Bird hybrid

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A bird hybrid is a bird that has two different species as parents. The resulting bird can present with any combination of characters from the parent species, from totally identical to completely different. Usually, the bird hybrid shows intermediate characteristics between the two species. A "successful" hybrid is one demonstrated to produce fertile offspring.

Captive songbird hybrids are sometimes called mules.[1]

Numerous gamebird, domestic fowl and duck hybrids are known. About 16% of all bird species have hybridized with at least one other species and this number increases to 22% when captive hybrids are taken into account.[2] The scientific literature on hybridization in birds has been collected at the Avian Hybrids Project.[3]

Hybridisation in shorebirds is unusual but reliably recorded.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

See also


  1. ^ "The National British Bird & Mule Club". Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  2. ^ Ottenburghs, Jente; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Van Hooft, Pim; Van Wieren, Sipke E.; Prins, Herbert H.T. (2015-09-08). "The Avian Hybrids Project: gathering the scientific literature on avian hybridization". Ibis. 157 (4): 892–894. doi:10.1111/ibi.12285.
  3. ^ Ottenburghs, Jente. "The Avian Hybrids Project". Avian Hybrids. Retrieved 2018-07-21.
  4. ^ Jehl, J. R. Jr. (1985). "Hybridization and evolution of oystercatchers on the Pacific Coast of Baja California". Ornithological Monographs. 36 (36): 484–504. doi:10.2307/40168300.
  5. ^ Jonsson, Lars (1996). "Mystery stint at Groote Keeten: First known hybrid between Little and Temminck's Stint?". Dutch Birding. 18: 24–28.
  6. ^ McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-19-518323-8.
  7. ^ McLaughlin K. A.; Wormington, A. (2000). "An apparent Dunlin × White-rumped Sandpiper hybrid". Ontario Birds. 18 (1): 8–12.
  8. ^ Millington, Richard (1994). "A mystery Calidris at Cley". Birding World. 7 (2): 61–63. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17.
  9. ^ Parker, Shane A. (1982). "A new sandpiper of the genus Calidris". South Australian Naturalist. 56: 63.
  10. ^ Paulson, Dennis R. (2005). Shorebirds of North America: a photographic guide. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12107-9.
  11. ^ Pierce, R. J. (1984). "Plumage, morphology and hybridisation of New Zealand Stilts Himantopus spp" (PDF). Notornis. 31: 106–130. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-24.

External links

  • Bird Hybrids Database
  • Bird Hybrids Mailing List
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