Canadian raising

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Canadian raising according to the vowel chart in Rogers (2000:124)

Canadian raising is an allophonic rule of phonology in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points. Most commonly, the shift affects Listeni// or Listeni//, or both, when they are pronounced before voiceless consonants (therefore, in words like About this sound price and clout, respectively, but not in About this sound prize and cloud). In North American English, /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ usually begin in an open vowel, something like the vowel in alm [a], but through raising they shift to a sound similar to the vowel in um: [ɐ], [ʌ], or sometimes even [ɜ] or [ə]. Canadian English often has raising in both the PRICE word set (including words like height, life, psych, type, etc.) and MOUTH word set (clout, house, south, scout, etc.), but most dialects in the United States have raising only in the PRICE word set if at all.

In the U.S., the raised pronunciation of about [əˈbɐʊt~əˈbəʊt] is a stereotype of Canadian English; Americans often jokingly pronounce it as a boot to imitate a Canadian accent.[citation needed]

Similarly, the raising of // in North American English changes the first vowel in writer and causes it to be pronounced differently from the first vowel in rider. Since t and d in these words are pronounced the same through intervocalic alveolar flapping, these words are a minimal pair and are not complete homophones.


Phonetic environment

In general, Canadian raising affects vowels before voiceless consonants like /f/, /θ/, /t/, and /s/. Vowels before voiced consonants like /v/, /ð/, /d/, and /z/ are usually not raised.

This rule, however, is not completely accurate. A study of three speakers in Meaford, Ontario shows that pronunciation of the diphthong // falls on a continuum between raised and unraised. Raising is influenced by voicing of the following consonant, but it also appears to be influenced by the sound before the diphthong. Frequently the diphthong is raised when it is preceded by a coronal: in gigantic, dinosaur, and Siberia.[1] Raising before /r/, as in wire, iris, and fire, has been noted in some American accents.[2]

Raising of /aɪ/ before voiced consonants is particularly advanced in the Inland North, North Central American English, and Philadelphia dialect areas, especially [d], [ɡ] and [n]. Hence, words like tiny, spider, cider, tiger, dinosaur, cyber-, beside, idle (but sometimes not idol), and fire may contain a raised nucleus. The use of [ʌɪ] rather than [aɪ] in such words is unpredictable from phonetic environment alone, though it may have to do with their acoustic similarity to other words that do contain [ʌɪ] before a voiceless consonant, per the traditional Canadian-raising system. Hence, some researchers have argued that there has been a phonemic split in these dialects; the distribution of the two sounds is becoming more unpredictable among younger speakers.[3]

Raising can apply to compound words. Hence, high school [ˈhʌɪskul] as a term meaning "a secondary school for students approximately 14–18 years old" the vowel in high may be raised, whereas high school [ˌhaɪ ˈskul] with the literal meaning of "a school that is high (e.g. in elevation)" is unaffected. (The two terms are also distinguished by the position of the stress accent, as shown). The same is true of "high chair".[4]

However, frequently it does not. One study of speakers in Rochester, New York and Minnesota found a very inconsistent pattern of /aɪ/ raising before voiceless consonants in certain prefixes; for example, the numerical prefix bi- was raised in "bicycle" but not "bisexual" or "bifocals". Likewise, the vowel was consistently kept low when used in a prefix in words like dichotomy, mitosis, and anti-Semitic. This pattern may have to do with stress or familiarity of the word to the speaker; however, these relations are still inconsistent.[4]

Intervocalic alveolar flapping occurs in most dialects of North American English. Through this change, /t/ and /d/ between vowels are both pronounced as an alveolar flap [ɾ]. Alveolar flapping occurs after Canadian raising, so writer [ˈɹʌɪɾɚ] has a raised vowel and rider [ˈɹaɪɾɚ] does not, and these words are distinguished by their vowels, even though they both have a flapped [ɾ]. In British English, such as Received Pronunciation, neither flapping nor raising occur, so these words would have different consonants and identical vowels, except for a slight difference in length: [ˈɹaɪtə] and [ˈɹaɪdə].


The raised variant of // typically becomes [ʌɪ], while the raised variant of // varies by dialect, with [ʌʊ] more common in Western Canada and a fronted variant [ɛʉ] commonly heard in Central Canada. In any case, the [a] component of the diphthong changes from a low vowel to a mid-low vowel ([ʌ], [ɐ] or [ɛ]).

Geographic distribution

Despite its name, Canadian raising is not restricted to Canada.

Raising of both // and // is common in eastern New England, for example in Boston,[5] as well as in the Upper Midwest. South Atlantic English and the accents of England's Fens feature it as well.[clarification needed]

Raising of just // is found throughout the United States, and so may be considered an increasingly common General American characteristic, with the only major exception in the U.S. being in the South. There is considerable variation in this one type of Canadian raising's application and phonetic effects in the U.S., where it is believed to have spread from the North, and so most prominently includes the English of Northern U.S. regions like New England, the Inland North, and Philadelphia.[6] It also appears in Western American (including California) English. Even some speakers in the South undergo this form of Canadian raising, though, more commonly, Southern American English (as well as African American Vernacular and Afro-Bahamian English) demonstrates a distinct but related phenomenon that splits // by retaining the glide before voiceless consonants and weakening the glide elsewhere. The raising of // is also present in Ulster English, spoken in the northern region of the island of Ireland, in which // is split between the sound [ä(ː)e] (before voiced consonants or in final position) and the sound [ɛɪ~ɜɪ] (before voiceless consonants but also sometimes in any position); phonologist Raymond Hickey has described this Ulster raising as "embryonically the situation" for Canadian raising.[7]

There are also Canadians who raise only // but not //, or vice versa.

See also


  1. ^ Hall 2005.
  2. ^ Vance 1987.
  3. ^ Freuhwald, Josef T. (November 11, 2007). "The Spread of Raising: Opacity, lexicalization, and diffusion". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 21, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Vance, Timothy J. (August 1987). ""Canadian Raising" in Some Dialects of the Northern United States". University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  5. ^ Boberg 2010, p. 156.
  6. ^ Boberg 2010, p. 156; Kaye 2012.
  7. ^ Hickey 2007, p. 335.


Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Studies in English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87432-8. 
Britain, David (1997). "Dialect Contact and Phonological Reallocation: 'Canadian Raising' in the English Fens". Language in Society. 26 (1): 15–46. doi:10.1017/S0047404500019394. ISSN 0047-4045. 
Chambers, J. K. (1973). "Canadian Raising". Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 18 (2): 113–135. doi:10.1017/S0008413100007350. ISSN 0008-4131. 
Dailey-O'Cain, Jennifer (1997). "Canadian Raising in a Midwestern U.S. City". Language Variation and Change. 9 (1): 107–120. doi:10.1017/s0954394500001812. ISSN 1469-8021. 
Hall, Kathleen Currie (2005). Alderete, John; Han, Chung-hye; Kochetov, Alexei, eds. Defining Phonological Rules over Lexical Neighbourhoods: Evidence from Canadian Raising (PDF). West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Somerville, Massachusetts: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. ISBN 978-1-57473-407-2. 
Hickey, Raymond (2007). Irish English: History and Present-day Forms. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85299-9. 
Kaye, Jonathan (2012). "Canadian Raising, Eh?". In Cyran, Eugeniusz; Kardela, Henryk; Szymanek, Bogdan. Sound Structure and Sense: Studies in Memory of Edmund Gussmann. Lublin, Poland: Wydawnictwo KUL. pp. 321–352. ISBN 978-83-7702-381-5. 
Labov, William (1963). "The Social Motivation of a Sound Change". Word. 19 (3): 273–309. doi:10.1080/00437956.1963.11659799. ISSN 0043-7956. 
Rogers, Henry (2000). The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7. 
Vance, Timothy J. (1987). "'Canadian Raising' in Some Dialects of the Northern United States". American Speech. 62 (3): 195–210. ISSN 1527-2133. JSTOR 454805. 
Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Cambridge University Press. 
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