California State Military Reserve

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California State Military Reserve
Flag CSMR.png
Bear flag insignia
Active 1846–present
Country  United States of America
Allegiance  State of California
Type State defense force
Role Provide an adequately trained and organized State military reserve force under the exclusive control of the Governor[1][2]
Size 1,500+
Part of California Military Department
Nickname(s) CSMR
Motto(s) Always Ready, Always There
Engagements

Mexican–American War[3]
American Civil War[4][5]
Indian Wars[6]
Spanish–American War[7]
World War I (home front)[8]

World War II (home front)[9]
Website http://www.calguard.ca.gov/CSMR
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief Governor of California Jerry Brown
Commander BG (CA) Frank D. Emanuel[10]
Command Sergeant Major CSM (CA) Daniel M. DeGeorge[11]

The California State Military Reserve (CSMR) is the state defense force of California, and one of three branches of the Active Militia of the State.[12] The military reserve was formed to provide California a trained and organized military force in the event of a state security or natural disaster emergency to augment the California National Guard or when the National Guard is deployed. Its current mission is articulated in CA Military & Veteran's Code § 550:[13]

"... as the Governor may deem necessary to defend and for the security of this State ..."

For the 2012-2013 fiscal year, the CSMR had 1400 volunteers[14] and its expenditures were USD 620,000.[15]

Organization

The California State Military Reserve is authorized as a state defense force under the provisions of the Title 32, United States Code, Section 109(c)[16] and the California State Military Reserve Act (codified in the California Military and Veterans Code).[17] It is one of five components of the California Military Department[18] and has legal standing as part of California's Active Militia.[19]

Members and recruiting

The force consists of citizens or individuals who have begun their naturalization process, who possess a variety of skills, and many members are veterans of other branches of the United States Armed Forces as well as former members of the California Army and Air National Guard. All citizens over the age of 18 who are not felons and possess a high school diploma or GED are eligible to apply for membership, although military veterans and those with special skills which materially contribute to the CSMR's mission are preferred.

Members are considered uncompensated State employees,[20] although when called to emergency State Active Duty, they become compensated employees at the same rate as National Guard members of the same rank.[21]

Unlike the Civil Air Patrol or the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, the CSMR is a statutory military entity of the State with each CSMR member subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) per CMVC § 560.[22]

Training and Qualifications

Prior service soldiers find an easy[according to whom?] transition into the CSMR. Any MOS qualifications, ribbons, medals, badges, or awards earned in federal or state national guard service transfer directly; this includes "combat patches". Depending on the rank earned and length of time since separation, previously-held rank in those services also transfers.

CSMR Regulations require all soldiers to attend the Basic Orientation Course (BOC) which consists of basic military customs and courtesies and a general overview of the CSMR.[23] This is just a basic course spanning a few days at most. In addition to this, any soldier entering the CSMR in the southern region (RSC-S) must attend an Initial Entry Training (IET) course through the RSC(S) HHC Training Company. This is a five-month course where soldiers report to a student chain of command that changes every month. They are given weekly homework and accountability tasks to strengthen unit cohesion and train soldiers on how to interact with the chain of command. Every month roles are switched around and new soldiers are assigned as squad leaders while soldiers completing Echo track (final phase) graduate and are released to their gaining units. During this five-month course they report for UTA at the Training Company IEP (Initial Entry Platoon). They are taught customs and courtesies in depth and practice drill and ceremony. This is as physical as it gets; the course is similar to federal boot camp curriculum and training without the physical component. Soldiers are required to maintain Army height and weight standards, but that is done on the soldier's own time. There is no CSMR equivalent to Advanced Individual Training (AIT): This is done on the unit level once the soldier arrives from standards.

While prior service soldiers retain any MOSq obtained previously, non-prior-service soldiers have no MOS qualification. When Army Knowledge Online (AKO) accounts were available, CSMR soldiers could take courses and become MOSq in select MOS's however at the moment there is no AKO replacement for non-prior soldiers to obtain an MOS. Most of the time the soldier has civilian qualifications that meet or exceed Army standard for a particular MOS and they are used as Subject Matter Experts (SME) to train their national guard counterparts.

Units

Sgt. Tien Quach, left, the California State Military Reserve, and Sgt. Jason Roldan load equipment into an Incident Commander’s Command, Control and Communications Unit (IC4U).
Members of the California State Military Reserve perform squad drills.
California State Military Reserve officer candidates wait to be commissioned as officers.
WO1 Joshua Zollo, a firefighter who serves with Alpha Company, 1st Special Troops Battalion, Regional Support Command North, California State Military Reserve, checks under the hood of a Humvee.
California State Military Reserve Staff Sgt. Andrew Cater, the acting first sergeant of Alpha Company, Northern Regional Support Command, participates in a crowd control class.
CSMR Soldiers board a Los Angeles Port Police dive support ship for a waterfront tour.

As of 1 AUG 2016, the California State Military Reserve has been reorganized. All of the units have been directly embedded with national guard units throughout the state. The current organization is as follows:[24]

  • Headquarters, California State Military Reserve
    • Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment (HHD)
    • J1 (Administration and Personnel )
    • J3 (Operations)
    • J4 (Logistics)
    • J5 (Plans)
    • J6 (IT and Communications)
    • J9 (Directorate)
    • Provost Marshal
    • Recruiting
    • Trial Defense
    • Band
  • 40th Support Command
    • 79th Support Brigade
    • 100th Support Command
    • 224th Support Brigade
    • Special Operations Support Detachment
  • 49th Support Brigade
    • 143rd MP Support Battalion
    • 185th MP Support Detachment
    • 579th Engineer Support Detachment
  • 223rd Training Regiment
  • Aviation Support Brigade
  • Center for Military Heritage
    • North
    • South
  • Chaplain Command
  • Joint Task Force, Air
    • 115th Support Group
    • 129th Support Group
    • 144th Support Group
    • 146th Support Group
    • 163rd Support Group
    • 195th Support Group
  • Installation Support Command
    • Joint Forces Training Base, Los Alamitos
    • Camp Roberts
    • Camp San Luis Obispo
  • Legal Support Command
  • Maritime Support Command
    • MARSCOM Headquarters
    • North Harbor Det ONE
    • North Shore Det ONE
    • South Harbor Det TWO
    • South Shore Det TWO
    • South Shore Det FOUR
  • Medical Command
    • North
    • South
  • Youth and Community Programs

The old command structure prior to August 2016 is gone but was as follows:

  • Headquarters, California State Military Reserve
    • Headquarters Company
    • State Surgeon Office
    • Chaplain's Office
    • Staff Judge Advocate Section
    • Provost Marshal's Office
  • Regional Support Command - North
    • 1st Task Force
    • 2nd Task Force
    • 1st Special Troops Battalion
    • 2nd Special Troops Battalion
      • Detachment #3, Small Arms Training Team, Camp Roberts CA
  • Regional Support Command - South
    • 1st Brigade (Army Support)
      • 1st Battalion (Army Support)
        • Alpha Company (Moreno Valley)
        • Bravo Company (Azusa)
      • 2nd Battalion - JFTB Los Alamitos
        • Headquarters Company (HHC)
        • Alpha Company (Search and Rescue)
        • Bravo Company (Hazmat)
        • 1st Signal Support Company (Signal/IC4U)
      • 3rd Battalion (San Diego)
    • 2nd Brigade (Civil Support)
      • 1st Battalion State Military Police - JFTB Los Alamitos
      • 2nd Battalion State Military Police - Kearny Mesa
  • Installation Support Command
    • ISC, Camp San Luis Obispo
    • ISC, Camp Roberts
    • ISC, JFTB Los Alamitos
  • Military Heritage Command
    • Museum Support Unit
    • Military History Unit
    • 1st Field History Unit (North)
    • 2nd Field History Unit (Central)
    • 3rd Field History Unit (South)
  • Troop Command
    • Recruiting Task Force - North
    • Recruiting Task Force - Central
    • Recruiting Task Force - South
    • Inactive Reserve Control Group
    • Trial Defense Service Augmentation Detachment
    • Training Battalion - Youth Programs
      • Detachment A – CSLO
      • Detachment B – Los Alamitos
      • Detachment C – Oakland
      • Detachment D – California Cadet Corps Support
  • Headquarters, Air Support Command
    • ASD – 129th RW Support Unit
    • ASD – 144th FW Support Unit
    • ASD – 146th AW Support Unit
    • ASD – 162nd CC Support Unit
    • ASD – 163rd RW Support Unit

Federal activation

Like other state defense forces, CSMR members are generally not susceptible to federal activation. However, 10 USC 331-333 may grant powers to the federal government to call up the CSMR,[25][26] because militia is defined as both organized (National Guard) and unorganized under 10 USC 311(b).[27] In addition, Article II, Section II of the United States Constitution further states:

"The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States"[28]

Duties

The CSMR accomplishes its Homeland Security Mission by providing individual soldiers and airmen as well as rapid response teams to Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA) missions in the preparation, prevention, deterrence, preemption, defense, and mitigation of natural and man-made threats to California.

Members of the CSMR are required to serve a minimum of 200 hours annually. Part of that time is spent at Unit Training Assemblies (drills or meetings) which are usually eight to twelve hours on one Saturday each month. Many units require 2-day drills or more depending on their mission. These drills are used for training sessions, activity coordination, and to work with their National Guard counterparts. CSMR soldiers embedded with National Guard units for training purposes will drill the full weekend with their National Guard counterparts.

Uniforms

CSMR soldiers of the Army Component wear the standard Army Service Uniform (ASU) as well as the Army Combat Uniform (ACU) and CSMR airmen of the Air Component wear the standard U.S. Air Force Service Dress uniforms, as well as the Airman Battle Uniform (ABU). MARSCOM Sailors serving in Harbor Dets wear uniforms similar to USN NWU Type 1 while those serving in Shore Dets wear uniforms similar to USMC Woodland and Desert MARPAT/MCCUU. They are referred to as MUU (Maritime Utility Uniform). All uniforms have distinctive state insignia designating them as a member of the California State Military Reserve. All officers and enlisted members are responsible for purchasing their uniforms and accessories. This could require an investment of $300 or more. A yearly $125 uniform and travel allowance has been authorized for all CSMR soldiers and airmen who have maintained 100% attendance in a twelve-month period.[29]

The Center for Military History is unique within the CSMR in that it has a Distinctive Unit Insignia which is worn by members.

Naval Militia

The California Military and Veterans Code also provides for a naval branch.[30] The California Naval Militia was founded in 1891 and grew to have many ships and sailors at statewide ports, from San Diego to Eureka. It provided officers and sailors to the U.S. Navy during the Spanish–American War and World War I.[31] The California Naval Militia was reactivated in 1976 by the Governor of California.[32][33] Unlike New York and the few other states with ship-borne active naval militia units, the California Naval Militia is a small unit of military lawyers and strategists who provide advice and legal expertise in the field of military and naval matters for the benefit of California's state defense force. It has not been a branch of the California state militia since it was mustered into the Navy during World War I.[34]

Effective 1 October 2015, California approved the process of reactivating and standing up the Naval Militia. Initially it will take the form of the Maritime Support Element per TAG policy memorandum dated 15 January 2016, a component of CSMR (like the Maritime Regiment of the Texas State Guard) instead of a separate Branch like the New York and Ohio Naval Militias.[citation needed]

On 18 March 2017, the California State Military Reserve established the Maritime Support Command (MARSCOM) under the command of CAPT (CA) M. Hanson, with SCPO (CA) E. Anderson as the MARSCOM Senior Enlisted Advisor, in a ceremony aboard the USS Hornet.[35]

Operations

Operation Fall Blaze

A past large-scale operation of the CSMR was during Operation Fall Blaze in October/November 2007, where over 100 citizen soldiers of the CSMR were integrated with their National Guard counterparts to help firefighters fight the California wildfires.

Operation Lightning Strike

The CSMR took an active and vital role in the 2008 Operation Lightning Strike, when Governor Schwarzenegger called on over 2,000 troops from the California Army National Guard, Air National Guard, and SMR to help overwhelmed firefighters fight statewide wildfires.[36]

In popular culture

In the 2007 comedy movie Delta Farce, about a group of misfit reservists who think they are in Iraq when they are really in Mexico, the CSMR is alluded to when the characters played by Bill Engvall and Larry the Cable Guy say, "We're just State Military Reserves" "Yeah, SMURFS!".

Possible name change

In August 2015, a memo surfaced which mentioned a possible name change.[citation needed] The idea is to revert to "California State Guard" as used during World War II. This is more in-line with the rest of the nation's State defense forces and more closely identifies them with their National Guard counterparts.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/CSMR
  2. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/CSMR/Documents/CSMRBasicHandbook100-1.pdf
  3. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120303135146/http://www.militarymuseum.org/History%20Mex%20War.html
  4. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/2013020723415/http://www.militarymuseum.org/HistoryCW.html
  5. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130118053317/http://www.militarymuseum.org/LosAngelesMountedRifles2.html
  6. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130830013958/http://www.militarymuseum.org/HistoryIW.html
  7. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130102210248/http://www.militarymuseum.org/HistorySpanAm.html
  8. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130102210253/http://www.militarymuseum.org/HistoryWWI.html
  9. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140806182344/http://www.militarymuseum.org/HistoryWWII.html
  10. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/CSMR/Pages/Brigadier-General-Frank-D-Emanuel.aspx
  11. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/CSMR/Pages/CSM-Daniel-M-Degeorge.aspx
  12. ^ California Military & Veteran's Code 120
  13. ^ California Military & Veterans Code section 550
  14. ^ California Department of Finance (2014), California Governor's Budget 2014-2015 Proposed Budget Detail, 8940 Military Department, Program Descriptions, 55 - State Military Reserve, retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  15. ^ California Department of Finance (2014), California Governor's Budget 2014-2015 Proposed Budget Detail, 8940 Military Department, 3-Year Expenditures and Positions, retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  16. ^ United States Code, Title 32, section 109(c)
  17. ^ California Military & Veterans Code sections 550-567
  18. ^ California Military & Veterans Code section 51
  19. ^ California Military $ Veterans Code section 120
  20. ^ California Government Code section 810.2
  21. ^ California Military and Veterans Code section 552-553
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/CSMR/Documents/CA%20SMR%20Reg%20600-2.pdf
  24. ^ 2017 CSMR Commander's Conference Briefing
  25. ^ Federal Activation of State Defense Forces
  26. ^ United States Code, Title 10, Sections 331-333
  27. ^ United States Code, Title 10, section 311(b)
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ California Military and Veterans Code section 328
  30. ^ California Military & Veterans Code sections 280-301
  31. ^ Naval Battalion of the California National Guard
  32. ^ California Military Museum, California Naval Militia
  33. ^ Mark J. Denger. "History of California State Naval Forces". Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  34. ^ http://www.militarymuseum.org/Riddle.html
  35. ^ "CSMR Establishes Maritime Component". State Guard Association of the United States. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  36. ^ http://www.calguard.ca.gov/publicaffairs/Pages/Operation%20Lightning%20Strike/lightning_strike.aspx CNG Operation Lightning Strike Begins

External links

  • California State Military Reserve
  • Office of the Adjutant General – the Executive Officer and Commander of the California National Guard and California State Military Reserve
  • 32 U.S.C. § 109
  • California Military & Veterans Code
  • Index to Militia Units of the State of California 1850-1881
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