Caturix

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Caturix was the war god of the Helvetii.

Caturix became known as Mars Caturix in Gallo-Roman religion by interpretation as Mars. The Gaulish name catu-rix means "battle-lord". There was a temple dedicated to Mars Caturix in Aventicum, the capital of Roman Helvetia, another one in Nonfoux, Essertines-sur-Yverdon. Five dedicatory inscriptions to Caturix were found in the area settled by the Helvetii, all of them close to Avenches (Aventicum) and Yverdon (Eburodunum). A sixth inscription has been found in isolation in Böckingen, Heilbronn, Germany.

The Gallic tribe of the Caturiges, settling in the area of modern Chorges (from Latin: Caturigumagus) was apparently named after the god. The capital of the Caturiges was called Eburodunum (modern Embrun), i.e. the same name as that of Yverdon, suggesting a close relationship between the Caturiges and the Helvetii.

Other names (epitheta) of Caturix may have been Cicollus and Caisivus. Caturix has itself been interpreted as originating as an epithet of Toutatis.

  • Riaz : HM 181 CIL XIII, 5035: …]ATVRIG[…
  • Nonfoux : HM 164 CIL XIII, 5046: MARTI CATVRIGI … TEMPLVM A NOVO IN[ST]ITVIT
  • Pomy: HM 165: CIL XIII, 5054: MARTI CATVR SACR …
  • Yverdon: HM 172 CIL XIII, 11473: MARTI CATVRICI ET APOLLINI …
  • Avenches: HM 222: MARTI CATVR ….
  • Avenches: HM221 CIL XIII, 11475: MART CAISIV …
  • Böckingen: CIL XIII, 6474: IOM ET MARTI CATVRIGI GENIO LOCI …

References

  • Gerold Walser: Römische Inschriftkunst, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1993, S. 70, ISBN 9783515060653
  • Bernhard Maier: Lexikon der keltischen Religion und Kultur; Kröner, Stuttgart (1994). ISBN 3-520-46601-5
  • Ernst Howald, Ernst Meier: Die römische Schweiz; Zürich (1940).
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