However, all flights from Amsterdam to Jakarta are nonstop.

    Cargo

    An Emirates Boeing 777-300ER parked at Terminal 1
    Airlines Destinations
    AirBridgeCargo Hong Kong, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Phnom Penh[53][54]
    Air Hong Kong Hong Kong[55]
    ANA Cargo Hong Kong, Naha[56]
    Asiana Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
    ASL Airlines Belgium Liège, Shanghai–Pudong
    Cardig Air Balikpapan, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta[57]
    Cargolux Anchorage, Baku, Chicago–O'Hare, Doha, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur–International, Luxembourg
    Cathay Pacific Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Penang
    China Airlines Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Manila, Penang, Taipei–Taoyuan
    China Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Chengdu, Shanghai–Pudong
    DHL Aviation Anchorage, Cincinnati, Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle,[58] Seoul–Incheon[59]
    Emirates SkyCargo Dubai–Al Maktoum,[60] Melbourne, Sydney
    Etihad Cargo[61][62] Abu Dhabi, Brisbane, Sydney
    EVA Air Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Hong Kong,[63] Penang, Taipei–Taoyuan[64]
    FedEx Express Anchorage, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Memphis, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
    Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong[65]
    Korean Air Cargo Hanoi, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
    K-Mile Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi[66]
    My Indo Airlines Balikpapan, Jakarta–Halim Perdanakusuma, Surabaya[67]
    Neptune Air Kuala Lumpur–International[68]
    Nippon Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Narita
    Singapore Airlines Cargo Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Brussels, Chennai, Coimbatore, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hanoi,[69] Hong Kong, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Johannesburg–OR Tambo, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Medan, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, Nanjing, Sharjah, Sydney
    Silk Way West Airlines Baku,[70] Dubai–Al Maktoum,[71] Kuala Lumpur–International[72]
    Transmile Air Services Kuala Lumpur–International, Labuan
    Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Balikpapan, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
    Turkish Airlines Cargo Istanbul–Atatürk, Karachi
    UPS Airlines Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan

    Operational statistics

    Singapore Changi Airport - Passenger Movements (1998–2015)
    Singapore Changi Airport - Airfreight Movements (1998–2015)
    Singapore Changi Airport - Aircraft Movements (1998–2015)
    Operational statistics
    Year Passenger
    movements
    Passenger %
    Change Over
    Previous Year
    Airfreight
    movements
    (tonnes)
    Airfreight %
    Change Over
    Previous Year
    Aircraft
    movements
    Aircraft %
    Change Over
    Previous Year
    1998 23,803,180 Steady 0.00% 1,283,660 Steady 0.00% 165,242 Steady 0.00%
    1999 26,064,645 Increase 9.50% 1,500,393 Increase 16.8% 165,961 Increase 0.43%
    2000 28,618,200 Increase 9.79% 1,682,489 Increase 12.1% 173,947 Increase 4.81%
    2001 28,093,759 Decrease 1.83% 1,507,062 Decrease 11.6% 179,359 Increase 3.11%
    2002 28,979,344 Increase 3.15% 1,637,797 Increase 8.67% 174,820 Decrease 2.53%
    2003 24,664,137 Decrease 14.9% 1,611,407 Decrease 1.63% 154,346 Decrease 11.7%
    2004 30,353,565 Increase 23.0% 1,775,092 Increase 10.1% 184,932 Increase 19.8%
    2005 32,430,856 Increase 6.81% 1,833,721 Increase 3.30% 204,138 Increase 10.3%
    2006 35,033,083 Increase 8.02% 1,931,881 Increase 5.35% 214,000 Increase 4.83%
    2007 36,701,556 Increase 4.76% 1,918,159 Decrease 0.69% 221,000 Increase 3.27%
    2008 37,694,824 Increase 2.70% 1,883,894 Decrease 1.81% 232,000 Increase 4.97%
    2009 37,203,978 Decrease 1.30% 1,633,791 Decrease 15.3% 240,360 Increase 3.60%
    2010 42,038,777 Increase 13.0% 1,813,809 Increase 11.0% 263,593 Increase 9.66%
    2011 46,543,845 Increase 10.7% 1,865,252 Increase 2.80% 301,711 Increase 14.5%
    2012 51,181,804 Increase 10.0% 1,806,225 Decrease 3.16% 324,722 Increase 7.63%
    2013 53,726,087 Increase 4.97% 1,850,233 Increase 2.43% 343,800 Increase 5.87%
    2014 54,093,070 Increase 0.75% 1,843,799 Decrease 0.34% 341,386 Decrease 0.70%
    2015 55,448,964 Increase 2.50% 1,853,087 Increase 0.50% 346,334 Increase 1.45%
    2016 58,698,039 Increase 5.85% 1,969,434 Increase 6.28% 360,490 Increase 4.09%
    2017 62,219,573 Increase 6.00% 2,125,226 Increase 7.91% 373,201 Increase 3.53%
    Sources:[73][74][75][76][77][78][79]
    Changi Airport Passenger Movements 1998–2017 (millions)
    Updated: 4 April 2018

    Accidents and incidents

    • On 26 March 1991, Singapore Airlines Flight 117, operated by an Airbus A310, was hijacked by four Pakistani terrorists. The flight landed in Changi Airport at 22:15. The Singapore Special Operations Force stormed the plane, on the morning of 27 March. All four hijackers were killed, with no fatalities among the 123 passengers and crew that were held hostage for more than eight hours.
    • On 4 November 2010, Qantas Flight 32, operated by an Airbus A380-800, suffered an uncontained engine failure and made an emergency landing in Changi Airport. Upon landing, one of the engines could not be shut down due to ruptured control cables and had to be doused for three hours by airport firefighters to forcefully shut it down. There were no crew or passenger injuries, and all 469 people on board survived this incident.
    • On 27 June 2016, Singapore Airlines Flight 368, operated by a Boeing 777-300ER, suffered an engine problem while flying from Singapore to Milan. During the diversionary landing in Singapore, the right engine and wing caught fire. The fire was quickly extinguished by airport fire services. There were no injuries among the 241 people on board.
    • On 16 May 2017, a fire broke out at the departure hall in Terminal 2.[80] The fire caused 40 flights at Terminal 2 to be delayed and diverted to Terminal 3.[81] Terminal 2 was closed from 17:30 to 22:45.
    • On 29 November 2017, a tow truck towing a Singapore Airlines Boeing 777-200 caught fire, covering the aircraft in black soot. There were no passengers on board when the incident happened and a member of the tow crew was evacuated through the emergency slide.[82]
    • On 8 January 2018, a door on a Scoot Boeing 787-8 was partially dislodged after the plane rolled back and impacted an aerobridge. The aircraft, about to undergo maintenance, reportedly had its wheel chocks removed while its brakes were disengaged. No injuries occurred during the incident.[83][84][85]
    • On 6 February 2018 at 1:30pm, a KAI T-50 Golden Eagle which is part of the Black Eagles aerobatic team taking part in Singapore Airshow 2018 veered off the runway during take off. It subsequently crashed and caught fire. The fire was put out by emergency services and the pilot was treated for minor injuries. Runway 1 was closed as a result and caused delays at the airport.[86]

    Ground transportation

    Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city-centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land, thus minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's East Coast.

    Despite the four main passenger terminal buildings being relatively close to each other, the CAAS (Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) decided to build the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers between the terminals for travellers. The system was upgraded in 2007 to with new technologies supplied by Mitsubishi, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.

    Inter-Terminal Transportation

    The Changi Airport Skytrain

    Terminals 1, 2 and 3 are connected by the free Skytrain service, which operates from 5.00 a.m. to 2.30 a.m. During non-operational hours, travellers in the transit areas may transfer within the terminals by foot via the inter-terminal travellators. For travellers in the public areas, a free shuttle bus service will connect the three terminals.[87]

    A complimentary 24-hour Airport Shuttle Bus service plies between Terminal 2 and Terminal 4 in both the public and transit areas. The journey takes approximately eight to 10 minutes.[88]

    External connections

    Mass Rapid Transit

    The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network via a two-stop branch of the East West Line from Tanah Merah MRT Station, consisting of two stations: Expo, serving the nearby Singapore Expo site; and Changi Airport. The station is located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002. This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Tanah Merah and Changi Airport via Expo on 22 July 2003,[89] when it was found that passenger demand for this route was low.

    Until the opening of Stage 3 of the Downtown Line on 21 October 2017, passengers needed to transfer at Tanah Merah station for train service towards the city, Pasir Ris and Tuas Link. However, as of this date, passengers can now transfer at Expo for direct service to Bukit Timah and Bukit Panjang using an alternate route via the city.

    Bus

    There are seven bus services operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Buses and Go-Ahead Group, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminal 1, and Terminal 2. Only four bus services will continue to Terminal 4 - Services 24, 34, 36 and 110. Bus stops are located at the basement bus bays of Terminals 1, 2 and 3. For Terminal 4, the bus stop is located next to Car Park 4B.

    Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. Operated by Transtar Travel, the service will start at coach stands at Terminals 1, 2, 3 and end at Larkin Terminal.

    There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a 9-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.[90]

    Taxi

    Taxis are available at taxi stands located in the arrival halls of each terminal. Limousine services are also available. There is an additional airport surcharge for all trips originating from the airport.

    Private Transport

    All pick-ups by private transportation will occur at the arrival pick-up points of each terminal.[91][92][93][94]

    See also

    References

    Notes

    1. ^ Runway 02L is 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and 20R is 3,260 m (10,700 ft) with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,430 ft). Thus aircraft landing on 20R will have to avoid touching down on the displaced threshold but may use it for departures.
    2. ^ Runway 02R/20L is currently closed for development works.[3] Previously, it was restricted to the Republic of Singapore Air Force (see Changi Air Base). It is being extended to 4,000 m (13,000 ft) for commercial use in the future.

    Citations

    1. ^ The Official Site of. Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
    2. ^ "FedEx opens flagship Asia hub". Singapore’s Changi Airport. Aircargonews.net. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
    3. ^ "LOCATION OF RUNWAY 02R/20L IN RELATION TO RUNWAY 02L/20R AND RUNWAY 02C/20C" (PDF). AIP Singapore. Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore. 15 September 2016. p. AD-2-WSSS-ADC-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2017. 
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    Bibliography

    • Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1938), "Singapore's great airport", Wonders of World Aviation, pp. 128–130 , illustrated description of the newly opened Singapore Airport

    External links

    Media related to Singapore Changi Airport at Wikimedia Commons

    • Singapore Changi Airport Official Site
    • Singapore Changi Airport JetQuay CIP Terminal Official Website
    • Virtual Reality View of Changi Airport Terminal 3
    • 360° Image of Changi Airport Terminal 3
    • Accident history for SIN at Aviation Safety Network
    • Current weather for WSSS at NOAA/NWS
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