Cao Zhen

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Cao Zhen
曹真
Cao Zhen Qing illustration.jpg
A Qing dynasty illustration of Cao Zhen
Grand Marshal (大司馬)
In office
16 March 230 (16 March 230) – April or May 231 (April or May 231)
Monarch Cao Rui
General-in-Chief (大將軍)
In office
January or February 227 (January or February 227) – 16 March 230 (16 March 230)
Monarch Cao Rui
Succeeded by Sima Yi
Senior General of the Central Army
(中軍大將軍)
In office
222 (222) – January or February 227 (January or February 227)
Monarch Cao Pi
Senior General of the Upper Army
(上軍大將軍)
In office
222 (222) – 222 (222)
Monarch Cao Pi
General Who Guards the West
(鎮西將軍)
In office
220 (220) – 222 (222)
Monarch Cao Pi
Army Protector Who Attacks Shu
(征蜀護軍)
In office
219 (219) – 220 (220)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Chancellor Cao Cao
Commandant of the Central Army (中領軍)
In office
218 (218) – 219 (219)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Chancellor Cao Cao
Central Resolute General (中堅將軍)
In office
217 (217) – 218 (218)
Monarch Emperor Xian of Han
Chancellor Cao Cao
Personal details
Born Unknown
Died April or May 231[a][2]
Luoyang, Henan
Children
Father Cao Shao / Qin Bonan[b]
Relatives
Occupation General
Courtesy name Zidan (子丹)
Posthumous name Marquis Yuan (元侯)
Peerage Marquis of Shaoling
(邵陵侯)

Cao Zhen (died April or May 231),[a] courtesy name Zidan, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was an adopted son of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to power in the late Eastern Han dynasty and laid the foundation for Wei. After Cao Cao's death and the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Cao Zhen served under Cao Pi and Cao Rui, the first two emperors of Wei. He is best known for leading a successful defence of Wei from the first two of a series of invasions by Wei's rival state, Shu Han, between 228 and 229.[2]

Family background

There are two accounts of Cao Zhen's origins. The first, from the Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi) and Wei Shu (魏書; by Wang Chen), claimed that Cao Zhen was a distant younger relative of Cao Cao,[3] a warlord who rose to power in the late Eastern Han dynasty and controlled the Han central government. Cao Zhen's father, Cao Shao (曹邵), was a close aide to Cao Cao and was known for his intelligence and loyalty. Around 190, when Cao Cao was raising an army to join the Guandong Coalition, he sent Cao Shao to recruit soldiers from the various commanderies. Huang Wan (黃琬), the Inspector of Yu Province at the time, plotted to assassinate Cao Cao. Cao Shao sacrificed his life to save Cao Cao.[4][5][b]

The second account, from the Weilue, mentioned that Cao Zhen's original family name was Qin (秦), and that he was adopted into the Cao family. In this account, Cao Zhen's father was one Qin Bonan (秦伯南), who was a close friend of Cao Cao. Around 195, when Cao Cao was being attacked by soldiers under a rival warlord Yuan Shu, he took shelter in Qin Bonan's house. When the soldiers showed up and asked him where Cao Cao was, Qin Bonan claimed that he was Cao Cao and was killed by the soldiers. Out of gratitude to Qin Bonan for saving his life, Cao Cao adopted his children and allowed them to bear his family name.[6]

Service under Cao Cao

In any case, Cao Cao took pity on Cao Zhen, adopted him and allowed him to live with one of his own sons, Cao Pi. One day, while Cao Zhen was out hunting, he encountered a ferocious tiger which started chasing him. Cao Zhen turned back and killed the tiger with a single arrow shot.[7] Cao Cao was so impressed with Cao Zhen's bravery that he appointed his adopted son as an officer in the elite "Tiger and Leopard Cavalry" (虎豹騎) of his army. Cao Zhen scored his first victory in battle when he defeated bandits in Lingqiu County (靈丘縣; east of present-day Lingqiu County, Shanxi). In recognition of his achievement, the Han imperial court enfeoffed him as the Marquis of Lingshou Village (靈壽亭侯).[8]

Hanzhong Campaign

Between 217 and 219,[9] Cao Zhen fought in Hanzhong Commandery against Cao Cao's rival Liu Bei, who had launched a campaign to seize control of Hanzhong Commandery from Cao Cao. When Liu Bei sent Wu Lan (吳蘭), one of his officers, to lead troops to garrison at Xiabian County (下辯縣; northwest of present-day Cheng County, Gansu), Cao Cao ordered his cousin Cao Hong to lead an army to attack the enemy. Along with Cao Xiu and Cao Hong, Cao Zhen fought at Xiabian County and defeated Wu Lan.[10] He was promoted to Central Resolute General (中堅將軍) for his achievement.[11]

When Cao Zhen returned to Chang'an, Cao Cao appointed him as Commandant of the Central Army (中領軍). At the time, as his general Xiahou Yuan had been killed in action against Liu Bei's forces at the Battle of Mount Dingjun, Cao Cao was worried that Liu Bei would press on the attack at Yangping Pass (陽平關; in present-day Ningqiang County, Shaanxi). He commissioned Cao Zhen as Army Protector Who Attacks Shu (征蜀護軍) and ordered him and Xu Huang to lead troops to attack Gao Xiang, an officer under Liu Bei, at Yangping Pass. Cao Zhen and Xu Huang defeated Gao Xiang and drove him back. In 219, after a prolonged war against Liu Bei, Cao Cao eventually decided to give up defending Hanzhong Commandery[9] so he withdrew all his forces. During the retreat, he sent Cao Zhen to Wudu Commandery (武都郡; around present-day Cheng County, Gansu) to meet up with Cao Hong and relay his order for them to retreat to Chencang (陳倉; east of present-day Baoji, Shaanxi).[12]

Service under Cao Pi

Following Cao Cao's death in March 220, his son Cao Pi succeeded him as the (vassal) King of Wei (魏王) and Imperial Chancellor (丞相) of the Eastern Han dynasty.[13] Cao Pi appointed Cao Zhen as General Who Guards the West (鎮西將軍) and ordered him to supervise military operations in Yong and Liang provinces in western China. He also elevated Cao Zhen from the status of a village marquis to a district marquis under the title "Marquis of Dong District" (東鄉侯).[14] During Cao Zhen's tenure, when one Zhang Jin (張進) started a rebellion in Jiuquan Commandery, Cao Zhen ordered his subordinate Fei Yao to lead troops to quell the rebellion. Fei Yao succeeded in his mission and killed Zhang Jin.[15]

In late 220, Cao Pi usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, ended the Eastern Han dynasty, and established the state of Cao Wei with himself as the new emperor.[13] Two years later, Cao Pi summoned Cao Zhen to the Wei imperial capital, Luoyang, where he reassigned Cao Zhen to be Senior General of the Upper Army (上軍大將軍), awarded him a ceremonial axe, and put him in charge of supervising military affairs throughout Wei.[16]

Battle of Jiangling

In 223, Cao Pi ordered Cao Zhen, Xiahou Shang, Zhang He and others to lead Wei forces to attack Wei's rival state, Eastern Wu, while he personally stationed at Wan (宛; in present-day Nanyang, Henan) to provide backup. The Wei forces attacked and besieged Jiangling (江陵; present-day Jiangling County, Hubei), which was defended by the Wu general Zhu Ran and some 5,000 soldiers. The Wei forces managed to defeat Wu reinforcements led by Sun Sheng (孫盛), Pan Zhang and Yang Can (楊粲), who were trying to help Zhu Ran. During the siege, Cao Zhen ordered his troops to dig underground tunnels, pile up earth to form small mounds, and build watchtowers to rain arrows on the defenders in Jiangling. Zhu Ran and his men managed to hold their ground and even found a small opportunity to counterattack and destroy two Wei camps. After some six months of siege, the Wei forces could not breach Jiangling's walls so they retreated.[17]

During the campaign, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang managed to destroy a Wu garrison at Niuzhu (牛渚; northwest of present-day Dangtu County, Anhui). After he returned from the campaign, Cao Zhen was reassigned to be Senior General of the Central Army (中軍大將軍) and given an additional appointment as an Official Who Concurrently Serves in the Palace (給事中).[18]

Incident with Wu Zhi

In 224, Cao Pi ordered Wu Zhi to host a banquet in his residence to celebrate Cao Zhen's return from a campaign. In Cao Pi's imperial edict, all officers holding the rank of Senior General (上將軍) with "Specially Advanced" (特進) status and below had to attend. During the banquet, Wu Zhi instructed actors to put up a skit to make fun of Cao Zhen and Zhu Shuo (朱鑠), who were fat and thin respectively. Cao Zhen turned furious and he shouted at Wu Zhi, "Are you and your men seeking a fight with me and my men?" Cao Hong and Wang Zhong egged Wu Zhi on by saying, "If you want to make the General (Cao Zhen) admit that he is fat, you have to show that you're thin." Cao Zhen drew his sword, glared at them and said, "I'll kill whoever dares to mock me." Wu Zhi also drew his sword and insulted Cao Zhen by saying, "Cao Zidan, you're not meat under a butcher's cleaver. My throat won't tremble when I swallow you and my teeth won't chatter when I chew on you. How dare you behave so rudely!" Zhu Shuo stood up and tried to reduce tensions by telling Wu Zhi, "His Majesty ordered you to host entertainment for everyone. Do you have to do this?" Wu Zhi then shouted at Zhu Shuo, "Zhu Shuo, how dare you leave your seat!" Everyone then returned to their seats. Zhu Shuo felt outraged but did not say anything, and returned to his seat and used his sword to hit the ground.[19]

Service under Cao Rui

In 226, when Cao Pi became critically ill, he ordered Cao Zhen, Chen Qun, Sima Yi and others to assist his son, Cao Rui, who later succeeded him as the second emperor of Wei.[20] After his coronation, Cao Rui elevated Cao Zhen from the status of a district marquis to a county marquis under the title "Marquis of Shaoling" (邵陵侯),[b] and promoted him to the position of General-in-Chief (大將軍)[22] in January or February 227.[23]

Tianshui revolts

In the spring of 228,[24] Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor (丞相) of Wei's rival state Shu Han, launched the first of a series of military campaigns against Wei and led the Shu forces to attack Mount Qi (祁山; the mountainous regions around present-day Li County, Gansu). At the same time, he also ordered Zhao Yun and Deng Zhi to lead a detachment of troops to Ji Valley (箕谷) and pretend to be preparing to attack Mei County (郿縣; southeast of present-day Fufeng County, Shaanxi), so as to draw the Wei forces' attention away from Mount Qi. Three Wei-controlled commanderies – Nan'an (南安; around present-day Longxi County, Gansu), Tianshui and Anding (安定; around present-day Zhenyuan County, Gansu) – responded to the Shu invasion by defecting to the Shu side.[25][26]

When the Wei imperial court received news of the invasion, Cao Rui ordered Cao Zhen to lead Wei forces to resist the invaders. At Ji Valley, Cao Zhen easily defeated Zhao Yun and Deng Zhi, who had been given command of the weaker soldiers in the Shu army. (Zhuge Liang had reserved the better soldiers for his own army to attack Mount Qi.)[27] In the meantime, the Wei general Zhang He attacked and defeated the Shu general Ma Su at the Battle of Jieting.[28] Around the time, one Yang Tiao (楊條) from Anding Commandery had rallied some followers, taken the commandery officials hostage and captured the revenue office. When Cao Zhen and his troops besieged Anding Commandery, Yang Tiao tied himself up and surrendered. Zhuge Liang and the Shu forces retreated upon learning of Ma Su’s defeat. The Wei forces under Cao Zhen and Zhang He then used the opportunity to quell the rebellions in the three commanderies and restore peace.[29]

Siege of Chencang

After repelling the first Shu invasion, Cao Zhen observed that if Shu were to invade Wei again, they would attack via Chencang (陳倉; east of present-day Baoji, Shaanxi). He then put Hao Zhao and Wang Sheng (王生) in charge of defending Chencang and ordered them to strengthen the fortress's defences. As Cao Zhen foresaw, Zhuge Liang indeed led Shu forces to attack Chencang in the spring of 229. However, as Hao Zhao and the Wei defenders were well-prepared, they managed to hold their ground against the second Shu invasion. Zhuge Liang ordered a retreat after failing to breach Chencang's walls. As a reward for Cao Zhen's contributions, Cao Rui increased the number of taxable households in his marquisate, bringing it up to a total of 2,900.[30]

Aborted campaign against Shu

In 230, Cao Rui summoned Cao Zhen to the imperial capital Luoyang, where he promoted him to Grand Marshal (大司馬) and awarded him the ceremonial privileges of carrying a sword and wearing shoes into the imperial court, as well as not having to walk in briskly during imperial court sessions.[31]

During this meeting with Cao Rui, Cao Zhen proposed launching a large-scale invasion of Shu from multiple directions to eliminate the threat once and for all. Cao Rui approved his proposal and personally saw him off from Luoyang.[32] In September 230, Cao Zhen led an army from Chang'an to attack Shu via the Ziwu Valley (子午谷). At the same time, another Wei army led by Sima Yi, acting on Cao Rui's order, advanced towards Shu from Jing Province by sailing along the Han River. The rendezvous point for Cao Zhen and Sima Yi's armies was at Nanzheng County (南鄭縣; in present-day Hanzhong, Shaanxi). Other Wei armies also prepared to attack Shu from the Xie Valley (斜谷) or Wuwei Commandery. However, the campaign eventually had to be aborted in October 230[33] because the gallery roads leading into Shu were too damaged for the troops to pass through, and also because of rainy weather lasting more than 30 days.[34]

Death

Cao Zhen fell sick on the journey back to Luoyang and became bedridden in the subsequent months. During this time, Cao Rui personally visited Cao Zhen to check on his condition. Cao Zhen eventually died of illness in April or May 231. Cao Rui honoured him with the posthumous title "Marquis Yuan" (元侯).[35][1]

Appraisal

Cao Zhen was known for being generous with his personal wealth. In his younger days, he served under his foster father Cao Cao along with Cao Zun (曹遵), a distant relative of his, and Zhu Zan (朱讚), who was from the same hometown as him. Both Cao Zun and Zhu Zan died early. Cao Zhen took pity on their families so he requested permission from Cao Rui to give away parts of his marquisate to Cao Zun and Zhu Zan's sons. Cao Rui issued an imperial decree to praise Cao Zhen for his kindness, and award secondary marquis titles to Cao Zun and Zhu Zan's sons and give them each 100 taxable households.[36]

Cao Zhen was also known for sharing weal and woe with his troops whenever he led them into battle. Every time after a battle, if there were insufficient rewards to be given out to all his men, he would use his personal wealth to make up for the difference. His men gladly accepted his kindness.[37]

Family

Cao Zhen had a younger brother, Cao Bin (曹彬), who received a marquis title and a marquisate of 200 taxable households by Cao Pi's decree.[38] He also had a younger sister who married Xiahou Shang and bore Xiahou Xuan and Xiahou Hui; her personal name is unknown and she was referred to as the Lady of Deyang District (德陽鄉主).[39][40]

Cao Zhen had six sons: Cao Shuang, Cao Xi (曹羲), Cao Xun (曹訓), Cao Ze (曹則), Cao Yan (曹彥) and Cao Ai (曹皚). Among them, Cao Shuang inherited his father's peerage and marquisate as the Marquis of Shaoling (邵陵侯), while the other five also had their own marquis titles and marquisates.[41] In 239, before Cao Rui died, he appointed Cao Shuang and Sima Yi as regents for his underage adopted son, Cao Fang, who succeeded him as the third emperor of Wei. In 249, Sima Yi staged a coup d'état against Cao Shuang and successfully seized power from him. After the coup d'état, Cao Shuang and his brothers were convicted of treason and executed along with their entire families.[42]

In Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Cao Zhen appears as a character in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which romanticises the historical figures and events before and during the Three Kingdoms period. He makes a late first appearance in Chapter 84 when he accompanies Cao Pi on a campaign against Eastern Wu.

Cao Zhen starts to play a more important role from Chapter 91 onwards when the Shu regent Zhuge Liang launches the Northern Expeditions against Wei. His contributions in the series of battles against Shu are largely downplayed because the author, Luo Guanzhong, wanted to accentuate Sima Yi's resourcefulness and effectively portray him as Zhuge Liang's nemesis. Luo Guanzhong even attributed Cao Zhen's death to his failure to heed Sima Yi's forewarning of a Shu offensive.

In Chapter 100, Sima Yi warns Cao Zhen that Shu forces will, within the next ten days, launch an attack on Mount Qi (祁山; the mountainous regions around present-day Li County, Gansu), a strategic location which would allow further incursions into the Wei heartland. After Cao Zhen refuses to believe Sima Yi, the two make a bet and each of them leads half of the Wei army to guard the valleys to the east and west of Mount Qi. Cao Zhen prepares for battle halfheartedly as he thinks that he is right. Seven days later, when his scouts report that a small number of Shu soldiers are approaching the valley, Cao Zhen sends his subordinate Qin Liang (秦良) to lead 5,000 men to survey the terrain. As Qin Liang and his men travel deeper into the valley, they fall into an ambush by Shu forces led by Liao Hua and Guan Xing and are completely destroyed. The Shu forces then disguise themselves by wearing the Wei soldiers' armour and uniform and infiltrate Cao Zhen's camp. In the meantime, Sima Yi encounters and defeats Shu forces led by Wei Yan. When he learns that no enemy forces have been spotted at Cao Zhen's side, he immediately leads his troops to Cao Zhen's camp. By then, the Shu infiltrators have launched a surprise attack within Cao Zhen's camp. Sima Yi shows up in time, drives back the Shu forces, and saves Cao Zhen. Cao Zhen feels so ashamed of himself that he falls sick. Zhuge Liang writes a letter to Cao Zhen to taunt and insult him. Cao Zhen becomes so angry after reading the letter that he coughs blood and dies that night in his camp. Sima Yi sends his dead body back to Luoyang, where he receives a proper burial.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Cao Rui's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Cao Zhen died in the 3rd month of the 5th year of the Taihe era of Cao Rui's reign.[1] This month corresponds to 20 April to 18 May 231 in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. ^ a b c Pei Songzhi, who annotated Cao Zhen's biography in the Sanguozhi, noted that Cao Zhen's marquis title "Marquis of Shaoling" (邵陵侯) violated naming taboo because it contained the character shao (邵), which was the given name of Cao Zhen's biological father Cao Shao (曹邵) in the Sanguozhi and Wei Shu accounts.[21] The Weilue account of Cao Zhen's origins thus seems more likely to be the correct one as compared to the Sanguozhi and Wei Shu account.

References

  1. ^ a b ([太和五年]三月,大司馬曹真薨。) Sanguozhi vol. 3.
  2. ^ a b de Crespigny (2007), p. 50.
  3. ^ (曹真字子丹,太祖族子也。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  4. ^ (太祖起兵,真父邵募徒衆,為州郡所殺。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  5. ^ (魏書曰:邵以忠篤有才智,為太祖所親信。初平中,太祖興義兵,邵募徒衆,從太祖周旋。時豫州刺史黃琬欲害太祖,太祖避之而邵獨遇害。) Weilue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  6. ^ (魏略曰:真本姓秦,養曹氏。或云其父伯南夙與太祖善。興平末,袁術部黨與太祖攻劫,太祖出,為寇所追,走入秦氏,伯南開門受之。寇問太祖所在,荅云:「我是也。」遂害之。由此太祖思其功,故變其姓。) Weilue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  7. ^ (太祖哀真少孤,收養與諸子同,使與文帝共止。常獵,為虎所逐,顧射虎,應聲而倒。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  8. ^ (太祖壯其鷙勇,使將虎豹騎。討靈丘賊,拔之,封靈壽亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  9. ^ a b Zizhi Tongjian vol. 68.
  10. ^ (劉備遣將吳蘭屯下辯,太祖遣曹洪征之,以休為騎都尉,參洪軍事。太祖謂休曰:「汝雖參軍,其實帥也。」洪聞此令,亦委事於休。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  11. ^ (以偏將軍將兵擊劉備別將於下辯,破之,拜中堅將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  12. ^ (從至長安,領中領軍。是時,夏侯淵沒於陽平,太祖憂之。以真為征蜀護軍,督徐晃等破劉備別將高詳於陽平。太祖自至漢中,拔出諸軍,使真至武都迎曹洪等還屯陳倉。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  13. ^ a b Zizhi Tongjian vol. 69.
  14. ^ (文帝即王位,以真為鎮西將軍,假節都督雍、涼州諸軍事。錄前後功,進封東鄉侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  15. ^ (張進等反於酒泉,真遣費耀討破之,斬進等。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  16. ^ (黃初三年還京都,以真為上軍大將軍,都督中外諸軍事,假節鉞。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  17. ^ (魏遣曹真、夏侯尚、張郃等攻江陵,魏文帝自住宛,為其勢援,連屯圍城。權遣將軍孫盛督萬人備州上,立圍塢,為然外救。郃渡兵攻盛,盛不能拒,即時却退,郃據州上圍守,然中外斷絕。權遣潘璋、楊粲等解,而圍不解。時然城中兵多腫病,堪戰者裁五千人。真等起土山,鑿地道,立樓櫓,臨城弓矢雨注,將士皆失色,然晏如而無恐意,方厲吏士,伺間隙攻破兩屯。魏攻圍然凡六月日,未退。 ... 尚等不能克,乃徹攻退還。) Sanguozhi vol. 56.
  18. ^ (與夏侯尚等征孫權,擊牛渚屯,破之。轉拜中軍大將軍,加給事中。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  19. ^ (質別傳曰: ... 質黃初五年朝京師,詔上將軍及特進以下皆會質所,大官給供具。酒酣,質欲盡歡。時上將軍曹真性肥,中領軍朱鑠性瘦,質召優,使說肥瘦。真負貴,恥見戲,怒謂質曰:「卿欲以部曲將遇我邪?」驃騎將軍曹洪、輕車將軍王忠言:「將軍必欲使上將軍服肥,即自宜為瘦。」真愈恚,拔刀瞋目,言:「俳敢輕脫,吾斬爾。」遂罵坐。質案劒曰:「曹子丹,汝非屠机上肉,吳質吞爾不搖喉,咀爾不搖牙,何敢恃勢驕邪?」鑠因起曰:「陛下使吾等來樂卿耳,乃至此邪!」質顧叱之曰:「朱鑠,敢壞坐!」諸將軍皆還坐。鑠性急,愈恚,還拔劒斬地。遂便罷也。) Wu Zhi Biezhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 21.
  20. ^ (七年,文帝寢疾,真與陳羣、司馬宣王等受遺詔輔政。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  21. ^ (臣松之案:真父名邵。封邵陵侯,若非書誤,則事不可論。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  22. ^ (明帝即位,進封邵陵侯,遷大將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  23. ^ (十二月, ... 中軍大將軍曹真為大將軍, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 3.
  24. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 71.
  25. ^ (諸葛亮圍祁山,南安、天水、安定三郡反應亮。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  26. ^ (六年春,揚聲由斜谷道取郿,使趙雲、鄧芝為疑軍,據箕谷,魏大將軍曹真舉衆拒之。亮身率諸軍攻祁山,戎陣整齊,賞罰肅而號令明,南安、天水、安定三郡叛魏應亮,關中響震。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  27. ^ (明年,亮出軍,揚聲由斜谷道,曹真遣大衆當之。亮令雲與鄧芝往拒,而身攻祁山。雲、芝兵弱敵彊,失利於箕谷,然歛衆固守,不至大敗。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  28. ^ (魏明帝西鎮長安,命張郃拒亮,亮使馬謖督諸軍在前,與郃戰于街亭。謖違亮節度,舉動失宜,大為郃所破。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  29. ^ (帝遣真督諸軍軍郿,遣張郃擊亮將馬謖,大破之。安定民楊條等略吏民保月支城,真進軍圍之。條謂其衆曰:「大將軍自來,吾願早降耳。」遂自縛出。三郡皆平。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  30. ^ (真以亮懲於祁山,後出必從陳倉,乃使將軍郝昭、王生守陳倉,治其城。明年春,亮果圍陳倉,已有備而不能克。增邑,并前二千九百戶。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  31. ^ ([太和]四年,朝洛陽,遷大司馬,賜劒履上殿,入朝不趨。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  32. ^ (真以「蜀連出侵邊境,宜遂伐之。數道並入,可大克也」。帝從其計。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  33. ^ ([太和四年]九月,大雨,伊、洛、河、漢水溢,詔真等班師。) Sanguozhi vol. 3.
  34. ^ (真當發西討,帝親臨送。真以八月發長安,從子午道南入。司馬宣王泝漢水,當會南鄭。諸軍或從斜谷道,或從武威入。會大霖雨三十餘日,或棧道斷絕,詔真還軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  35. ^ (真病還洛陽,帝自幸其第省疾。真薨,謚曰元侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  36. ^ (真少與宗人曹遵、鄉人朱讚並事太祖。遵、讚早亡,真愍之,乞分所食邑封遵、讚子。詔曰:「大司馬有叔向撫孤之仁,篤晏平乆要之分。君子成人之羙,聽分真邑賜遵、讚子爵關內侯,各百戶。」) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  37. ^ (真每征行,與將士同勞苦,軍賞不足,輒以家財班賜,士卒皆願為用。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  38. ^ (初,文帝分真邑二百戶,封真弟彬為列侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  39. ^ ([夏侯]玄,爽之姑子也。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  40. ^ (景懷夏侯皇后諱徽,字媛容,沛國譙人也。父尚,魏徵南大將軍;母曹氏,魏德陽鄉主。) Jin Shu vol. 31.
  41. ^ (子爽嗣。帝追思真功,詔曰:「大司馬蹈履忠節,佐命二祖,內不恃親戚之寵,外不驕白屋之士,可謂能持盈守位,勞謙其德者也。其悉封真五子羲、訓、則、彥、皚皆為列侯。」) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  42. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 75.
  • Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
  • Fang, Xuanling (648). Book of Jin (Jin Shu).
  • Luo, Guanzhong (14th century). Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo Yanyi).
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
  • Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.
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