Ceanothus

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Ceanothus
Ceanothus americanus.jpg
Ceanothus americanus flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ceanothus
Species

See text

Ceanothus L. /ˌsəˈnθəs/[2] is a genus of about 50–60 species of nitrogen-fixing[3] shrubs or small trees in the family Rhamnaceae.[4] Common names for members of this genus are California lilac, wild lilac, and soap bush.[5] "Ceonothus" comes from a Greek word meaning "spiny plant",[5] Ancient Greek: κεάνωθος (keanōthos), which was applied by Theophrastus (371–287 BC) to an Old World plant believed to be Cirsium arvense.[6][7]

The genus is endemic to North America, with the center of its distribution in California. Some species (e.g., C. americanus) are found in the eastern United States and southeast Canada, and others (e.g. C. coeruleus) extend as far south as Guatemala. Most are shrubs 0.5–3 metres (1.6–9.8 ft) tall, but C. arboreus and C. thyrsiflorus, both native to California, can be small multi-trunked trees up to 6–7 metres (20–23 ft) tall.

Taxonomy and etymology

There are two subgenera within this genus: Ceanothus and Cerastes. The former clade is less drought-resistant, having bigger leaves. The evolution of these two clades likely started with a divergence in the niches filled in local communities, rather than a divergence on the basis of geography.[8]

The Californian species of Ceanothus are commonly known collectively as California lilacs, with individual species having more descriptive common names. Species native elsewhere have other common names, such as 'New Jersey tea' for C. americanus, since its leaves were used as a black tea substitute during the American Revolution.[4][9] In garden use, most are simply called by their scientific names or an adaptation of the scientific name, such as 'Maritime ceanothus' for C. maritimus.

Description

Ceanothus arboreus, illustrating the three parallel leaf veins characteristic of this genus.

Growth pattern

The majority[citation needed] of the species are evergreen, but the handful of species adapted to cold winters are deciduous. The leaves are opposite or alternate (depending on species), small (typically 1–5 cm long), simple, and mostly with serrated margins.

Leaves and stems

Ceanothus leaves may be arranged opposite to each other on the stem, or alternate. Alternate leaves may have either one or three main veins rising from the base of the leaf.[10]

The leaves have a shiny upper surface that feels "gummy" when pinched between the thumb and forefinger, and the roots of most species have red inner root bark.[11]

Flowers and fruit

The flowers are white, greenish–white, blue, dark purple-blue, pale purple or pink, maturing into a dry, three-lobed seed capsule.

The flowers are tiny and produced in large, dense clusters. A few species are reported to be intensely fragrant almost to the point of being nauseating, and are said to resemble the odor of "boiling honey in an enclosed area". The seeds of this plant can lie dormant for hundreds of years,[citation needed] and Ceanothus species are typically dependent on forest fires to trigger germination of their seeds.[11]

Fruits are hard, nutlike capsules.[5]

Distribution

Ceanothus americanus (fruit left, flowers right)

Plants in this genus are widely distributed and can be found on dry, sunny hillsides from coastal scrub lands to open forest clearings, from near sea level to 9,000 feet (2,700 m) in elevation. These plants are profusely distributed throughout the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia south through Colorado, the Cascades of Oregon and California, and the Coastal Ranges of California.

Ceanothus velutinus is the most common member of this genus and is widespread through much of western North America.[11] The plants in this genus often co-occur with one another, especially when they are more distantly related.[8]

Uses

Wildlife

Ceanothus is a good source of nutrition for deer, specifically mule deer on the West Coast of the United States. However, the leaves are not as nutritious from late spring to early fall as they are in early spring. Porcupines and quail have also been seen eating stems and seeds of these shrubs. The leaves are a good source of protein and the stems and leaves have been found to contain a high amount of calcium.

Other uses

Native Americans used the dried leaves of this plant as an herbal tea, and early pioneers used the plant as a substitute for black tea. Miwok Indians of California made baskets from Ceanothus branches. C. integerrimus has been used by North American tribes to ease childbirth.[12]

Cultivation

Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus (Buck brush, Wedgeleaf ceanothus) in Pinnacles National Park.

Many Ceanothus species are popular ornamental plants for gardens. Dozens of hybrids and cultivars have been selected, such as flexible ceanothus, Ceanothus × flexilis (C. cuneatus × C. prostratus).[citation needed]

Cultivars and hybrids

The following cultivars and hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (confirmed 2017):[13]

Other cultivars available include:-

  • 'Anchor Bay' [27]
  • 'Diamond Heights' (variegated leaves)[28]

There are also more cultivars and hybrids of Ceanothus arboreus, Ceanothus griseus horizontalis (groundcovers), and Ceanothus thyrsiflorus in the nursery trade.

Propagation

Propagation of ceanothus is by seed, following scarification and stratification. Seeds are soaked in water for 12 hours followed by chilling at 1 °C for one to three months. It can also sprout from roots and/or stems. Seeds are stored in plant litter in large quantities. It is estimated that there are about two million seeds per acre in forest habitats. Seeds are dispersed propulsively from capsules and, it has been estimated, can remain viable for hundreds of years. In habitat, the seeds of plants in this genus germinate only in response to range fires and forest fires.[citation needed]

Selected species

[33]

Formerly placed here

See also

References

  1. ^ "Genus: Ceanothus L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-02-10. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ http://web.uconn.edu/mcbstaff/benson/Frankia/Rhamnaceae.htm
  4. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ceanothus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ a b c Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed., 2000, pp. 166–167
  6. ^ Elmore, Francis H. (1976). Trees and Shrubs of the Southwest Uplands. Western National Parks Association. p. 195. ISBN 0-911408-41-X.
  7. ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-8493-2332-4.
  8. ^ a b Ackerly, D. D.; Schwilk, D. W.; Webb, C. O. (2006). "Niche evolution and adaptive radiation: Testing the order of trait divergence". Ecology. 87 (sp7): S50–S61. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[50:NEAART]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0012-9658.
  9. ^ Coladonato, Milo (1993). "Ceanothus americanus". Fire Effects Information System (online). Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer): U.S.D.A; Forest Service. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
  10. ^ Native Shrubs of the Sierra Nevada, John Hunter Thomas, Dennis R. Parnell, University of California Press, 1974, p. 70–77, [1]
  11. ^ a b c Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West, Gregory L. Tilford, ISBN 0-87842-359-1
  12. ^ Moerman, D. (1988). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Oregon.
  13. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  14. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Ceanothus 'Autumnal Blue'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus 'Blue Mound'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus 'Burkwoodii'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus 'Cascade'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  18. ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus 'Concha'
  19. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus 'Concha'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  20. ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus 'Dark Star'
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus 'Dark Star'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  22. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus × delileanus 'Gloire de Versailles'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  23. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Ceanothus 'Perle Rose'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  24. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus 'Puget Blue'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  25. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Ceanothus 'Skylark'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  26. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Ceanothus × delileanus 'Topaze'". Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  27. ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus 'Anchor Bay'
  28. ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus griseus horizontalis 'Diamond Heights'
  29. ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus 'Ray Hartman'
  30. ^ San Marcos Growers Horticulture Database: Ceanothus thyrsiflorus 'Snow Flurry'
  31. ^ University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point Plant Database: Ceanothus americanus Archived 2007-01-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ "Ceanothus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  33. ^ a b "GRIN Species Records of Ceanothus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-04-25.

External links

  • USDA Plants Profile for Ceanothus (ceanothus)
  • Calflora Database: Index of Ceanothus species native to Californiawith images + info links.
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