Cartographic censorship

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The term Cartographic censorship relates to the deliberate modification of publicly available maps in order to disguise, remove or obfuscate potentially strategic locations or buildings, such as military bases, power plants or transmitters. The removal of such sensitive objects and places from maps is usually done in the apparent interests of national or international security, defence and the prevention of terrorism.

History

A variant of censorship of maps is putting in false altitudes. This can be important for predicting flooding. In World War I many German soldiers were killed in Belgium after their camps were flooded, even though the maps used by German military indicated the camp sites were not prone to flooding.

Censorship of maps was also used in former East Germany, especially for the areas near the border to West Germany in order to make attempts of defection more difficult.

In the United Kingdom, during the Cold War period and shortly after, a number of military installations (including 'prohibited places') did not appear on commercially issued Ordnance Survey mapping. This practice was effectively curtailed with the mass availability of satellite imagery. Another aspect of map censorship in the UK is that the internal layout of HM Prison facilities were not shown on public OS mapping.

Censorship of maps is today still often applied, although it is less effective in the age of satellite picture services. A "dead map" is a term often applied to sensitive government maps that show the location of top secret facilities and other highly sensitive installations within a country. Russia, the United States and Great Britain all have such maps.

Google Earth censors places that may be of special security concern. The following is a selection of such concerns:

Censorship of maps is also applied by Google maps, where certain areas are greyed out or areas are purposely left outdated with old imagery.[7]

In Lebanon, all maps concerning the country are property of the Lebanese Army and are issued by the Directory of Geographic affairs of the Lebanese military. It is considered a felony to reproduce whole or portions of maps without the permission of the military, although maps can be issued to certain universities and urban design schools for use by students and can be issued to civilian upon presenting certain documents. A notice is written on the maps prohibiting reproduction, copying or sale of the map and that it should be returned to the Ministry of National Defense upon request. This policy is meant to prohibit terrorists, outlaws, and entities that are at war with Lebanon from obtaining those maps.[citation needed]

Similar cases

Lists of air traffic obstacles may not be published by many countries as many of them are strategically important (chimneys of power stations, radio masts, etc.)

Example

  • Hiding a VLF-transmitter of Russian Navy on a map. Compare [2] with satellite image [3]

See also

References

  1. ^ India: Stop Looking At Me, Google!
  2. ^ Google Earth Poses Security Threat to India, ISRO Chief seeks Dialogue
  3. ^ Lucas Heights nervous about Google gander
  4. ^ Israel's top secret sites on Google Earth Archived January 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Nikolas Schiller (Jan 21, 2009). "Google FINALLY updates the imagery of Washington, DC and now you can kinda see the message on my rooftop". Blog. The Daily Render. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
  7. ^ a b Jenna Johnson (2007-07-22). "Google's View of D.C. Melds New and Sharp, Old and Fuzzy". News. Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-07-22.

Sources

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