Cachao

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Cachao
Cachao.jpg
Background information
Birth name Israel López Valdés[1]
Born (1918-09-14)September 14, 1918
Habana Vieja, La Habana, Cuba
Died March 22, 2008(2008-03-22) (aged 89)
Coral Gables, Florida, United States
Genres Danzón, mambo, descarga
Occupation(s) Musician, bandleader, composer
Instruments Double bass
Years active 1926-2008
Labels Panart, Kubaney, Maype, Salsoul, EMI
Associated acts Orestes López, Arcaño y sus Maravillas, Andy García
Website http://www.israelcachaolopez.com/

Israel López Valdés (September 14, 1918 – March 22, 2008), better known as Cachao (/kəˈ/ kə-CHOW), was a Cuban double bassist and composer. He is considered one of the most influential charanga bassists of all-time, the co-creator of the mambo and a master of the descarga (improvised Cuban jam sessions).[2] He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and won several Grammy Awards from the 1990s. He is ranked number 24 on Bass Player magazine's list of "The 100 Greatest Bass Players of All Time".[3]

Biography

Early life and career

Cachao was born on September 14, 1918 in Belén, a neighbourhood in Old Havana, into a family of musicians, many of them bassists—around 40 or more in his extended family.[4][5] He was born and raised in the same house in which José Martí was born.[6][7] His nickname and stage name Cachao was given to him by his grandfather Aurelio López.[6][8]

Cachao began his musical career in 1926, taught by his father and his older brother, multi-instrumentalist Orestes López, nicknamed "Macho".[6] As an 8-year-old bongo player, he joined a children's son cubano septet directed by a 14-year old Roberto Faz.[6] A year later, already on double bass, he provided music for silent movies in his neighborhood theater, in the company of a pianist who would become a true superstar, the great cabaret performer Ignacio Villa, known as Bola de Nieve.[9]

His parents made sure he was classically trained, first at home and then at a conservatory. In his early teens he was already playing contrabass with the Orquesta Filarmónica de La Habana (of which Orestes was a founding member), under the baton of guest conductors such as Herbert von Karajan, Igor Stravinsky and Heitor Villa-Lobos. He played with the orchestra from 1930 to 1960.[4]

Las Maravillas and the origin of mambo

Cachao's and Orestes' rise to fame came with the charanga Arcaño y sus Maravillas, founded by flautist Antonio Arcaño. As members of the group they composed literally thousands of danzones together and were a major influence on Cuban music from the 1930s to the 1950s. They introduced the nuevo ritmo ("new rhythm") in the late 1930s, which transformed the danzón by introducing a syncopated final section open to the improvisation of the players and dancers. This section, known as the mambo, was named after the danzón "Mambo", co-written by Cachao and Orestes. In the words of Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante, it was the "mother of all mambos".[10] In their vast repertoire were also compositions by other songwriters such as "Isora Club", written by their sister Coralia López, as well as arrangements of standards such as "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" and songs by George Gershwin and Jelly Roll Morton.[6] Although Cachao left the group in 1948, the Maravillas went on for another ten years.[11] Their swan song, released in 1957, was "Chanchullo", composed by Cachao himself. The song became a hit in the United States as the basis for Tito Puente's "Oye cómo va".

Descargas at Panart studios

Cachao and his band, as depicted on the March 1961 edition of the Cuban Show magazine. Left to right: Cachao (bass), Gustavo Tamayo (güiro), Tata Güines (tumbadora), Alejandro "El Negro" Vivar (trumpet), Rogelio "Yeyo" Iglesias (bongos) and Guillermo Barreto (timbales). This picture was taken during the same photo shoot that yielded the cover of Cuban Jam Sessions in Miniature.

One day in 1957 Cachao gathered a group of musicians in the early hours of the morning (from 4 to 9 AM), energized from playing gigs at Havana's popular nightclubs, to jam in front of the mics of a recording studio.[6] The resulting descargas, known to music aficionados worldwide as Cuban jam sessions, revolutionized Afro-Cuban popular music. Under Cachao's direction, these masters improvised freely in the manner of jazz, but their vocabulary was Cuba's popular music. This was the model that for live performances of other Afro-Cuban based genres, such as salsa and Latin jazz. These descargas were released in 1957 by the Panart label under the title Cuban Jam Sessions in Miniature.[12] They have been named by many critics as one of the most essential Cuban records of the 1950s, including being cited by the book 1000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. Between 1957 and 1959 he recorded many more descargas at Panart studios. These recordings were released in the following years by Kubaney and Maype, and re-released by EGREM. He also recorded descargas with Tojo's orchestra and Chico O'Farrill's All-Stars Cubano amongst other ensembles. He worked alongside Peruchín, Tata Güines and Alejandro "El Negro" Vivar.

Exile

In 1961, Cachao went into exile. He crossed the Atlantic by boat, reaching Madrid[7] thanks to Ernesto Duarte, who demanded him to play with his orchestra–Orquesta Sabor Cubano–and where he spent a few years touring the country, until the orchestra finally broke up in 1963. Then he moved to the US, as seen in the documentary film La época,[13]. Cachao was one of the most in-demand bassists in New York City, together with the likes of Alfonso "El Panameño" Joseph and Bobby "Big Daddy" Rodríguez. Joseph and López substituted for each other over a span of five years, performing at New York City clubs and venues such as the Palladium Ballroom, The Roseland, The Birdland, Havana San Juan and Havana Madrid. While Cachao was performing with Machito's orchestra in New York, Joseph was recording and performing with Cuban conga player Cándido Camero. When Joseph left Cándido's band to work with Charlie Rodríguez and Johnny Pacheco, it was Cachao who took his place in Cándido's band.

For a while, he had two distinct musical personae. In the New York salsa scene he was revered as a music god, with homage concerts dedicated to him, and records of his music produced by musicologist René López in 1977, after over 15 years without recording as a leader. Thanks to López, Cachao was "rediscovered" by the thriving Latin music scene in NYC. Conversely, in Miami, he was an ordinary working musician who would play quinceañeras and weddings, or back dance bands in the notorious Latin nightclubs of the Miami Vice era.

Late career

In the 1990s, actor Andy García produced the recordings known as Master Sessions and big concerts honoring his legacy. Since then, Cachao became again a household word among Cubans and his reputation continued to grow. His nephew, Orlando "Cachaíto" López, a prolific bassist as well, became one of the mainstays of the famed Buena Vista Social Club group.

Cachao's music has been featured in movies such as The Birdcage and on the Grand Theft Auto: Vice City soundtrack. Andy García produced two documentaries about this music, Cachao... como su ritmo no hay dos ("With A Rhythm Like No Other") (1993) and Cachao: Uno más, which premiered in April 2008 at the San Francisco International Film Festival. The inspiration for Cachao: Uno más, made by San Francisco State University's DOC Film Institute, came largely from a concert Cachao played at Bimbo's 365 Club in San Francisco, and the film's premiere was followed by a tribute concert with the John Santos Band at Yoshi's Jazz Club SF.

Death

López died on the morning of March 22, 2008 in Coral Gables, Florida, at the age of 89. He died from complications resulting from kidney failure. Following his death, the Cachao's Mambo All-Stars were formed in his memory. This band, comprising his former bandmates, recorded in his honour.[14]

Awards and recognition

In 1994, López was inducted into Billboard's Latin Music Hall of Fame.[15] In 1999, Cachao was inducted into the International Latin Music Hall of Fame.[16] He also received a Lifetime Achievement Award a year later.[17]

Grammy awards

López has won several Grammy Awards for both his own work and his contributions on albums by Latin music stars, including Gloria Estefan. In 1994, he won a Grammy for Master Sessions Volume 1. In 2003, he won a Latin Grammy for Best Traditional Tropical Latin Album together with Bebo Valdés and Carlos "Patato" Valdés for El arte del sabor. López won a further Grammy in 2005 for his album ¡Ahora Sí!. In 2012, a posthumously released album, The Last Mambo, won the Grammy Award in the Best Tropical Latin album category.

Honors

On June 11, 2006, López was honored by Union City, New Jersey with a star on the Walk of Fame at Union City's Celia Cruz Park.[18] On November 7, 2006, Cachao received an Honorary Doctorate of Music from Berklee College of Music during Berklee's Latin Culture Celebration.[19]

Discography

As leader

  • 1957: Cuban Jam Sessions in Miniature "Descargas" (Panart)
  • 1958: Con el ritmo de Cachao (Duarte/Kubaney), reissued as Camina Juan Pescao (Duher, 1974)
  • 1959: El gran Cachao (Duarte/Kubaney), reissued as Cachao y su Típica Vol. 2 (Duher, 1974)
  • 1962: Jam Session with Feeling (Maype, recorded in 1958)
  • 1963: Descarga (Maype, recorded in 1961)
  • 1966: Cuban Music in Jam Session (Bonita, recorded in 1961)
  • 1974: Descargas con el ritmo de Cachao (Modiner, recorded in 1961)
  • 1977: Cachao y su Descarga '77' (Salsoul)
  • 1977: Dos (Salsoul)
  • 1986: Maestro de Maestros: Cachao y su Descarga '86 (Tania)
  • 1994: Master Sessions, Volume 1 (Crescent Moon)
  • 1995: Master Sessions, Volume 2 (Crescent Moon)
  • 1997: Superdanzones (EGREM, recorded in 1961), reissued as part of Jazzcuba, Volumen 2 (Warner Music, 2007)
  • 2000: Cuba linda (EMI)
  • 2004: Ahora sí (Univisión)
  • 2011: The Last Mambo (Sony)
Collaborations with Paquito Hechevarría & Tany Gil
  • 1981: Walpataca (Tania), reissued as Latin Jazz Descarga Part 1 (1994)
  • 1981: Típica Pata (Tania)
  • 1985: Walpataca II (Tania), reissued as Latin Jazz Descarga Part 2 (1994)

Singles

  • 1957: Descarga cubana / Goza mi trompeta (Panart)
  • 1957: A gozar timbero / Sorpresa de flauta (Panart)
  • 1957: Pamparana / Cógele el golpe (Panart)
  • 1957: Trombón criollo / Oye mi tres montuno (Panart)
  • 1958: La cayuga / Cuarenta que son uno (Duarte)
  • 1958: Camina Juan Pescao / Jóvenes de la defensa (Duarte)
  • 1961: Descarga general / El manicero (Discos Latino)

As sideman

With All-Stars Cubano

  • Descarga número uno / Descarga número dos (Gema, 1957)

With Arcaño y sus Maravillas

With Kako

  • Tributo a Noro (Alegre, 1964)

With Carlos Montiel

  • Distinto y diferente (Discos Suyo)

With Patato & Totico

  • Patato y Totico (Verve, 1967)

With The Salsa All Stars

  • The Salsa All Stars (Salsa, 1968)

With Bebo Valdés

Filmography

References

  1. ^ Cachao, EcuRed.
  2. ^ Cachao, AllMusic.
  3. ^ "The 100 Greatest Bass Players". bassplayer.com. NewBay Media. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Pareles, Jon, New York Times: "Cachao, Mambo’s Inventor, Dies at 89", The New York Times, March 24, 2008.
  5. ^ Orovio, Helio, "Cuban Music from A to Z", Duke University Press, 2003. Cf. pp 125-126 for article on Israel López.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Pagano, César (February–March 2007). "¡Cómo Cachao no hay dos!" (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 October 2017. 
  7. ^ a b Entrevista con Israel López "Cachao"
  8. ^ Tamargo, Luis (August 1, 2004). "Cachao: a conversation with the godfather of the Cuban bass". Latin Beat Magazine. 
  9. ^ "Israel ‘Cachao’ López: Cuban double-bassist and composer who, with his brother, invented the Cuban dance style of mambo in the late 1930s", The Times (London), March 24, 2008.
  10. ^ Cahill, Greg. "Interview with Cachao", String Magazine, March 2005.
  11. ^ Fernández-Larrea, Ramón (2007). Kabiosiles: los músicos de Cuba (in Spanish). Barcelona, Spain: Linkgua. p. 53. 
  12. ^ 1000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. Tom Moon, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7611-3963-8]
  13. ^ La Época
  14. ^ Cachao's Mambo All Stars, Tempest Entertainment.
  15. ^ Lannert, John (May 21, 1994). "First Latin Music Awards Recognize Range of Talent". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 106 (32): LM-52. Retrieved June 3, 2010. 
  16. ^ de Fontenay, Sounni (7 December 1998). "International Latin Music Hall of Fame". Latin American Rhythm Magazine. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "International Latin Music Hall of Fame Announces Year 2000 Inductees". 1 March 2000. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  18. ^ Rosero, Jessica. "Viva la comunidad Cubano North Hudson celebrates at the annual Cuban Day Parade" Hudson Reporter June 18, 2006
  19. ^ Dorbu, Mitzi (December 1, 2006). "Mambo maestro "Cachao" receives honorary doctorate during Berklee's Latin Culture Celebration". Latin Beat Magazine. 

External links

  • Cachao, Rate Your Music.
  • Cachao, Discogs.
  • CineSource Article on "Cachao: Uno Mas"
  • Bebo Valdés Trio with "Cachao" & "Patato" - Biographical information and performance from ABC in Australia
  • Interview[permanent dead link] from The Miami Herald
  • Cuba's Cachao is king of Tumbao
  • Cachao on IMDb
  • Cachao gets star on Walk of Fame
  • "Cachao: Uno Más"
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