Campanian

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System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0 72.1
Campanian 72.1 83.6
Santonian 83.6 86.3
Coniacian 86.3 89.8
Turonian 89.8 93.9
Cenomanian 93.9 100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5 ~113.0
Aptian ~113.0 ~125.0
Barremian ~125.0 ~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4 ~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9 ~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8 ~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

The Campanian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series). The Campanian spans the time from 83.6 ± 0.7 Ma to 72.1 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[2]

The Campanian was an age when a worldwide sea level rise drowned many coastal areas. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved as an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks.[3][4]

Stratigraphic definition

The Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian stage.

The base of the Campanian stage is laid at the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius. A GSSP had not yet been ratified in 2009. One possible candidate is in a section near a dam at Waxahachie, Texas.

The top of the Campanian is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears.

Subdivision

The Campanian is sometimes subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:

Paleontology

During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian.[5]

Animals that lived in the Campanian include:

†Ankylosaurs

Ankylosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aletopelta

Point Loma Formation, California, USA A medium-sized ankylosaurid, estimated to be around 6 m (20 ft) long.

Antarctopelta

Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica A stocky ankylosaur protected by armor plates embedded in the skin. Although a complete skeleton has not been found, the species is estimated to have reached a maximum length of 4 meters (13 feet). Displays characteristics of both ankylosaurids and nodosaurids.

Edmontonia

Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A bulky nodosaurid at roughly 6.6 m (22 ft) long. It had small, ridged bony plates on its back and many sharp spikes along its body sides. The four largest spikes jutted out from the shoulders on each side, two of which were split into subspines in some specimens. Its skull had a pear-like shape when viewed from above.

Euoplocephalus

Nodocephalosaurus

Palaeoscincus

Judith River Formation known from a single tooth

Panoplosaurus

Judith River Formation, Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA A 5.5–7 m long nodosaurid.

Pinacosaurus

Saichania

Shanxia

Struthiosaurus

Tarchia

Tianzhenosaurus

Birds (avian theropods)

Birds of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Hesperornis

Ichthyornis

Neogaeornis wetzeli

A marine bird from Chile. It had the midfeet of a foot-propelled diving bird, but its relationships are enigmatic. The only known species is from the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary.

Bony fish

Bony fish of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Xiphactinus

Cartilaginous fish

Cartilaginous fish of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Chlamydoselachus

Schizorhiza

†Ceratopsians

Ceratopsians of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Achelousaurus

  1. Achelousaurus horneri
74.2 million years ago

Agujaceratops

  1. Agujaceratops mariscalensis
77 million years ago

Albertaceratops

  1. Albertaceratops nesmoi

Anchiceratops

  1. Anchiceratops longirostris

Avaceratops

  1. Avaceratops lammersi

Bagaceratops

  1. Bagaceratops rozhdestvenskyi

Bainoceratops

  1. Bainoceratops efremovi

Brachyceratops

  1. Brachyceratops montanensis

Breviceratops

  1. Breviceratops kozlowskii

Centrosaurus

  1. Centrosaurus apertus

Cerasinops

  1. Cerasinops hodgskissi

Ceratops

  1. Ceratops montanus

Chasmosaurus

  1. Chasmosaurus russelli
  2. Chasmosaurus belli

Coahuilaceratops

  1. Coahuilaceratops magnacuerna

Coronosaurus

  1. Coronosaurus brinkmani

Diabloceratops

  1. Diabloceratops eatoni

?Dysganus

  1. Dysganus encaustus
  2. Dysganus bicarinatus
  3. Dysganus peiganus

Einiosaurus

  1. Einiosaurus procurvicornis

Eoceratops

  1. Eoceratops canadensis

Graciliceratops

  1. Graciliceratops mongoliensis

Gryphoceratops

  1. Gryphoceratops morrisoni

Judiceratops

  1. Judiceratops tigris

Kosmoceratops

  1. Kosmoceratops richardsoni

Lamaceratops

  1. Lamaceratops tereschenkoi

Magnirostris

  1. Magnirostris dodsoni

Medusaceratops

  1. Medusaceratops lokii

Mercuriceratops

  1. Mercuriceratops gemini

Mojoceratops

  1. Mojoceratops perifania

Monoclonius

  1. Monoclonius crassus

Nasutoceratops

  1. Nasutoceratops titusi

?Notoceratops

  1. Notoceratops bonarellii
Chubut Province, Argentina A dubious genus of possible ceratopsian affinity

Pachyrhinosaurus

  1. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis
  2. Pachyrhinosaurus lakustai
  3. Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum

Pentaceratops

  1. Pentaceratops sternbergii

Platyceratops

  1. Platyceratops tatarinovi

Prenoceratops

  1. Prenoceratops pieganensis

Protoceratops

  1. Protoceratops andrewsi
  2. Protoceratops hellenikorhinus

Rubeosaurus

  1. Rubeosaurus ovatus

Spiclypeus

  1. Spiclypeus shipporum

Spinops

  1. Spinops sternbergorum

Styracosaurus

  1. Styracosaurus albertensis

Titanoceratops

  1. Titanoceratops ouranos

Udanoceratops

  1. Udanoceratops tschizhovi

Unescoceratops

  1. Unescoceratops koppelhusae

Utahceratops

  1. Utahceratops gettyi

Vagaceratops

  1. Vagaceratops irvinensis

Xenoceratops

  1. Xenoceratops foremostensis

Crocodylomorphs

Crocodylomorphs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Deinosuchus

Mammals

Mammals of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alphadon

Didelphodon

Kamptobaatar

Kennalestes

Kryptobaatar

Zalambdalestes

†Ornithopods

Ornithopods of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aralosaurus

85.8 mya Asia Aralosaurus was about the size of an elephant. Although very little is known about Aralosaurus (only one near complete skull has been found); it was identified by a beak with nearly 1,000 small teeth in 30 rows. These teeth were used for breaking up plant matter by chewing, a feature common in herbivorous dinosaurs, but unusual for reptiles.The back of an Aralosaurus skull was wide, a feature suggestive of large jaw muscles used to power its chewing apparatus.

Brachylophosaurus

76.5 mya Montana, USA; Alberta, Canada Brachylophosaurus was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of 9 meters (30 feet).

Corythosaurus

77-76.5 mya Alberta, Canada Corythosaurus weighed in at 4 tonnes and measured roughly 10 metres (33 feet) from nose to tail. Like other hadrosaurs it had a toothless beak, the back of the jaws contained a dental battery composed of hundreds of small, interlocking teeth. These were used to crush and grind plant matter and were continually replaced as they wore away.

Diclonius

75 mya Montana, USA

Edmontosaurus

73.0-76.5 mya Canada Edmontosaurus included some of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring up to 12 metres (39 feet) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons).

Gasparinisaura

85 mya Argentina Gasparinisaura was a small bipedal herbivore. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 1.7 metres, the weight at thirteen kilogrammes.

Gilmoreosaurus

72 mya Mongolia

Gryposaurus

83-75.5 mya Alberta, Canada Gryposaurus was a hadrosaurid of typical size and shape.

Hadrosaurus

79.5 mya New Jersey, USA It was likely bipedal for the purposes of running, but could use its forelegs to support itself while feeding.

Hypacrosaurus

75-67 mya Alberta, Canada Hypacrosaurus is most easily distinguished from other hollow-crested duckbills by its tall neural spines and the form of its crest. The neural spines, which project from the top of the vertebrae, are 5 to 7 times the height of the body of their respective vertebrae in the back,[4] which would have given it a tall back in profile. The skull's hollow crest is like that of Corythosaurus, but is more pointed along its top, not as tall, wider side to side, and has a small bony point at the rear

Hypsibema

North Carolina and Missouri, USA

Kritosaurus

73 mya North America The type specimen of Kritosaurus navajovius is only represented by a partial skull and lower jaws, and associated postcranial remains.

Lambeosaurus

76-75 mya Alberta, Canada

Lophorhothon

80 mya Alabama, USA

Maiasaura

76.7 mya Montana, USA Maiasaura was large, attaining an adult length of about 9 metres (30 feet) and had the typical hadrosaurid flat beak and a thick nose. It had a small, spiky crest in front of its eyes. The crest may have been used in headbutting contests between males during the breeding season.

Mandschurosaurus

Asia

Microhadrosaurus

China

Mochlodon

Austria A rhabdodontid.

Naashoibitosaurus

73 mya New Mexico, USA Naashoibitosaurus, based as it is on a single partial skeleton, is not well known in terms of anatomy. Its skull, the most thoroughly described portion, has a low nasal crest that peaks in front of the eyes, but does not strongly arch as in Gryposaurus.

Nipponosaurus

Russia

Orodromeus

76.7 mya Montana, USA Orodromeus was a small fast bipedal herbivore that probably coexisted with dinosaurs such as Daspletosaurus and Einiosaurus. Its length was estimated by Horner & Weishampel at 2.5 metres.

Parasaurolophus

76.5-73 mya Alberta, Canada; New Mexico and Utah, USA

Prosaurolophus

76-75 mya Alberta, Canada Prosaurolophus was a large-headed duckbill; the most complete described specimen has a skull around 0.9 meters (3.0 feet) long on a ~8.5 meter long skeleton (~28 ft).[2] It had a small, stout, triangular crest in front of the eyes; the sides of this crest were concave, forming depressions. The upper arm was relatively short.

Pteropelyx

Montana, USA

Rhabdodon

72 mya France; Spain; Haţeg Island, Romania It is unclear whether it was an iguanodont or a hypsilophodont, and may be a "missing link" between the two. Current evidence indicates it is an iguanodont similar to Tenontosaurus.

Saurolophus

69.5-68.5 mya North America, Asia Saurolophus is known from material including nearly complete skeletons, giving researchers a clear picture of its bony anatomy. S. osborni, the rarer Albertan species, was around 9.8 meters (32 feet) long, with its skull a meter long (3.3 feet). Its weight is estimated at 1.9 tonnes (2.1 tons). S. angustirostris, the Mongolian species, was larger; the type skeleton is roughly 12 meters (39 feet) long, and larger remains are reported.

Shantungosaurus

72 mya China It is one of the longest and largest known hadrosaurids; the composite skeleton of a medium-sized individual mounted at the Geological Institute of China in Beijing measures 14.72 metres (48.3 feet) in length.

Stephanosaurus

Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta

Tanius

China

Trachodon

77 mya Montana, USA

Tsintaosaurus

72 mya Southern China

Velafrons

72 mya Mexico

†Pachycephalosaurs

Pachycephalosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alaskacephale

Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA

Colepiocephale

Alberta, Canada The oldest known pachycephalosaurid.

Goyocephale

Mongolia

Gravitholus

Hanssuesia

Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA Distinguished from other pachycephalosaurs by having a depressed parietal region, wide frontoparietal dome, broad nasal characteristics, reduced prefontal lobes, and a reduced parietosquamosal shelf.

?Heishansaurus

Homalocephale

Mongolia Sporting a flat, wedge-shaped skull roof, Homalocephale was different from other pachycephalosaurs.

?Micropachycephalosaurus

Ornatotholus

Prenocephale

Sphaerotholus

Stegoceras

Tylocephale

Wannanosaurus

†Plesiosaurs

Plesiosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Elasmosaurus

80.5 mya Pierre Shale, Kansas, USA Elasmosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur with an extremely long neck.

Styxosaurus

83.5-80.5 mya Logan County, Kansas Styxosaurus is an Elasmosaurid plesiosaur.

†Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aerotitan

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Patagonia, Argentina

Bogolubovia

Rybushka Formation, Petrovsk, Russia

Geosternbergia

USA, North America Geosternbergia was originally a species of Pteranodon and is famous for its oddly shaped crest.

Montanazhdarcho

Montana, USA Small azhdarchoid pterosaur, probably a tapejarid

Navajodactylus

New Mexico, USA, and Alberta, Canada Known primarily from forearm elements; tentatively assigned to Azhdarchidae, though most likely not part of it.

Nyctosaurus

mid-western United States Nyctosaurus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur.

Piksi

Montana, USA Piksi is a genus of pterosaurs containing the single species Piksi barbarulna.

Pteranodon

Kansas, USA, North America Pteranodon is a genus of pterosaurs which included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over 6 metres

Quetzalcoatlus

Texas, USA Quetzalcoatlus was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America and one of the largest known flying animals of all time.

Volgadraco

Saratov, Russia Azhdarchid pterosaur.

†Sauropods

Sauropods of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alamosaurus

Southwestern United States Alamosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America. It was a large quadrupedal herbivore.

Andesaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Andesaurus is a genus of basal titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur.

Dreadnoughtus

Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Argentina Dreadnoughtus is one of the largest titanosaurs known.

Gondwanatitan

Adamantina Formation and Cambabe Formation, Brazil

Huabeisaurus

North East, China A member of the Euhelopodidae sauropods.

Laplatasaurus

Allen Formation and Anacleto Formation, both in Argentina; Palacio Formation, Uruguay

Loricosaurus

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Argentina

Microcoelus

Santonian-Campanian Bajo de la Carpa Formation, Argentina

Neuquensaurus

Anacleto Formation, Argentina

Overosaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Small-sized titanosaur.

Quaesitosaurus

Shar Tsav, Mongolia Quaesitosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod.

Saltasaurus

north-west Argentina; Uruguay Saltasaurus is a genus of titanosaurid sauropod dinosaur. An estimated length of 12 metres (39 feet) and a mass of 7 tonnes (8 tons).

Rocasaurus

Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation, Rio Negro Province, Argentina

Squamates

Squamates of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Halisaurus

Mosasaurus

Plotosaurus

Taniwhasaurus

New Zealand, Japan, Antarctica

Tylosaurus

Testudines

Testudines of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Archelon

Reconstruction of Archelon

†Theropods (non-avian)

David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian Alberta and Montana had very similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas.[6]

Non-avian theropods of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Abelisaurus

Allen Formation?, Anacleto Formation?, Argentina Bipedal carnivore that probably reached 7 to 9 meters in length; known from only one partial skull.
Portrait of Saurornithoides

Albertosaurus

Appalachiosaurus

Archaeornithomimus

Bambiraptor

Byronosaurus

Citipati

Carnotaurus

Chirostenotes

Daspletosaurus

Deinodon

Judith River Formation

Dromaeosaurus

Dromiceiomimus

Dryptosaurus

Gobivenator

Gorgosaurus

Harpymimus

Khaan

Kol

Linheraptor

Lythronax

Wahweap Formation, Utah A 7-meter tyrannosaurid known from a partially complete skull, some vertebrae and a complete pubis

Luanchuanraptor

Mahakala

Nanshiungosaurus

Noasaurus

Ornithomimus

Oviraptor

Mongolia

Parvicursor

Pyroraptor

Var, France

Saurornithoides

Saurornitholestes

Shuvuuia

Struthiomimus

Troodon

Tsaagan

Variraptor

Var, France

Velociraptor

Mongolia and China

Xenotarsosaurus

Zhuchengtyrannus

Wangshi Group, Zhucheng, China One of the largest tyrannosaurids at between 10–12 meters. Known from a lower jaw and maxilla slightly smaller than those of the later Tyrannosaurus.

References

  1. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  2. ^ See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed version of the geological timescale
  3. ^ Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter (2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence". Global and Planetary Change. 100: 153–171. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015.
  4. ^ Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden". Cretaceous Research. 31: 567–576. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.006.
  5. ^ See Weishampel et al. (2004)
  6. ^ "Abstract," in Varricchio (2001). Page 42.
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur (Theropoda) dinosaurs from Montana. pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter (eds.), Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis, Indiana.
  • Weishampel, D.B.; Barrett, P.M.; Coria, R.A.; Le Loueff, J.; Xu, X.; Zhao, X.; Sahni, A.; Gomani, E.M.P. & Noto, C.N.; 2004: Dinosaur distribution, in: Weishampel, D.B.; Dodson, P. & Osmólska, H. (eds.): The Dinosauria, University of California Press, Berkeley (2nd ed.), ISBN 0-520-24209-2, pp 517–606.

External links

  • GeoWhen Database - Campanian
  • Late Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
  • Stratigraphic chart of the Late Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
  • Campanian Microfossils: 75+ images of Foraminifera
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