Cantonese people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cantonese

广
Gwóngfú Yàhn
The mystic flowery land; a personal narrative (1896) (14775236851).jpg
Cantonese women in traditional Qing-era attire, 1896.
Total population
c. 66 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong and Macau), Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia), Western world (United States, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand)
Languages
Cantonese, Taishanese and other Yue languages (parent tongues), Southwestern Mandarin, Vietnamese, Malay (both Malaysian and Indonesian), Hong Kong English
Religion
Predominantly Chinese folk religions (which include Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship) and Mahayana Buddhism. Minorities: Christianity, Atheism, Freethought; others.
Related ethnic groups
Hong Kong people, Macanese people, Taishanese people, other Han Chinese groups

some population totals are based on speaker counts and may not reflect the total population with ancestry
Cantonese people
Traditional Chinese 廣府人
Simplified Chinese 广府人
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 廣東人
Simplified Chinese 广东人

The Cantonese people (simplified Chinese: 广府人; traditional Chinese: 廣府人; Yale: Gwóngfú Yàhn; Jyutping: gwong2 fu2 jan4; lit. people of Guangfu) are Han Chinese people originating from or residing in the provinces of Guangdong and eastern Guangxi (together known as Liangguang), in mainland China. The term "Cantonese people" is often synonymous with the Punti people (本地人; bún déi yàhn). They are also referred to as "Hoa" in Vietnam, "Kongfu" in Malaysia and "Konghu" in Indonesia.[2]".

The Cantonese people were historically responsible for establishing the Cantonese language's usage in Hong Kong during the early migration to the colonial era. Today, Hong Kong and Macau are the only regions in the world where Cantonese is the official spoken language; most people in Guangdong and eastern Guangxi, as elsewhere in Mainland China, speak Standard Mandarin as a second language to Cantonese. There are currently around 9 million Cantonese speakers overseas.[3]

Taishanese people (四邑廣東人) may also be considered as Cantonese, but speak Taishanese (台山話), a different variant of Yue Chinese.

There have been a number of influential Cantonese figures throughout history, such as Yuan Chonghuan, Bruce Lee, Ching Shih, Lee Shau-kee, Ho Ching and Flossie Wong-Staal.

History

Pre-19th century: History of Liangguang

Nanyue (Nàhm Yuht) Kingdom.

Until the 19th century, Cantonese history was largely the history of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. What is now Guangdong, and later Guangxi, was first brought under Qin influence by a general named Zhao Tuo, who later founded the kingdom of Nanyue in 204 BC.[4][5][6][7][8] The Nanyue kingdom went on to become the strongest Baiyue state in China, with many neighboring kingdoms declaring their allegiance to Nanyue rule. Zhao Tuo took the Han territory of Hunan and defeated the Han dynasty's first attack on Nanyue, later annexing the kingdom of Minyue in the East and conquering Âu Lạc, Northern Vietnam, in the West in 179 BC.[9]

The greatly expanded Nanyue kingdom included the territories of modern-day Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam (Annam), with the capital situated at modern-day Guangzhou. The native peoples of Liangguang remained under Baiyue control until the Han dynasty in 111 BC, following the Han–Nanyue War. However, it was not until subsequent dynasties such as the Jin Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty that major waves of Han Chinese began to migrate into Guangdong and Guangxi. Waves of migration and subsequent intermarriage meant that existing populations of both provinces were displaced, but some native groups like the Zhuangs still remained. The Cantonese often call themselves "people of Tang". This is because of the inter-mixture between native and Han immigrants in Guangdong and Guangxi reached a critical mass of acculturation during the Tang dynasty, creating a new local identity among the Liangguang peoples.[10]

During the 4th–12th centuries, Han Chinese people from North China's Yellow River valley migrated and settled in the South of China. This gave rise to peoples including the Cantonese themselves, Hakkas, Hoklos and the Wu peoples, whose ancestors migrated from Henan and Shandong, to areas of southeastern coastal China such as Chaozhou, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou during the Tang dynasty.[11] There have been multiple migrations of Han people into Southeastern and Southern China throughout history.[12]

The origin of the Cantonese people is thus said to be Northern Chinese peoples that migrated to Guangdong and Guangxi while it was still inhabited by Baiyue peoples.[13] During Wang Mang's reign in the Han dynasty (206BC-220AD), there were influxes of Han Chinese migrants into Guangdong and Guangxi, western coast of Hainan, Annam (now Northern Vietnam) and eastern Yunnan.[14]

19th–20th century: Turmoil and migration

Cantonese bazaar during Chinese New Year at the Grant Avenue, San Francisco, circa 1914. Names of shops are in Cantonese and there are 4 daily newspapers printed in the Cantonese language at that time, as there is already significant number of Cantonese peoples who have been there for generations.

During the early 1800s, conflict occurred between Cantonese and Portuguese pirates in the form of the Ningpo massacre after the defeat of Portuguese pirates.[15] The First (1839–1842) and Second Opium Wars (1856–1860) led to the loss of China's control over Hong Kong and Kowloon, which were ceded to the British Empire. Macau also became a Portuguese settlement. Between 1855 and 1867, the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars caused further discord in Guangdong. The third plague pandemic of 1855 broke out in Yunnan and spread to the Liangguang region via Guangxi, killing thousands and spreading via water traffic to nearby Hong Kong and Macau.

The turmoil of the 19th century, followed by the political upheaval of the early 20th century, compelled many residents of Guangdong to migrate overseas in search of a better future. Up until the second half of the 20th century, the majority of overseas Chinese emigrated from two provinces of China; Guangdong and Fujian. As a result, there are today many Cantonese communities throughout the world, including in North America, Latin America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, East Africa the United Kingdom, and the Pacific Islands, with Chinatowns commonly being established by Cantonese communities. There have been a large number of interracial marriages between Cantonese men and women from other nations, as most of the migrants from Guangdong were men. Resultantly, there are many Eurasians with Cantonese ancestry,[16] for example Nancy Kwan, born to a Cantonese father and Scottish mother is a well-known Hollywood actress in the 1960s; and influential martial artist Bruce Lee, who was born to a Cantonese father and a half-Chinese, half-Caucasian mother.

Unlike the migrants from Fujian, who mostly settled in Southeast Asia, many Cantonese emigrants also migrated to the Western Hemisphere, particularly the United States and Canada. Many Cantonese immigrants into the United States became railroad labourers, while many in South America were brought in as coolies. Cantonese immigrants in California participated in the California Gold Rush and the Australian gold rushes of 1854 onwards, while Chinese in Hawaii found employment in sugar plantations as contract labourers. These early immigrants variously faced hostility and a variety of discriminatory laws, including the prohibition of Chinese female immigrants. The relaxation of immigration laws after World War II allowed for subsequent waves of migration to the United States from both mainland China and Hong Kong. As a result, Cantonese continues to be widely used by Chinese communities of Guangdong and Hong Kong origin in the Western hemisphere, and has not been supplanted by Standard Chinese. A large proportion of the early migrants also came from the Siyi region of Guangdong and spoke Taishanese. The Taishan variant is still spoken in American-Chinese communities, by the older population as well as by more recent immigrants from Taishan.

Cantonese influence on the Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution of 1911 was a revolution that overthrew the last imperial dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty, and established the Republic of China. Guangdong's uprising against the Qing dynasty in 1895 let to its naming as the "cradle of the Xinhai Revolution".[17][18][19] Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen was born in Zhongshan, Guangdong.[20][21] Hong Kong was where he developed his thoughts of revolution and was the base of subsequent uprisings, as well as the first revolutionary newspaper.[22][23] Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary army was largely made up of Cantonese, and many of the early revolutionary leaders were also Cantonese.[24]

Cultural hub

A Cantonese gentleman in Qing-era traditional attire, circa 1873–1874.

Cantonese people and their culture are centered in Guangdong, eastern Guangxi, Hong Kong and Macau.

Guangzhou (formerly known as Canton), the capital city of Guangdong, has been one of China's international trading ports since the Tang dynasty. During the 18th century, it became an important centre of the emerging trade between China and the Western world, as part of the Canton System. The privilege during this period made Guangzhou one of the top three cities in the world.[25] Operating from the Thirteen Factories located on the banks of the Pearl River outside Canton, merchants traded goods such as silk, porcelain ("fine china"), and tea, allowing Guangzhou to become a prosperous city. Links to overseas contacts and beneficial tax reforms in the 1990s have also contributed to the city's ongoing growth. Guangzhou was named a global city in 2008. The migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40 percent of the city's total population in 2008. Most of them are rural migrants and they speak only Mandarin.[26]

Hong Kong and Macau are two of the richest cities in the world in terms of GDP per capita and are autonomous SARs (Special Administrative Regions) that are under independent governance from China. Historically governed by the British and Portuguese empires respectively, colonial Hong Kong and Macau were increasingly populated by migrant influxes from mainland China, particularly the nearby Guangdong Province. For that reason, the culture of Hong Kong and Macau became a mixture of Cantonese and Western influences, sometimes described as "East meets West".

Hong Kong

Hong Kong Island was first colonised by the British Empire in 1842 with a population of only 7,450; however, it was in 1898 that Hong Kong truly became a British colony, when the British also colonised the New Territories (which constitute 86.2% of Hong Kong's modern territory). It was during this period that migrants from China entered, mainly speaking Cantonese (the prestige variety of Yue Chinese) as a common language. During the following century of British rule, Hong Kong grew into a hub of Cantonese culture, and has remained as such since the handover in 1997.

Today Hong Kong is one of the world's leading financial centres, and the Hong Kong dollar is the thirteenth most traded currency in the world.

Macau

Macau native people are known as the Tanka. A dialect similar to Shiqi (石岐話), originating from Zhongshan (中山) in Guangdong, is also spoken in the region.

Parts of Macau were first loaned to the Portuguese by China as a trading centre in the 16th century, with the Portuguese required to administrate the city under Chinese authority. In 1851 and 1864, the Portuguese Empire occupied the two nearest offshore islands Taipa and Coloane respectively, and Macau officially became a colony of the Portuguese Empire in 1887. Macau was returned to China in 1999.

By 2002, Macau had become one of the world's richest cities,[27] and by 2006, it had surpassed Las Vegas to become the world's biggest gambling centre.[28] Macau is also a world cultural heritage site due to its Portuguese colonial architecture.

Culture

The term "Cantonese" is used to refer to the native Guangdong, their language and their culture.[29]

There are cultural, economic, political, generational and geographical differences in making "Cantonese-ness" in and beyond Guangdong, with the interacting dynamics of migration, education, social developments, and cultural representations.[30]

Language

The term "Cantonese language" is sometimes used to refer to the broader group of Yue Chinese languages and dialects spoken in Guangdong and Guangxi, although it is used more specifically to describe Gwóngjāu wah (廣州話), the prestige dialect of Cantonese spoken in the City of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton). Gwóngjāu wah is the main language used for education, literature and media in Hong Kong and Macau. It is still widely used in Guangzhou, despite the fact that a considerable proportion of the city's population is made up by migrant workers from elsewhere in China that speak other Chinese languages and Mandarin.[31]

Because of its tradition of usage in music, cinema, literature and newspapers, this form of Cantonese is a cultural mark of identity that distinguishes Cantonese people from the Mainland Chinese. The pronunciation and vocabulary of Cantonese has preserved many features of the official language of the Tang dynasty with elements of the ancient Yue language.[32] Written Cantonese is very common in manhua, books, articles, magazines, newspapers, online chat, instant messaging, internet blogs and social networking websites. Anime, cartoons and foreign films are also dubbed in Cantonese. Some videogames such as Sleeping Dogs, Far Cry 4, Grand Theft Auto III and Resident Evil 6 have substantial Cantonese dialogues.

Arts

A bronze statue on a pedestal, with the city skyline in the background. The pedestal is designed in the image of four clapperboards forming a box. The statue is of a woman wrapped in photographic film, looking straight up, with her left hand stretched upwards and holding a glass sphere containing a light.
A statue on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to Hong Kong Cantonese cinema.
Sculpture of the famous cultural Cantonese fighter Bruce Lee at the Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong

Cantopop during its early glory had spread to Mainland China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. Well-known Cantopop singers include Andy Lau, Aaron Kwok, Joey Yung, Alan Tam, Roman Tam, Anita Mui, Danny Chan, Kelly Chen, Leslie Cheung, Jacky Cheung, Leon Lai, Sammi Cheng and Coco Lee, many of whom are of Cantonese or Taishanese origin.

The Hong Kong movie industry was the third-largest movie industry in the world (after Hollywood and Bollywood) for decades throughout the 20th century, with Cantonese-language films viewed and acclaimed around the world. Recent films include Kung Fu Hustle, Infernal Affairs and Ip Man 3.

Cantonese people are also known to create various schools or styles of arts, with the more prominent being Lingnan architecture, Lingnan school of painting, Canton porcelain, Cantonese opera, Cantonese music, among many others.

Cuisine

Cantonese dim-sum.

Cantonese cuisine has become one of the most renowned types of cuisine around the world, characterised by its variety of cooking methods and use of fresh ingredients, particularly seafood.[33] One of the most famous examples of Cantonese cuisine is dim sum, a variety of small and light dishes such as har gow (steamed shrimp dumplings), siu mai (steamed pork dumplings), and cha siu bao (barbecued pork buns).

Notable figures

This is an incomplete list of some notable people that are regarded as being of Cantonese origin:

Historical

  • Zhao Tuo, established the independent kingdom of Nanyue (Nam Viet) with its capital in Panyu (now Guangzhou) in 214 BC.
  • Zhao Mo was the second ruler of the kingdom of Nanyue. (Guangdong).
  • Zhao Yinggi was the third ruler of the kingdom of Nanyue. (Guangdong).
  • Zhao Xing was the fourth ruler of the kingdom of Nanyue (Guangdong)
  • Liu Yan, king of Nanhai and first emperor of the Yue/Han kingdom between 917–971
  • Yuan Chonghuan, Ming dynasty general and patriot famed for defeating Qing dynasty rulers and founder Nurchaci and Hong Taiji
  • Liang Daoming, king of Palembang during the Ming dynasty
  • Ching Shih, worlds successful pirate and one of the world's most powerful pirates; she challenged the British empire, Portuguese empire, and Qing dynasty and was undefeated.[34][35]
  • Cheng I, pirate and husband of Ching Shih
  • Ah Pak, pirate chieftain who defeated Portuguese pirates
  • Liu Chang, the last emperor of the Southern Han Kingdom
  • Mạc Cửu, ruler of Hà Tiên in the 18th century; played a role in the relations between Cambodia and Vietnam
  • Sun Yat-sen, born in Zhongshan, Guangdong, Chinese revolutionary and founder of the Republic of China
  • Deng Shichang, admiral and one of the first modern naval officers in China in the late Qing dynasty
  • Tse Tsan-tai, early Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing Dynasty
  • Kang Youwei was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty.
  • Liang Qichao was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the Qing dynasty and Republic of China.
  • Sun Ke,born in Xiangshan (now Zhongshan), Guangdong. Premier of the Republic of China, 1932, 1948-1949
  • Henry Lee Hau Shik, first Finance Minister of the Federation of Malaya and the only major leader of the independence movement not born in Malaya.[36]
  • Jiang Guangnai, general and statesman in the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China who successfully defended Shanghai City from the Japanese invasion in the January 28 Incident of 1932

Entertainers

Opera Singer

  • Warren Mok, A operatic tenor who has performed many leading roles since his European debut in 1987.
  • Hung Sin-nui, Master of Chinese and Cantonese opera.

Politicians

  • Tang Shaoyi, prime minister of the Republic of China and also the first Marxism disseminator in South China.
  • Donald Tsang, chief executive of Hong Kong
  • Edmund Ho Hau Wah, chief executive of Macau
  • Fernando Chui, chief executive of Macau
  • Wu Tingfang, China's foreign minister during the Qing dynasty
  • Wen Tsung-yao, politician and diplomat in the Qing dynasty and Republic of China
  • Hiram Fong, the first Asian-American and Chinese to be elected as Republican United States Senator and nominated for presidency of the United States
  • John So, the first Lord Mayor of Melbourne to be directly elected by the people in 2006, and the first mayor of Asian descent
  • Norman Kwong, the 16th Lieutenant Governor of Alberta, Canada
  • Gary Locke, first governor of a state in the Continental United States of Asian descent; the only Chinese American ever to serve as a governor
  • Judy Chu, first Chinese-American woman to be elected to the United States Congress
  • Julius Chan, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea from 1980 to 1982, and from 1994 to 1997
  • Lee Siew Choh, politician and medical doctor. Singapore's first Non-Constituency Member of Parliament (NCMP)
  • Tan Sri Datuk Amar Stephen Kalong Ningkan was the first Chief Minister of Sarawak.
  • Peter Chin, lawyer and 56th Dunedin, New Zealand mayor
  • John Yap, Canadian politician
  • Meng Foon, mayor of Gisborne, New Zealand
  • Alan Lowe, architect, former mayor of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • Ida Chong, accountant, former municipal councilor of Saanich, British Columbia, former cabinet minister/Member of Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, Canada
  • Yeoh Ghim Seng, Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore from 1970 to 1989
  • Chang Apana, inspirational detective with an influential law enforcement career
  • Kin W. Moy American diplomat and the first ethnic Chinese to be director of the American Institute in Taiwan,
  • Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, GBM, GBS (Chinese: 林鄭月娥; born 13 May 1957) is the Chief Executive of Hong Kong.
  • Debra Wong Yang, first Asian American woman to serve as a United States Attorney.
  • Chan Heng Chee, Singapore's Minister in Prime Minister's Office, Chief of Army from 2010 to 2011
  • Chan Sek Keong,third Chief Justice of Singapore, Attorney-General of Singapore from 1992 to 2006
  • Chan Kong Choy, Malaysian politician, deputy president and transport minister.
  • Cheryl Chan, member of the country's governing People's Action Party (PAP),
  • Sitoh Yih Pin, Singapore politician member of Parliament (MP)
  • Leong Yew Koh, first Governor of Malacca since independence.
  • Cheong Yoke Choy,famous and well respected philanthropist during the British Malaya era.
  • Edwin Tong, member of Parliament in Singapore representing the Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency.
  • Eu Chooi Yip, prominent member of the anti-colonial and Communist movements in Malaya and Singapore
  • Ho Peng Kee, Senior Minister of State in the Ministry of Law and the Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Jek Yeun Thong, prominent first generation People's Action Party (PAP) politician in Singapore
  • Hoo Ah Kay, leader with many high ranking posts in Singapore, honourable consul to Japan, Russia and China.
  • Kan Ting Chiu, Senior Judge in the Supreme Court. [35]
  • Ho Yuen Hoe, Nun who received a Public Service Award from the President of Singapore
  • Kin W. Moy, American diplomat. He is one of the first Chinese to hold an important position
  • Fong Chan Onn, Malaysian politician and a former Minister of Human Resources
  • Fong Po Kuan, Malaysian politician from the Democratic Action Party (DAP)
  • Loke Siew Fook, Member of the Parliament of Malaysia
  • Tan Chee Khoon, major figure in Malaysian politics from 1959 to 1978
  • Lui Tuck Yew, country's Minister for Transport and Second Minister for Defence, Singapore's Chief of Navy from 1999 to 2003

Sportspeople

  • Wong Peng Soon, A renowned male badminton player in the latter half of the 20th century
  • Patrick Chan, A world champion Chinese-Canadian male figure skater
  • Michelle Kwan, Chinese-American female figure skater and five-time world champion
  • Yi Jianlian, a 7-foot-tall Chinese basketball player for NBA, Milwaukee Bucks, New Jersey Nets, and Washington Wizards
  • Guan Weizhen, female badminton player who won three consecutive women's doubles titles at the BWF World Championships
  • Chen Xiaomin Chinese retired weightlifter, in 2000 Sydney Olympics on the women's weightlifting gold medal, also a world and Asian champion
  • Shanshan Feng, The first golfer from China to win LPGA major championship and major championship, she was ranked fifth in 2012 Women's World Golf Rankings.[36]
  • He Chong, Chinese, diver. He is the 2008 Olympic Champion gold medalist in the 3m springboard. He was unbeaten from 2006 – 2016
  • Jiang Jialiang, Table Tennis player, he won medals in Asia and world table tennis tournaments.
  • Xie Xingfang, Badminton player, she is a two-time world champion women's singles.
  • Chen Xiexia, She won three golds at the 2007 World Weightlifting Championships. The first gold medal for China in the 2008 Summer Olympics.
  • Zhang Jiewen, Gold medal in Badminton 2004 Athens
  • Lao Lishi, Gold medal in women's 10 meter synchronized platform along with Li Ting.
  • Su Bingtian, As a sprinter, he is the reigning Asian champion over 100 metres, was a semi-finalist at the 2012 Summer Olympics and a finalist at the 2015 World Championships.
  • Liang Wen-Chong, Highest ranked golfer from the People's Republic of China, the only Chinese golfer to have reached the top 100 of the Official World Golf Ranking.
  • Zeng Qiliang, the first medal of Chinese male swimmer in world championships.
  • Brian Ah Yat, a former American football quarterback who played three seasons with the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League.
  • Harland Ah You, is a former gridiron football defensive lineman who played 10 games with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League in 1998.
  • Junior Ah You, former college and professional Canadian and American football player who played primarily at the defensive end position
  • Lindswell Kwok, six times world champion of Wushi
  • Brian Ah Yat, former American football quarterbac
  • Harland Ah You, is a former gridiron football defensive lineman who played 10 games with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League in 1998.[37]
  • Junior Ah You,[38] Hall of Fame and Top 50 players of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN.[39]
  • Keanu Asing(urfer who competes in the World Surf League and debuted on the World Championship Tour of the 2015 World Surf League.[40][41]<
  • Josiah Ng, Josiah was the first Malaysian to make it into the cycling Olympic finals becoming a three-time Olympian

Businesspeople

  • Raymond, Thomas, and Walter Kwok, brothers whose property business makes them the fourth richest in Hong Kong[42]
  • Stanley Ho, Hong Kong and Macanese business magnate
  • Lui Che-woo, real estate and hospitality magnate, Hong Kong billionaire, once the 2nd richest man in Asia
  • Cheng Yu-tung, Hong Kong billionaire
  • Tang Yiu Hong Kong billionaire businessman, founder of shoe and sportswear retailer Belle International
  • Mei Quong Tart, rich nineteenth-century merchant
  • Charles Sew Hoy, merchant and gold-dredging pioneer
  • Loke Yew, philanthropist and was once the richest man in British Malaysia
  • Chin Gee Hee, merchant and railway entrepreneur
  • Lee Shau-kee, Once the 4th richest man in world, real estate tycoon and owner of Henderson Land Development
  • Steven Lo, businessman and football team manager
  • He Jingtang, a prominent Chinese architect for Olympic 2008
  • Jimmy Lai, founder of Giordano
  • Ho Ching, First Lady of Singapore[43][44][45][45]
  • He Xiangjian is the co-founder of Midea, one of China's largest appliance makers.
  • Zhang Zhidong, a Chinese businessman, co-founder, former CTO and second-largest individual shareholder of Tencent, a Chinese internet company
  • Yang Huiyan, the majority shareholder (55%) of Country Garden Holdings
  • Lawrence Ho, Hong Kong businessman, chairman and CEO of Melco International, the chairman and CEO of Melco Crown Entertainment
  • Ah Ken, a Chinese American businessman and popular figure in Chinatown, Manhattan
  • Dennis Fong, Fong is recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the first professional gamer.[46]
  • Peter Tham , A former Singaporean stockbroker and the director of Pan-Electric Industries and now a wanted criminal.
  • Loke Wan Tho, He was the founder of Cathay Organisation in Singapore and Malaysia
  • Eu Tong Sen, leading businessman in Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong during the late 19th and early 20th century
  • Ah Ken, Chinese American businessman and popular figure in Chinatown, Manhattan during the mid-to late 19th century.
  • Kathy Chan, Chinese-American entrepreneur and investor
  • Wesley Chan, early product innovator at Google Inc., best known for founding and launching Google Analytics and Google Voice

Arts

  • Choy Weng Yang, contributions on post-modern arts in Singapore, helped shaped the contemporary art scene in Singapore
  • Reagan Louie, an American photographer on sex life
  • Alan Chin (photographer), contributing photographer to Newsweek and The New York Times, editor and photographer at BagNews
  • Bernice Bing, Chinese American lesbian artist involved in the San Francisco Bay Area art scene in the 1960s
  • Lee Man Fong, A painter who had successful exhibitions in Europe and Asia
  • You Jin, received the Cultural Medallion Award in 2009 for her contributions to Singapore's literary arts scene.

Martial artists

  • Wong Fei-hung, martial artist in the Qing dynasty
  • Yip Man, martial artist and teacher of Bruce Lee
  • Chan Heung, founder of Choy Li Fut
  • Donnie Yen, martial artist and actor, one of the highest paid action Asian star
  • Bruce Lee, one of the most influential martial artist famous actor of Asian descent of all time

Authors

  • Francis Chan Author of the best-selling book
  • Clara Ng Indonesian writer who is known for both adult fiction and children's literature.
  • Amy Tan Award-winning book seller and subject of controversy

Academics

Mathematician

  • Yum-Tong Siu – the William Elwood Byerly Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University

Other notable figures

See also

References

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  5. ^ Huai Nan Zi, section 18
  6. ^ Zhang & Huang, pp. 26–31.
  7. ^ Zhang and Huang, pp. 196–200; also Shi Ji 130
  8. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 97 《《史記·酈生陸賈列傳》
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  14. ^ Jacques Gernet (31 May 1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7. 
  15. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 67. ISBN 988-8028-54-5. Retrieved 4 November 2011. There was indeed a group of Portuguese who became pirates, called "Macau ruffians," or policemen who turned bad, along with "Manila-men" from the Philippines and escaped African slaves. Their fleet attacked "the Cantonese ships when they could get them at an advantage, and murdered their crews with circumstances of great atrocity."55 They were destroyed in Ningbo by a fleet of Chinese pirates with the support of the local Chinese government and other Europeans. 
  16. ^ "UK Chinese". Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
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  18. ^ Langmead, Donald. [2011] (2011). Maya Lin: A Biography. ABC-CLIO publishing. ISBN 0313378533, 9780313378539. pg 5–6.
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  26. ^ Branigan, Tania (2010-07-25). "Protesters gather in Guangzhou to protect Cantonese language". The Guardian. London. 
  27. ^ Macau has become known as the 'Las Vegas of the Far East'. Papers by Cindia Ching-Chi [3]
  28. ^ Barboza, David (2007-01-23). "Macao Surpasses Las Vegas as Gambling Center". The New York Times. 
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Further reading

  • David Faure; Helen F. Siu (1995). Down to earth: the territorial bond in South China. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2435-7. 
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