Cardinals created by Francis

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Pope Francis (r. 2013–present) has created cardinals at annual consistories in February or June beginning in 2014. In his four consistories, he has created a total of 61 cardinals from 43 countries, 15 of which had never before had a cardinal. He has only allowed the number of cardinal electors to exceed the maximum of 120 for brief periods.[a]

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI attended the first two of these consistories. Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited him after the others.

22 February 2014

On 31 October 2013, Pope Francis announced plans to name new cardinals in a consistory on 22 February 2014.[1] In December 2013, he said that rumors that he might name a woman cardinal were not to be taken seriously.[2] He announced the names of 19 new cardinals on 12 January 2014.[3] Sixteen were under the age of 80, eligible to vote in papal conclaves.[4] Observers attempting to interpret Francis' approach to naming cardinals noted the absence of certain names, including the heads of the dioceses of Venice and Turin and the Vatican Librarian and Archivist.[5] Others noted a preference for clerics with pastoral experience and only a single theologian, Müller.[6] John L. Allen said the choices made the February meeting the "Consistory of the Periphery", noting the "broad global distribution" of the new cardinals.[7] Of the nomination of the archbishop of Perugia rather than those of more prestigious dioceses like Turin and Venice, La Stampa said: "Any career planners in the Church who had the path from the seminary to the cardinalship set out very clearly in their minds will have to think again."[8]

Pope Francis sent a letter to each cardinal-designate that said:[9]

The cardinalship does not imply promotion; it is neither an honour nor a decoration; it is simply a service that requires you to broaden your gaze and open your hearts.... Therefore I ask you, please, to receive this designation with a simple and humble heart. And, while you must do so with pleasure and joy, ensure that this sentiment is far from any expression of worldliness or from any form of celebration contrary to the evangelical spirit of austerity, sobriety and poverty.

Those made cardinal at the consistory were:[10]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Pietro Parolin Secretary of State
2. Lorenzo Baldisseri Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
3. Gerhard Ludwig Müller Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
4. Beniamino Stella Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy
5. Vincent Gerard Nichols Archbishop of Westminster, England, United Kingdom
6. Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano Archbishop of Managua, Nicaragua
7. Gérald Cyprien Lacroix, ISPX Archbishop of Quebec, Canada
8. Jean-Pierre Kutwa Archbishop of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
9. Orani João Tempesta, OCist Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
10. Gualtiero Bassetti Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve, Italy
11. Mario Aurelio Poli Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina
12. Andrew Yeom Soo-jung Archbishop of Seoul, South Korea
13. Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, SDB Archbishop of Santiago de Chile, Chile
14. Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo Archbishop of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
15. Orlando Beltrán Quevedo, OMI Archbishop of Cotabato, Philippines
16. Chibly Langlois Bishop of Les Cayes, Haiti
17. Loris Francesco Capovilla Prelate emeritus of Loreto, Italy
18. Fernando Sebastián Aguilar, CMF Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela, Spain
19. Kelvin Edward Felix Archbishop emeritus of Castries, St. Lucia

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI attended the consistory. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter's Basilica to greet him,[10][11] and took a seat in a row with several cardinals using a chair the same as theirs.[12] Loris Francesco Capovilla was granted a dispensation and did not attend the consistory.[13]

Prior to this consistory, there were 106 cardinals under the age of 80 and eligible to participate in the election of a pope, and the addition of 16 new cardinals under age 80 brought the total to 122, although another 10 were due to turn 80 in the remainder of 2014. Because the maximum number of cardinals allowed to participate in a papal conclave is set at 120, the number of cardinals below 80 is usually limited to 120, although that limit has occasionally been exceeded.[14]

14 February 2015

On 11 December 2014, the Vatican announced that new cardinals would be created at a consistory on 14 February 2015.[15] On 4 January 2015, Pope Francis announced the names of 20 cardinals-designate, including 15 who were under the age of 80.[16] Vatican spokesman, Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the list "confirms that the pope doesn't feel tied to the traditional 'cardinal sees'", like Turin and Venice, "which reflected historic reasons in various countries. Instead we have various nominations of archbishops or bishops of sees in the past that wouldn't have had a cardinal."[17] The selections continued the pattern Pope Francis established the previous year, showing a "preference for diocesan bishops" and for the southern hemisphere.[18] Of those under the age of 80, only one is a member of the Curia (Mamberti); three are bishops rather than archbishops; four are the first cardinals from their countries (Cabo Verde, Myanmar, Panama, Tonga) and others from a diocese that has not had one for decades (Agrigento, Italy, not since 1786; Ancona, Italy, not in more than a century; Montevideo, Uruguay, not since 1979; Valladolid, Spain, not since 1919) or never had one (Morelia, Mexico).[18][19] Nine have been elected by their peers as president of a national or regional episcopal conference.[20]

On 23 January 2015, Pope Francis advised each nominee how to respond to his appointment: "Accept it with humility. Only do so in a way that in these celebrations there does not creep in a spirit of worldliness that intoxicates more than grappa on an empty stomach, disorienting and separating one from the cross of Christ."[21]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Dominique Mamberti Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
2. Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal
3. Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, CM Archbishop of Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
4. John Atcherley Dew Archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand
5. Edoardo Menichelli Archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, Italy
6. Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn Archbishop of Hanoi, Vietnam
7. Alberto Suárez Inda Archbishop of Morelia, Mexico
8. Charles Maung Bo, SDB Archbishop of Yangon, Myanmar
9. Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovitvanit Archbishop of Bangkok, Thailand
10. Francesco Montenegro Archbishop of Agrigento, Italy
11. Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, SDB Archbishop of Montevideo, Uruguay
12. Ricardo Blázquez Pérez Archbishop of Valladolid, Spain
13. José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán, OAR Bishop of David, Panama
14. Arlindo Gomes Furtado Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde, Cape Verde
15. Soane Patita Paini Mafi Bishop of Tonga, Tonga
16. José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez Archbishop emeritus of Manizales, Colombia
17. Luigi De Magistris Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus, Italy
18. Karl-Josef Rauber Apostolic Nuncio (retired), Germany
19. Luis Héctor Villalba Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán, Argentina
20. Júlio Duarte Langa Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai, Mozambique

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI again attended the consistory and was greeted by Pope Francis before and after the ceremony. The only new cardinal unable to attend was Archbishop José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, whose health prevented him from traveling to Rome.[22]

19 November 2016

On 9 October 2016, the pope announced that he planned to create new cardinals at a consistory on 19 November 2016,[23] including 13 cardinals under the age of 80 and four over the age of 80. His selections continued to demonstrate his preference for the peripheries and places not previously represented in the College of Cardinals. Several are the first named cardinals from their countries. Of those who are under the age of 80, only Farrell is a member of the Roman Curia. In choosing Simoni, Francis named his first priest to the rank of cardinal.[24]

Asked a year later at a meeting with Jesuits in Bangladesh why he named a cardinal from "a nation where there is such a small Christian community", Francis said:[25]

Naming the cardinals, I tried to look at small Churches, those that grow in the peripheries, at the edges. Not to give consolation to those Churches, but to launch a clear message: the small Churches that grow in the periphery and are without ancient Catholic traditions today must speak to the universal Church, to the whole Church. I clearly feel that they have something to teach us.

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Mario Zenari Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
2. Dieudonné Nzapalainga, C.S.Sp. Archbishop of Bangui, Central African Republic
3. Carlos Osoro Sierra Archbishop of Madrid, Spain
4. Sérgio da Rocha Archbishop of Brasília, Brazil
5. Blase Joseph Cupich Archbishop of Chicago, United States of America
6. Patrick D'Rozario, C.S.C. Archbishop of Dhaka, Bangladesh
7. Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo Archbishop of Mérida, Venezuela
8. Jozef De Kesel Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, Belgium
9. Maurice Piat, C.S.Sp. Bishop of Port-Louis, Mauritius
10. Kevin Joseph Farrell Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
11. Carlos Aguiar Retes Archbishop of Tlalnepantla, Mexico
12. John Ribat, M.S.C. Archbishop of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
13. Joseph William Tobin, C.Ss.R. Archbishop of Indianapolis,[b] United States of America
14. Anthony Soter Fernandez Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
15. Renato Corti Bishop emeritus of Novara, Italy
16. Sebastian Koto Khoarai, O.M.I. Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho
17. Ernest Simoni Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodrë-Pult, Albania

All the new cardinals attended the consistory on 19 November except Lesotho Bishop Khoarai, who was 87 and unable to travel. For the first time since his retirement Pope emeritus Benedict XVI did not attend.[28][29] The new cardinals were given the rank of Cardinal Priest except for Zenari, Farrell, and Simoni, who were made Cardinal Deacons.[30] Cardinal Nzapalainga became the youngest member of the College of Cardinals and the first born after the Second Vatican Council.[31] Following the consistory ceremony, Pope Francis and the 16 new cardinals present visited the Pope emeritus as a group at his residence in Mater Ecclesiae Monastery and received his blessing.[32]

28 June 2017

On 21 May 2017, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on 28 June. He adhered to his established pattern of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, including the first cardinals from El Salvador, Laos, Mali, and Sweden, the latter of whom will also be the first cardinal from Scandinavia. All five are under the age of 80.[33][34] According to the National Catholic Reporter, Rosa Chávez is "believed to be the first auxiliary bishop to have been made a cardinal in at least the modern era."[35] It has also been claimed that Rosa Chávez is the first parish pastor to be named cardinal in decades.[36][better source needed]

Following the consistory on 28 June, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict XVI, who did not attend the ceremony.[37][38]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Jean Zerbo Archbishop of Bamako, Mali
2. Juan José Omella i Omella Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain
3. Anders Arborelius, O.C.D. Bishop of Stockholm, Sweden
4. Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun Apostolic Vicar of Paksé, Laos
5. Gregorio Rosa Chávez Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador, El Salvador

See also


  1. ^ The February 2014 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 122, but the 80th birthdays of Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn and Karl-Josef Rauber reduced the number to 120 in less than two months. The June 2017 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 121, and it would have declined to 120 when Cardinal Antonio Maria Vegliò turned 80 in February 2018 had not Cardinal Carlo Caffarra died in September 2017.
  2. ^ Tobin was appointed Archbishop of Newark on 7 November 2016, but was not installed there until 6 January 2017. He was nevertheless identified as Archbishop of Newark in the consistory service booklet[26] and on the day following the consistory by L'Osservatore Romano.[27]


  1. ^ "New Cardinals to be created in February 2014". Vatican Radio. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  2. ^ Allen Jr., John L. (15 December 2013). "Francis shoots down women cardinals". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Pope Francis announces names of new Cardinals". Vatican Radio. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  4. ^ D'Emilio, Frances (12 January 2014). "Pope Names 19 New Cardinals, Focusing on the Poor". ABC News. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  5. ^ Reese, Thomas (13 January 2014). "Cardinals: continuity and change". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  6. ^ Winters, Michael Sean (13 January 2014). "The New Cardinals". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Allen, John L. (13 January 2014). "Four new echoes in 'Francis revolution'". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  8. ^ "The importance of Gualtiero Bassetti's nomination". Vatican Insider. La Stampa. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  9. ^ "Francis reminds new cardinals their nomination is not about promotion it is about service". Vatican Insider. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Galeazzi, Giacomo (22 February 2014). "19 new cardinals created in Consistory in the presence of two Popes". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  11. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (22 February 2014). "Under Benedict's eye, Francis tells cardinals to be peacemakers". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (24 February 2014). "The "hidden" Pope's first step towards normality". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  13. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (19 February 2014). "Loris Capovilla will not receive the biretta in Rome". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  14. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (20 October 2013). "Francis' first consistory". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  15. ^ "Consistory for the creation of new cardinals in February 2015". Vatican News. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  17. ^ D'Emilio, Frances (4 January 2015). "Pope Francis Names 15 New Cardinals From 14 Countries". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  18. ^ a b Tornielli, Andrea (4 January 2015). "Pope announces names of new cardinals: Only one Curia member, many pastors from the peripheries". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  19. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (4 January 2015). "Francis diversifies cardinals, choosing prelates from Asia, island nations". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Mickens, Robert (5 January 2015). "Francis chooses new cardinals from the margins". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  21. ^ Wooden, Cindy (23 January 2015). "Pope Francis urges new cardinals not to let nomination go to their heads". National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  22. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (14 February 2015). "'The cardinalate is certainly an honour, but it is not honorific. Be examples of charity'". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali". Holy See. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  24. ^ "Pope to create 13 new cardinals, including 3 Americans". Crux. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  25. ^ "At the Crossroads of History: Pope Francis' Conversations with the Jesuits in Myanmar and Bangladesh". La Civiltà Cattolica. 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  26. ^ "Concistoro Ordinario Pubblico" (PDF) (in Italian). 19 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  27. ^ "Diciasette Nuovi Cardinali" [Seventeen New Cardinals] (PDF). L'Osservatore Romano (in Italian). 20 November 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  28. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (19 November 2016). "Creating new cardinals, Francis warns against 'virus of polarization' in the church". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  29. ^ Wooden, Cindy (19 November 2016). "Pope calls new cardinals to be agents of unity in divided world". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  30. ^ "Titular churches and diaconates of the new cardinals, 19.11.2016" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  31. ^ "Now a cardinal, this African prelate was already a 'saint'". CRUX. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  32. ^ Agasso Jr., Domenico (19 November 2016). "Pope and new cardinals pay Ratzinger a visit after the Consistory". Vatican Insider. Retrieved 19 November 2016. 
  33. ^ "Annuncio di Concistoro il 28 giugno per la creazione di nuovi Cardinali" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  34. ^ "Pope Francis Calls Consistory to Create 5 New Cardinals". National Catholic Register. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  35. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (28 June 2017). "Francis tells new cardinals to look at reality facing today's Catholics". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  36. ^ Palmo, Rocco (21 May 2017). "Another Scarlet Jolt – With Firsts All Around, Pope Adds 5 More Red Hats". Whispers in the Loggia. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  37. ^ Brockhaus, Hannah (28 June 2017). "Pope Francis to Five New Cardinals: Jesus 'Calls You to Serve Like Him and With Him'". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  38. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (28 June 2017). "Il Papa: "Gesù non vi chiama a essere prìncipi, ma a servire"". La Stampa (in Italian). Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
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