Nanday parakeet

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Nanday parakeet
2011-4 parrot in Strasbourg.jpg
In Strasbourg, Parc de l'Orangerie
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Aratinga
Species: A. nenday
Binomial name
Aratinga nenday
(Vieillot, 1823)
Synonyms

Nandayus nenday (Vieillot 1823)

The nanday parakeet (Aratinga nenday), also known as the black-hooded parakeet or nanday conure, is a medium-small, mostly green, Neotropical parrot. The bird is native to South America from southeast Bolivia to southwest Brazil, central Paraguay, and northern Argentina, from the region known as the Pantanal. Caged birds have been released in some areas, and the birds have established self-sustaining populations in Los Angeles, California, San Antonio, Texas, and several areas of Florida (including Pasco , Pinellas, Manatee, Broward , and Miami-Dade Counties). Another self-sustaining population has existed for several decades in Israel, near the city of Pardes Hanna-Karkur.[citation needed]

Taxonomy

The nanday parakeet was previously regarded as a member of the monotypic genus Nandayus Bonaparte, 1854 one of the rough 16 genera of Neotropical parrots of tribe Arini which includes the conures and macaws. However, phylogenetic evidence showed that it is positioned in one of the four groups in the genus Aratinga. When the genus Aratinga was revised and split in four separate genera, this species was included in the current genus Aratinga.[2] This revision was based on earlier studies. According to a mtDNA-based phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aratinga by Ribas & Miyaki (2004), the nanday conure forms a monophyletic group with the sun conure (A. solstitialis), jenday conure (A. jandaya), and golden-capped conure (A. auricapilla). Tavares et al. (2005) in a mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of 29 species representing 25 of 30 genera of Neotropical parrots found the nanday conure's closest relative to be Aratinga solstitialis, the sun conure, and the time of divergence of the species to have been 0.5 to 1.3 Mya.

Hybrids of the nanday and sun conures, nanday and jenday conures, and nanday and blue-crowned conures are known.

A prehistoric relative, Aratinga vorohuensis, was described from Late Pliocene fossils found in Argentina.

Description

The nanday parakeet is 32–37 cm (13–15 in) long, weighs 140 g (4.9 oz), and is mostly green in color. Its most distinguishing characteristic, for which it is named, is its black facial mask and beak. It also shows black, trailing flight feathers on its wings and has a long tail edged at the end in blue. The upper chest is bluish-green and the lower chest is a paler green. Feathers covering the thighs are red.

Behavior

Food and feeding

The bird feeds on seeds, fruit, palm nuts, berries, flowers, and buds. Feral birds also come to bird feeders. Wild birds primarily use scrub forest and forest clearings around settlements. They frequent open savannah, pastures, and stockyards in South America, where they are considered as pests in some areas.

Breeding

Nanday parakeets usually find holes in trees to nest. Females lay three or four eggs. After raising their young, all birds form rather large communal roosts until the next breeding season.

Aviculture

Upper body
Pet on a cage
Feral parrots in Sarasota County, Florida, United States

In captivity, they make wonderful pets if cared for and socialized properly. They all have distinct personalities and appreciate toys. Fearing the birds might escape and become feral agricultural pests, the state of Tennessee, in the United States, bans the keeping of nanday parakeets, as well as monk parakeets.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Aratinga nenday". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ DNA-sequence data require revision of the parrot genus Aratinga (Aves: Psittacidae) J.V. Remsen, Jr., Erin E. Schirtzinger, Anna Ferraroni, Luís Fábio Silveira & Timothy F. Wright
  • "National Geographic" Field Guide to the Birds of North America ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
  • Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 4, Josep del Hoyo editor, ISBN 84-87334-22-9
  • "National Audubon Society" The Sibley Guide to Birds, by David Allen Sibley, ISBN 0-679-45122-6

External links

  • Nanday conure
  • "Everything You Ever Needed To Know About Nanday Conures"
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