Chandra Shekhar Azad

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Chandra Shekhar Azad
Born Chandrashekhar Tiwari
(1906-07-23)23 July 1906
Bhavra, Central India Agency, British India[1][2]
Died 27 February 1931(1931-02-27) (aged 24)
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India
Other names Azad
Occupation Revolutionary leader
freedom fighter
political activist
Organization Hindustan Republican Association (later Hindustan Socialist Republican Association)
Known for Indian Independence movement

Chandra Shekhar Azad (About this sound /t͡ʃʌnd̪ɾʌː ʃeːkʰʌr ɑːzɑːd/; first name also commonly spelt Chandrashekhar and Chandrasekhar;[3] 23 July 1906 – 27 February 1931), popularly known as Azad ("The Free"), was an Indian revolutionary who reorganised the Hindustan Republican Association under its new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) after the death of its founder, Ram Prasad Bismil, and three other prominent party leaders, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan.

Biography

Early life and career

Azad was born as Chandrashekhar Tiwari on 23 July 1906 in Bhavra village, in the present-day Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh. His forefathers were from Badarka village near Kanpur (in present-day Unnao District). His mother, Jagrani Devi Tiwari, was the third wife of Sitaram Tiwari, whose previous wives had died young. After the birth of their first son, Sukhdev Tiwari, in Badarka, the family moved to Alirajpur State.[4][5]

A monument to Chandra Shekhar Azad in his ancestral village of Badarka

His mother wanted her son to be a great Sanskrit scholar and persuaded his father to send him to Kashi Vidyapeeth, Banaras, to study. In December 1921, when Mohandas K. Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement, Chandra Shekhar, then a 15-year-old student, joined. As a result, he was arrested. On being produced before a magistrate, he gave his name as "Azad" (The Free), his father's name as "Swatantrata" (Independence) and his residence as "Jail". From that day he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad among the people.[6]

Revolutionary life

After suspension of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 by Gandhi, Azad became more aggressive. He met a young revolutionary, Pranvesh Chatterji, who introduced him to Ram Prasad Bismil who had formed the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), a revolutionary organisation. Bismil was impressed by Azad, when Azad reportedly put his hand over a lamp and did not remove it until his skin burnt. He then became an active member of the HRA and started to collect funds for HRA. Most of the fund collection was through robberies of government property. He also wanted to build a new India based on socialist principles. He was involved in the Kakori Train Robbery of 1925, in the attempt to blow up the Viceroy of India's train in 1926, and at last the shooting of J. P. Saunders at Lahore in 1928 to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai.[citation needed]

Despite being a member of Congress, Motilal Nehru regularly gave money in support of Azad.[7]

Activities in Jhansi

Azad made Jhansi his organisation's hub for some time. He used the forest of Orchha, situated 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Jhansi, as a site for shooting practice and, being an expert marksman, he trained other members of his group. He built a hut near to a Hanuman temple on the banks of the Satar River and lived there under the alias of Pandit Harishankar Brahmachari for a long period. He taught children from the nearby village of Dhimarpura (now renamed Azadpura by the Government of Madhya Pradesh) and thus managed to establish good rapport with the local residents.[citation needed]

While living in Jhansi, he also learned to drive a car at Bundelkhand Motor Garage in Sadar Bazar. Sadashivrao Malkapurkar, Vishwanath Vaishampayan and Bhagwan Das Mahaur came in close contact with him and became an integral part of his revolutionary group. The then congress leaders from Raghunath Vinayak Dhulekar and Sitaram Bhaskar Bhagwat were also close to Azad. He also stayed for sometime in the house of Rudra Narayan Singh at Nai Basti, as well as Bhagwat's house in Nagra.[citation needed]

With Bhagat Singh

The Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was formed by Bismil, Chatterji, Sachindra Nath Sanyal and Shachindra Nath Bakshi in 1924. In the aftermath of the Kakori train robbery in 1925, the British clamped down on revolutionary activities. Prasad, Ashfaqulla Khan, Thakur Roshan Singh and Rajendra Nath Lahiri were sentenced to death for their participation. Azad, Keshab Chakravarthy and Murari Sharma evaded capture. Chandra Shekhar Azad later reorganised the HRA with the help of revolutionaries like Sheo Verma and Mahaveer Singh.[citation needed]

Azad and Bhagat Singh secretly reorganised the HRA as the HSRA in September 1928.[8] so as to achieve their primary aim of an independent India based on socialist principle. The insight of his revolutionary activities are described by Manmath Nath Gupt a fellow member of HSRA in his numerous writings. Gupta has also written his biography titled "Chandrashekhar Azad" and in his book History of the Indian Revolutionary Movement (English version of above: 1972) he gave a deep insight about the activities of Azad and the ideology of Azad and HSRA.[citation needed]

Death

The tree in Alfred Park, Allahabad, where Azad died
Statue of Azad at Azad Park, Allahabad

Azad died at Alfred Park in Allahabad on 27 February 1931.[9] The police surrounded him in the park after an unknown informant told them he was there. He was wounded in the process of defending himself and Sukhdev Raj (not to be confused with Sukhdev Thapar) and killed three policemen and wounded some others. His actions made it possible for Sukhdev Raj to escape. After a long shootout, holding true to his pledge to never be captured alive, he shot himself dead with his last bullet. The Colt pistol of Chandra Shekhar Azad is displayed at the Allahabad Museum.[10]

The body was sent to Rasulabad Ghat for cremation without informing general public. As it came to light, people surrounded the park where the incident had taken place. They chanted slogans against the British rule and praised Azad.[10]

Legacy

Alfred Park in Allahabad, where Azad died, has been renamed Chandrashekhar Azad Park. Several schools, colleges, roads and other public institutions across India are also named after him.

Starting from Manoj Kumar's 1965 film Shaheed, many films have featured the character of Azad. Manmohan played Azad in the 1965 film, Sunny Deol portrayed Azad in the movie 23rd March 1931: Shaheed, Azad was portrayed by Akhilendra Mishra in The Legend of Bhagat Singh and Raj Zutshi potrayed Azad in Shaheed-E-Azam.

The lives of Azad, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Bismil and Ashfaq were depicted in the 2006 film Rang De Basanti, with Aamir Khan portraying Azad. The movie, which draws parallels between the lives of young revolutionaries such as Azad and Bhagat Singh, and today's youth, also dwells upon the lack of appreciation among today's Indian youth for the sacrifices made by these men.[11]

The 2018 television mini-series Chandrashekhar chronicles the life of Chandra Shekhar Azad from his childhood to legendary revolutionary leader. In the series young Chandrashekar Aazd was portrayed by Ayaan Zubair, Azad in his teens by Dev Joshi and Adult Azad by Karan Sharma.[12]

References

  1. ^ Chandra Shekhar Azad (1906-1931)
  2. ^ Bhawan Singh Rana (1 January 2005). Chandra Shekhar Azad (An Immortal Revolutionary Of India). Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-288-0816-6. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  3. ^ Chandrasekhar Azad at Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ The Calcutta review. University of Calcutta. Dept. of English. 1958. p. 44. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  5. ^ Catherine B. Asher, ed. (June 1994). India 2001: reference encyclopedia. South Asia Publications. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-945921-42-4. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  6. ^ Rana, Bhawan Singh (2005). Chandra Shekhar Azad (An Immortal Revolutionary of India). Diamond Pocket Books. pp. 22–24. ISBN 9788128808166. 
  7. ^ Mittal, S. K.; Habib, Irfan (June 1982). "The Congress and the Revolutionaries in the 1920s". Social Scientist. 10 (6): 20–37. JSTOR 3517065.  (subscription required)
  8. ^ Habib, Irfan (September 1997). "Civil Disobedience 1930-31". Social Scientist. 25 (9/10): 43–66. doi:10.2307/3517680. JSTOR 3517680. (Subscription required (help)). 
  9. ^ Bhattacherje, S. B. (1 May 2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. B–19. ISBN 9788120740747. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Khatri, Ram Krishna (1983). Shaheedon Ki Chhaya Mein. Nagpur: Vishwabharati Prakashan. pp. 138–139. 
  11. ^ Is The Indian Script Unique. YouTube. Film Writers Association. 13 April 2012. Event occurs at 23:34. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  12. ^ "This peace is the result of the sacrifice of freedom fighters like Azad: Ayaan Zubair". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 

Further reading

  • Brahmdutt, Chandramani. Krant Ki Laptain. ISBN 81-88167-30-4 (in Hindi)
  • Krishnamurthy, Babu. Ajeya ("Unconquered"). Biography of Azad (in Kannada)
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