Blackfoot language

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Blackfoot (Nitsitapi)
Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ)
Native to Canada, United States
Region Piikani Nation, Siksika Nation, and Kainai Nation in southern Alberta; Blackfeet Nation in Montana
Ethnicity 51,221 Blackfoot[1]
Native speakers
4,915, 10% of ethnic population (2016)
Algic
Blackfoot Syllabics
Sometimes Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-2 bla
ISO 639-3 bla
Glottolog siks1238[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Blackfoot language, also called Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ, its denomination in ISO 639-3), (English: /skˈskʌ/; Siksiká [siksiká], syllabics ᓱᖽᐧᖿ), often anglicised as Siksika, is an Algonquian language spoken by the Niitsitapi people, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America. There are four dialects, three of which are spoken in Alberta, Canada, and one of which is spoken in the United States: Siksiká (Blackfoot), to the southeast of Calgary, Alberta; Kainai (Blood, Many Chiefs), spoken in Alberta between Cardston and Lethbridge; Aapátohsipikani (Northern Piegan), to the west of Fort MacLeod; and Aamsskáápipikani (Southern Piegan), in northwestern Montana.[3] The name Blackfoot probably comes from the blackened soles of the leather shoes that the people wore.[4]

There is a distinct difference between Old Blackfoot (also called High Blackfoot), the dialect spoken by many older speakers, and New Blackfoot (also called Modern Blackfoot), the dialect spoken by younger speakers.[5] Among the Algonquian languages, Blackfoot is relatively divergent in phonology and lexicon.[6] The language has a fairly small phoneme inventory; consisting of 11 basic consonants and three basic vowels that have contrastive length counterparts. Blackfoot is a pitch accent language.[7][8] Blackfoot language has been declining in the number of native speakers and is classified as either a threatened or endangered language.[9]

Like the other Algonquian languages, Blackfoot is considered to be a polysynthetic language due to its large morpheme inventory and word internal complexity.[10] A majority of Blackfoot morphemes have a one to one correspondence between form and meaning, a defining feature of agglutinative languages. However, Blackfoot does display some fusional characteristics as there are morphemes that are polysemous.[11] Both noun and verb stems cannot be used bare but must be inflected.[12] Due to its morphological complexity, Blackfoot has a flexible word order.

Classification

Blackfoot is a member of the Algonquian language belonging to the Plains branch along with Arapaho, Gros Ventre, and Cheyenne. Blackfoot is spoken in Northwestern Montana and throughout Alberta, Canada, making it geographically one of the westernmost Algonquian languages.

History

Once, the Blackfoot people were one of a few Native American nations that inhabited the Great Plains west of the Mississippi river. The people were buffalo hunters with settlements in the northern United States. Forced to move because of wars with neighboring tribes, the Blackfoot people settled all around the plains area and up into Canada, eventually concentrating in Montana. Blackfoot hunters would track and hunt game while the remaining people would gather food and other necessities for the winter. The northern plains, where the Blackfoot settled, had incredibly harsh winters, and the flat land provided little escape from the winds. The Blackfoot Nation thrived, along with many other native groups, until the European settlers arrived in the late eighteenth century. The settlers brought with them horses and technology but also disease and weapons. Diseases like smallpox, foreign to the natives, decimated the Blackfoot population in the mid-nineteenth century. Groups of Blackfoot people rebelled against the Europeans like Mountain Chief’s tribe. But, in 1870, a tribe of peaceful Blackfoot were mistaken for the rebellious tribe and hundreds were slaughtered. Over the next thirty years, the settlers had eradicated the buffalo from the Great Plains. This took away the main element of Blackfoot life and took away the people’s ability to be self-sustaining. With their main food source gone, the Blackfoot were forced to rely on government support.[4]

Phonology

Consonants

Blackfoot has eighteen consonants, of which all but /ʔ/, /x/, /j/ and /w/ form pairs distinguished by length.[13] Frantz 1999</ref>

Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p t k ʔ
Affricate t͡s t͡sː
Fricative s x
Approximant w j

Vowels

Monophthongs

Blackfoot has a vowel system with three monophthongs, /i o a/.[13][14][15]

Front Central Back
High i o
Low a

The short monophthongs exhibit allophonic changes as well. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are raised to [ʌ] and [ʊ] respectively when followed by a long consonant. The vowel /i/ becomes [ɪ] in closed syllables.[16]

Diphthongs

There are three additional diphthongs in Blackfoot. The first diphthong ai is pronounced [ɛ] before a long consonant, [ei] (or [ai], in the dialect of the Blackfoot Reserve) before /i/ or /ʔ/, and elsewhere is pronounced [æ] in the Blood Reserve dialect or [ei] in the Blackfoot Reserve dialect. The second diphthong ao is pronounced [au] before /ʔ/ and [ɔ] elsewhere. The third diphthong oi may be pronounced [y] before a long consonant and as /oi/ elsewhere .[17]

Length

Length is contrastive in Blackfoot for both vowels and consonants. Vowel length refers to the duration of a vowel and not a change in quality. The vowel /oo/ is therefore the same sound as /o/ only differing in the length of time over which it is produced.[18]

áakokaawa 'he will rope'
áakookaawa 'she will sponsor a Sundance.'

Consonants can also be lengthened with the exception of /ʔ/, /x/, /j/ and /w/.

kiipíppo 'one hundred'
nna 'my father'
soká'pssiwa 'he is good'

Pitch accent

Blackfoot is a pitch accent language and it is a contrastive feature in the language. Every word will have at least one high pitched vowel or diphthong but may have more than one. Note that high pitch here is used relative to the contiguous syllables. Blackfoot utterances experience a gradual drop in pitch therefore if an utterance contains a set of accented vowels the first will be higher in pitch than the second but the second will be higher in pitch than the syllables directly surrounding it. Pitch is illustrated in the Latin-based orthography with an acute accent.[8]

ápssiwa 'it's an arrow'
apssíwa 'it's a fig'
máátaissikópiiwa 'He's not resting.'

Phonological rules

Blackfoot is rich with morpho-phonological changes. Below is a limited sample of phonological rules.

Semi-vowel loss

Glides are deleted after another consonant, except a glottal stop, or word initially but kept in other conditions.[19]

/w/ loss
poos-wa póósa
cat-AN.SG 'cat'
/y/ loss
óóhkotok-yi óóhkotoki
stone-IN.SG 'stone'
word initial
w-óko'si óko'si
3.SG.POSS-child 'his child'

Accent spread

Accent will spread from an accented vowel to the following vowel across morpheme boundaries.[20]

á-okska'siwa áókska'siwa 'She runs'
atsikí-istsi atsikíístsi 'shoes'

Vowel devoicing

At the end of a word, non-high pitched vowels are devoiced, regardless of length.[21]

Grammar - general

Lexical Categories

Lexical categories in Blackfoot are a matter of debate in the literature, with the exception of nouns and verbs. Additional proposed categories, proposed by Uhlenbeck, are adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, and particles.[22] Taylor classifies the Blackfoot language as having two major classes, substantives (nouns and pronouns) and verbs, with one minor class consisting of particles.[23] Frantz classifies adjectives and adverbs as affixes but not independent classes.[24]

Agreement

Agreement morphology is extensive in Blackfoot and agreement morphemes are often polysemous, i.e. animacy and number (nouns) or person and number (verbs) are indicated within the same affix.

Animacy

All nouns are required to be inflected for animacy and are classified as either animate or inanimate. Verbs are inflected to match the animacy of its arguments. Animacy in Blackfoot is a grammatical construct for noun classification. Therefore, some semantically inherently inanimate objects, such as drums and knives are grammatically animate.[25]

Verbs are marked with a transitivity marker which must agree with the animacy of its arguments. Even in stories in which a grammatically inanimate object are markedly anthropomorphized, such as talking flowers, speakers will not use animate agreement markers with them.

Number

All nouns are required to be inflected as either singular or plural. Verbal inflection matches the plurality of its arguments.[25]

Person marking

Blackfoot has five grammatical persons — first, second, third (proximate), fourth (obviative), and fifth (sub-obviative).[26]

Word order

Word order is flexible in Blackfoot. Subjects are not required to precede the verb.[27] Independent noun phrases may be included but these are typically dropped in Blackfoot due to the extensive person inflection on the verb they aren't necessary to interpret the meaning of the utterance. However, if first or second person pronouns are present it yields an emphatic reading.[28] There is an ordering restriction if the Distinct Third Person (DTP) attached pronoun /-aawa/ is used in which the subject independent noun phrase must occur before the verb. If the independent noun phrase occurs after the verb then the DTP may not be used.[29]

Subjecthood

Blackfoot nouns must be grammatically particular in order to be a subject of a verb.[28] In transitive constructions the subject must be volitional to be interpreted as subject.[30]

Person hierarchy

It has been asserted that Blackfoot, along with other Algonquian languages violates the Universal Person Hierarchy in verb complexes by ranking second person over first person. The hierarchy has traditionally been published as 2nd person > 1st person > 3rd person (proximate) > 4th person (obviative).[31] However, alternative analyses of Blackfoot person hierarchy has been published that suggest the Universal Person Hierarchy is applicable to Blackfoot.[32]

Verbal structure

The Blackfoot verbal template contains a stem with several prefixes and suffixes. The structure of the verb stem in Blackfoot can be roughly broken down into the pre-verb, the root, the medial, and the final. The root and final are required elements.

Generally, information encoded in the pre-verb can include adverbs, most pronouns, locatives, manners, aspect, mood, and tense. Incorporated objects appear in the medial. The final includes transitivity and animacy markers, and valency markers.

Grammar - nouns

Agreement morphology

Noun classes are split based on grammatical gender into two categories: animate and inanimate.[33] Additionally, all nouns must be marked for plurality. Plurality agreement are suffixes that attach to noun stems and take four forms, as shown in the table below.[25]

Inanimate Animate
Singular Plural Singular Plural
-yi -istsi -wa -iksi
í'ksisako (inanimate stem) 'meat'
í'ksisako-yi í'ksisakoyi 'meat'
í'ksisako-istsi í'ksisakoistsi ''meats'

Proximate & obviative

When a sentence contains two or more particular animate gender nouns as arguments proximate (major third person/3rd) and obviative (minor third person/4th) markings are used to disambiguate. There may only be one proximate argument in any given sentence but multiple obviates are permissible. Proximate arguments are more prominent in discourse. Redirectional markers, referred to as inverse and direct theme in the literature, can be applied to indicate that the fourth person is the subject argument.[34]

Particularity/referentiality

Blackfoot nouns must be grammatically particular, according to Frantz (2009), in order to be a subject of a verb. To be the subject of any verb in Blackfoot the noun must point to a specific referent in the world. In transitive constructions the subject must also be volitional to be interpreted as subject. If subject of a transitive verb is non-specific or non-volitional then verb must be inflected as having an unspecified subject.[35]

Oma isttoána iihtsíkahksinii'pi annistsi ikkstsíksiistsi.
om-wa isttoan-wa iiht-íkahksinii-'p-yi ann-istsi ikkstsíksi-istsi
that-AN.SG knife-AN.SG means-cut.off-UNSPEC.SUB-IN.PL that-IN.PL branch-IN.PL
`The knife cut off those branches.'
`By means of the knife, the branches were cut off.'

Grammar - verbs

Verbal morphology template

There are four verb categories in Blackfoot: intransitive inanimate, intransitive animate, transitive inanimate, and transitive animate. The parameters of transitivity and animacy for verb selection are typically referred to as stem agreement in order to delineate it from person agreement. The animacy for intransitive verbs is determined by the subject of the verb whereas the transitive verbs are defined by the animacy of their primary object.[36]

The only required component of a clause in Blackfoot is the verb, referred to as a verbal complex in the Algonquian literature, that must be appropriately inflected according to the standard template:

preverb-root-medial-final

Preverbs are prefixes that include pronominal, modal, temporal, aspectual and modifying prefixes. Suffixes are either medials, which primarily encode manner, or finals, which encode transitivity and animacy. Roots and finals are always required in a verbal complex whereas preverb and medials are not.[37]

The Blackfoot verbal template contains a stem with several prefixes and suffixes. The structure of the verb stem in Blackfoot can be roughly broken down into the pre-verb, the root, the medial, and the final. The root and final are required elements.

Generally, information encoded in the pre-verb can include adverbs, most pronouns, locatives, manners, aspect, mood, and tense. Incorporated objects appear in the medial. The final includes transitivity and animacy markers, and valency markers.

Inverse and direct theme

When there are two animate arguments acting in a transitive animate verb stem one of the arguments must be acting on the other. Which argument is the actor (subject) and which is the acted upon (object) is indicated by the use of direct or inverse theme marking. If an subject argument is higher than the object argument on the person hierarchy then the direct suffix is used. Conversely, when an object outranks the sentences subject then the inverse suffix is used.[38]

Direct
Nitsikákomimmayi nitániksi.
nit-ikákomimm-aa-yi ni-táni-iksi
1.SG-love-DIR-3.PL 1.POSS-daughter-AN.PL
'I love my daughters.'
Inverse
Nitsikákomimmoki nitániksi.
nit-ikákomimm-ok-yi ni-táni-iksi
1.SG-love-INV-3.PL 1.POSS-daughter-AN.PL
'My daughters love me.'

Voice and valency

Blackfoot voice alterations occur as suffixes on the verb and fall into the category of finals. Finals can include causative, benefactive, reciprocal, and reflexive affixes that either decrease or increase the valency of the stem they are attached too. Below is an example of the reflexive final suffix. It can only be added to a transitive animate stem and results in an animate intranstive stem. This is then interpreted as being a reflexive verb, where the subject of the AI stem is understood to be the both the underlying subject and object of the original verb stem.[39]

oma imitááwa siiksípohsiwa
om-wa imitáá-wa siiksip-o:hsi-wa
that-AN.SG dog-AN.SG PST:bite(TA)-RFLX(AI)-3.SG
‘That dog bit itself.’

Relative clauses

Relative clauses are rare in Blackfoot but they do occur. In order to embed a clause you first need to nominalize the clause. The reclassification strategy for nominalization is displayed here followed by a relative clause that uses a nominal formed by this strategy. Reclassification is done by adding nominal inflection to the verb stem instead of person inflection. This derived form then refers to the underlying subject and agrees in both number and animacy.[40]

omiksi áyo'kaiksi/
om-iksi á-yo'kaa-iksi
that-AN.PL DUR-sleep-AN.PL
'those sleeping ones'

Examples below show how a reclassifation nominalized clause is used in a relative clause. Note the nominal agreement morphology on the verb matches the subject, singular and plural, respectively.

oma nínaawa áyo'kaawa nóoma.
om-wa ninaa-wa á-yo'kaa-wa n-oom-wa
that-AN.SG man-AN.SG DUR-sleep-AN.SG 1.POSS-husband-AN.SG
'That man who is sleeping is my husband.'
Omiksi aakííkoaiksi áínihkiiksi áyaakahkayiyaawa.
om-iks aakííkoaN-iksi á-Inihki-iksi áyaak-wa:hkayi-yi-aawa
that-AN.PL girl-AN.PL DUR-sing-AN.PL FUT-go.home-3.PL-PRO
`Those girls who are singing are on their way home.'

Writing system

A syllabics script, ᑯᖾᖹ ᖿᐟᖻ ᓱᖽᐧᖿ pikoni kayna siksika, was created by Anglican missionary John William Tims around 1888. Although conceptually nearly identical to Western Cree syllabics, the letter forms are innovative. Two series (s, y) were taken from Cree but given different vowel values; three more (p, t, m) were changed in consonant values as well, according to the Latin letter they resembled; and the others (k, n, w) were created from asymmetrical parts of Latin and Greek letters; or in the case of the zero consonant, possibly from the musical notation for quarter note. The Latin orientation of the letters is used for the e series, after the names of the Latin letters, pe, te, etc.

Blackfoot Latin source
pe P
te T
ke K
me m
ne N
we digamma Ϝ

The direction for each vowel is different from Cree, reflecting Latin alphabetic order. The e orientation is used for the diphthong /ai/. Symbols for consonants are taken from the consonant symbol minus the stem, except for diphthongs (Ca plus ⟨ᐠ⟩ for Cau, and Ca plus ⟨ᐟ⟩ for Coi, though there are also cases of writing subphonemic [ai, ei, eu] with these finals).

C -a -e -i -o final medial
(none)
p-
t-
k-
m-
n-
s-
y-
w-

There are additional finals: allophones ⟨ᑊ⟩ [h] and ⟨ᐦ⟩ [x], and three medials: ⟨ᖿᐧ⟩ ksa, ⟨ᒣᐧ⟩ tsa, ⟨ᖿᑉ⟩ kya, ⟨ᖿᙾ⟩ kwa.

⟨᙮⟩ is used for a period.

Also sometimes it is written in Latin letters but with different spelling on computers because not all computers support the letters used in the Blackfoot language.[citation needed]

Revitalization efforts

In the late 1900s,[clarification needed] many tribes began a surge of revitalization efforts to encourage cultural awareness of indigenous customs and traditions. Of these, the Blackfoot revitalization effort has proven to be quite successful, producing various institutions, including a college dedicated to preserving and promoting Blackfoot traditions. Today, there are head-start programs in primary and secondary schools on the reservation to teach even infants and toddlers about the history of the tribe from an early age. In 1987, Dorothy “Still Smoking” and Darrell Robes Kipp founded the Piegan Institute, a non-profit foundation in Montana dedicated to researching, promoting, and preserving the Blackfoot language. Today, the Piegan institute is a nationally recognized K-8 private language school and a leading research center for indigenous languages. Another, Nizipuhwahsin School (founded in 1995) is a Blackfoot-Language Only elementary school that is commonly viewed as the model for Indian language revitalization and preservation.[41] However, the most significant demonstration of the tribe’s success in education is seen in the Blackfoot Community College, founded in 1974.

Blackfoot Community College (BCC) is a two-year, nationally accredited college that was made possible by the Indian Education Act of 1972 and the 1964 Act enacted by the Office of Economic Opportunity. BCC is a member of both the American Indian Higher Education Consortium and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES). It allows teenagers and adults alike to take classes in a wide range of subjects, from classes in Psychology and Digital Photography to classes on Blackfoot language and tradition. They have beginning Blackfoot language classes with labs for members and non-members of the community to learn the language.[42]

The Cuts Wood Academy in Browning, Montana, founded by Darrell Kipp and the Piegan Institute, offers language immersion instruction in Blackfoot to children aged 5–12.[43]

In order to create jobs for the Blackfoot people with real-world applications, the Blackfeet Tribal Business Council launched a company called Chief Mountain Technologies in 2009. This company gives tribal members the opportunity to work in the fields of computer science and business in Browning, Montana on behalf of various government organizations. The establishment of this company in the Blackfoot community allows the people to use their culture and their language in the modern world while maintaining their traditions.[44]

Radio programming in Blackfoot

Radio station KBWG in Browning, Montana, broadcasts a one-hour show for Blackfoot language learners four times a week.[45] The Voice of Browning, Thunder Radio, FM 107.5, or "Ksistsikam ayikinaan" (literally "voice from nowhere") went live in 2010, and focuses on positive programming. In 2011, John Davis, a 21-year-old Blackfeet Community College student explained "I was the first Blackfeet to ever talk on this radio", Davis said. "This is my coup story." A story in the Great Falls Tribune noted, "When the station was replaying programming that originated elsewhere, the radio was all "tear in my beer" and "your cheatin' heart." They called it the suicide station for its depressing old country themes ..." The station's offerings have now expanded beyond country to include AC/DC and Marvin Gaye, and "on-the-air jokes they would never hear on a Clear Channel radio station, such as: "The captain is as cool as commodity cheese."[46]

“So far we have broadcasting Monday through Friday from around 6:30, Indian time”, quipped station manager Lona Burns, “to around 11, Indian time.” ... “It’s Indian radio”, agreed Running Crane. “Where else can you hear today’s hits with traditional music?[47]

Canadian government support

The Canadian government has provided support for the languages through funds and other financial resources. According to James Moore, the former Minister of Canadian Heritage and Official Languages, “the Government of Canada is committed to the revitalization and preservation of Aboriginal languages.” The funding was put to use in the form of digital libraries containing interviews with native speakers, online courses, and various other resources in the hopes of promoting Blackfoot language and passing it down to subsequent generations. On top of both of these government efforts, the Canadian Government has also provided over $40,000 through the Aboriginal Languages Initiative Fund to promote the use of Aboriginal languages in community and family settings.[48]

References

  1. ^ Simons & Fennig 2017, Ethnologue
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Siksika". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Frantz "The Blackfoot Language"
  4. ^ a b Gibson 2003
  5. ^ Bortolin & McLennan 1995
  6. ^ Mithun 1999, p. 335
  7. ^ Miyashita, Mizuki; Fish, Naatosi (12 Mar 2015). "Documenting Blackfoot pitch excursion". hdl:10125/25290. 
  8. ^ a b Frantz 2017, p. 3
  9. ^ "Did you know Blackfoot is endangered?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-04-16. 
  10. ^ Aikhenvald 2007, p. 5
  11. ^ Armoskaite 2011, p. 16
  12. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 7
  13. ^ a b "Blackfoot Pronunciation and Spelling Guide". Native-Languages.org. Retrieved 2007-04-10
  14. ^ Frantz 1999
  15. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 1-2
  16. ^ Frantz 2017, p.1-2
  17. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 2
  18. ^ Frantz 2017, p.3
  19. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 155
  20. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 157
  21. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 5
  22. ^ Uhlenbeck (1938)
  23. ^ Taylor (1953)
  24. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 23
  25. ^ a b c Frantz 2017, p. 7-10
  26. ^ Frantz, Donald G. (1966-01-01). "Person Indexing in Blackfoot". International Journal of American Linguistics. 32 (1): 50–58. JSTOR 1263448. 
  27. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 20
  28. ^ a b Frantz 2017, p.22
  29. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 48-49
  30. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 45-46
  31. ^ Russell, Lena; Genee, Inge; Lier, Eva van; Zúñiga, Fernando (2012). "Referential Hierarchies in Three-Participant Constructions in Blackfoot: The Effects of Animacy, Person, and Specificity". Linguistic Discovery. 10 (3). doi:10.1349/ps1.1537-0852.a.416. 
  32. ^ Bliss, Heather; Jesney, Karen (May 2005). "Resolving hierarchy conflict: local obviation in Blackfoot*". Calgary Working Papers in Linguistics. 26: 92–116. 
  33. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 8
  34. ^ Frantz 2017, p.13-14
  35. ^ Frantz 2017, p.12
  36. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 40
  37. ^ Armoskaite 2011, p. 22
  38. ^ Frantz 2017, p.56
  39. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 100-107
  40. ^ Frantz 2017, p. 114-129
  41. ^ Company., Compton's Learning; inc., Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2010). Native peoples of the Americas. Encyclopedia Britannica. p. 116. ISBN 9781615353651. OCLC 608094181. 
  42. ^ Hungry-wolf, Adolf (2006). The Blackfoot Papers. Good Medicine Cultural Foundation. p. 195. 
  43. ^ "Cuts Wood Academy - Blackfoot Immersion School in Browning, Montana". The Piegan Institute. Retrieved 2014-04-09. 
  44. ^ 1954-, Stout, Mary, (2012). Blackfoot history and culture. Gareth Stevens Pub. ISBN 9781433959561. OCLC 698361313. 
  45. ^ Stephanie Tyrpak (2011-04-14). "KBWG Brings Blackfoot Language Lessons to the Airwaves". KFBB.com. Archived from the original on 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  46. ^ "KBWG, the "Voice of Browning Montana" can be heard at 107.5 FM". 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  47. ^ John McGill (2011-01-19). "'Voice of Browning' radio station KBWG expanding". Glacier Reporter. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  48. ^ Market Wired[full citation needed]

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  • Uhlenbeck, C.C. and R.H. van Gulik. A Blackfoot-English Vocabulary Based on Material from the Southern Peigans, Amsterdam: Uitgave van de N.V. Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers-Jaatschapp-ij, 1934. (Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie Van WetenSchappen te Amsterdam. Afdeeling Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks, Deel XXXIII, No. 2)
  • Uhlenbeck-Melchior, Wilhelmina Maria. Montana 1911 : a professor and his wife among the Blackfeet : Wilhelmina Maria Uhlenbeck-Melchior's diary and C. C. Uhlenbeck's original Blackfoot texts and a new series of Blackfoot texts (2005 ed.). Calgary: University of Calgary Press. ISBN 9780803218284. 
  • Uhlenbeck, Christianus Cornelius. 1912. A new series of Blackfoot texts: from the southern Peigans Blackfoot Reservation Teton County Montana. (Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, Afdeeling Letterkunde, N.R. 13.1.) Amsterdam: Müller. x+264pp. Retrieved from http://glottolog.org/resource/reference/id/127554
  • Uhlenbeck, Christianus Cornelius. 1938. A Concise Blackfoot Grammar. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers-Maatschappij. Retrieved from http://glottolog.org/resource/reference/id/100587

Further reading

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2007. “Typological distinctions in word-formation.” Language Typology and Syntactic Description: Vol 3, ed. by T. Shopen, 1-65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Armoskaite, Solveiga. 2011. The destiny of roots in Blackfoot and Lithuanian. PhD Dissertation, University of British Columbia.
  • Bortolin, Leah and Sean McLennan. 1995. Webpage: "Blackfoot". University of Calgary, Alberta. http://www.shaav.com/professional/linguistics/blackfoot.html. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
  • Frantz, Donald G. Webpage: "The Blackfoot Language" Lethbridge, Alberta, University of Lethbridge. http://people.uleth.ca/~frantz/blkft.html. Retrieved 2017-04-16.
  • Frantz, Donald G. 1999. Webpage: “The Sounds of Blackfoot” Lethbridge, Alberta, University of Lethbridge. http://people.uleth.ca/~frantz/blsounds.html. Retrieved 2007-04-11
  • Gibson, Karen B. 2003. The Blackfeet: People of the Dark Moccasins. Mankato, Minnesota: Bridgestone Books. ISBN 978-0736815659
  • Hammarström, Harald, Robert Forkel, and Martin Haspelmath (eds.) 2017. Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/siks1238
  • Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) 2017. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth Edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. https://www.ethnologue.com/language/bla

External links

  • Piegan Institute
  • Blackfoot Language Group, University of Montana
  • Don Frantz's page on the Blackfoot language
  • Blackfoot - English Dictionary: from *Webster's Online Dictionary - The Rosetta Edition.
  • Blackfeet Language at Saokio Heritage
  • Blackfoot Digital Library.org
  • Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture
  • Teacher on use of Nintendo for Siksika instruction
  • OLAC resources in and about the Siksika language
  • Stocken, Harry W.G.: First ten chapters of St. Matthew's Gospel = ᖳᐦᓱᒧᐧᖹᖽᐧᖹ ᒉᒧᔭ ᖲᐨᓱᖻᐟᑊᑯ (Akhsitsiniksini Matiyo otsinaihpi). Toronto?, 1888 (Peel 1755)
  • http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/profile/15784/contributions
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