Bergamo

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Bergamo

Bèrghem  (Lombard)
Città di Bergamo
The skyline of the old fortified upper city
The skyline of the old fortified upper city
Flag of Bergamo
Flag
Coat of arms of Bergamo
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Città dei Mille ("City of the Thousand")
Map of the old walled upper city of Bergamo
Map of the old walled upper city of Bergamo
Location of Bergamo
Bergamo is located in Italy
Bergamo
Bergamo
Location of Bergamo in Lombardy
Bergamo is located in Lombardy
Bergamo
Bergamo
Bergamo (Lombardy)
Coordinates: 45°41′42″N 9°40′12″E / 45.69500°N 9.67000°E / 45.69500; 9.67000Coordinates: 45°41′42″N 9°40′12″E / 45.69500°N 9.67000°E / 45.69500; 9.67000
Country Italy
Region Lombardy
Province Province of Bergamo (BG)
Government
 • Mayor Giorgio Gori (PD)
Area
 • Total 40.16 km2 (15.51 sq mi)
Elevation
485 m (1,591 ft)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total 120,923
 • Density 3,000/km2 (7,800/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Bergamasque
Bergamaschi (Italian)
Bergamàsch (Eastern Lombard)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
24100
Dialing code (+39) 035
Website www.comune.bergamo.it
Criteria Cultural: iii, iv
Reference 1533
Inscription 2017 (41st Session)
Area 378.37 ha

Bergamo (US: /ˈbɛərɡəm, ˈbɜːr-, ˈbɛərɡɑːm/,[3][4] Italian: [ˈbɛrɡamo] (About this soundlisten); Eastern Lombard: Bèrghem [ˈbɛrɡɛm] (About this soundlisten); Latin: Bergŏmum)[a] is a city in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Milan, and approximately 30 km (19 mi) from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo, and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore. The Bergamo Alps (Alpi Orobie) begin immediately north of the city.

With a population of approximately 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo. The metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly fewer than 500,000 inhabitants.[10] The Bergamo metropolitan area is part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to more than eight million people.[11][12][13]

The city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as Città Alta ("Upper Town"), nestled within a system of hills constituting a regional park, and the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 9 July 2017.[14]

Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the motorway A4 stretching on the axis between Turin, Milan, Verona, Venice, and Trieste. The city is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 12.3 million passengers in 2017. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan.[15][16]

The Città Alta

History

Fortified Upper City of Bergamo
Native name Città Alta di Bergamo
Bergamo-alta.jpg
Porta San Giacomo
Location Bergamo, Natural Park of Bergamo Hills  Lombardy  Italy
Area Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy
Built 1561–1588
Governing body Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Designated 2017 (41 Session)
Part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar
Reference no. 1533
Region Europe and North America
Historical affiliations
Orobii II millennium BC

Celtic Cenomani 550 BC
Consul et lictores.png Roman Republic 200–27 BC
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire 27 BC–285 AD
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Western Roman Empire 285–402
Visigoths invasion 402
Kingdom of Odoacer 402–440
Huns and Herules invasion 440
Ostrogothic Kingdom 440–553
Simple Labarum.svg Eastern Roman Empire 553–569
Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg Lombard Kingdom 569–774
Charlemagne autograph.svg Carolingian Empire 774–1098
Shield and Coat of Arms of the Holy Roman Emperor (c.1200-c.1300).svg Bergamo Libero Comune 1098–1331
Wappen Königreich Böhmen.png Kingdom of Bohemia 1331–1332
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan 1332–1407
Blasone Malatesta.svg House of Malatesta dependent on Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg State of the Church 1407–1428
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice 1428–1796
Flag of France.svg Republic of Bergamo and Flag of the Repubblica Cisalpina.svg Cisalpine Republic dependent on French Republic 1796–1797
Flag of France.svg First French Empire 1807–1815
Flag of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) 1807–1815
Flag of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia.svg Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia dependent on Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Austrian Empire 1815–1859
BERGAMO.png Expedition of the Thousand 1860
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946

Flag of Italy.svg Italian Republic 1946–present

Antiquity

Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing c. 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century.

Middle Ages

From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important Lombard duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia, Trento, and Cividale del Friuli: its first Lombard duke was Wallaris.

After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus (d. 816). An important Lombardic hoard dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the British Museum.[17]

From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165. The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Colleoni and Suardi, respectively.

Feuding between the two initially caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. 1250, but he returned to Bergamo in the later 13th century to organize the city's couriers: this would eventually lead to the Imperial Thurn und Taxis dynasty generally credited with organizing the first modern postal service.

Early modern

After a short period under the House of Malatesta starting from 1407, Bergamo was ceded in 1428 by the Duchy of Milan to the Republic of Venice in the context of the Wars in Lombardy and the aftermath of the 1427 Battle of Maclodio.

Despite the brief interlude granted by the Treaty of Lodi in 1454, the uneasy balance of power among the Northern Italian states precipitated the Italian Wars, a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, also the Papal States, France, and the Holy Roman Empire.[18]

The wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, prompted Venice to assert its direct rule over its mainland domains.

As much of the fighting during the Italian Wars took place during sieges, increasing levels of fortification were adopted, using such new developments as detached bastions that could withstand sustained artillery fire.[19]

The Treaty of Campo Formio (17 October 1797) formally recognized the inclusion of Bergamo and other parts of Northern Italy into the Cisalpine Republic, a "sister republic" of the French First Republic that was superseded in 1802 by the short-lived Napoleonic Italian Republic and in 1805 by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.

Late modern and contemporary

The 1815 Congress of Vienna assigned Bergamo to the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire. The visit of Emperor Ferdinand I in 1838 coincided with the opening of the new boulevard stretching into the plains, leading to the railway station that was inaugurated in 1857.

The Bergamasques welcomed Austrian rule at first , but later challenged it in Italian independentist insurrections in 1848.

Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Bergamo in 1859, during the Second Italian War of Independence. As a result the city became part of the newly-proclaimed Kingdom of Italy founded in 1861.

Due to its contribution to the Italian unification movement, Bergamo has become known as Città dei Mille ("City of the Thousand"), because a significant part of the rank-and-file supporting Giuseppe Garibaldi in his 1860 Expedition of the Thousand against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies came from Bergamo and its environs.

Bergamo Upper Town and Alpi Orobie from the airport

During the twentieth century, Bergamo became one of Italy's most industrialized areas.

In 1907 Marcello Piacentini devised a new urban master plan that was implemented between 1912 and 1927, in a style reminiscent of Novecento Italiano and Modernist Rationalism.

The 2017 43rd G7 summit on agriculture took place in Bergamo, in the context of the broader international meeting organized in Taormina (Sicily).[20] The "Charter of Bergamo", an international commitment signed during the summit, aims to reduce hunger worldwide by 2030, strengthen cooperation for agricultural development in Africa, and ensure price transparency.[21]

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Bergamo (1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.9
(71.4)
22.7
(72.9)
27.1
(80.8)
31.9
(89.4)
35.5
(95.9)
36.3
(97.3)
39.0
(102.2)
37.9
(100.2)
32.4
(90.3)
31.5
(88.7)
23.0
(73.4)
19.0
(66.2)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
8.6
(47.5)
13.0
(55.4)
16.4
(61.5)
21.4
(70.5)
25.3
(77.5)
28.3
(82.9)
27.8
(82.0)
23.4
(74.1)
17.6
(63.7)
11.1
(52.0)
7.2
(45.0)
17.2
(63.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
4.4
(39.9)
8.2
(46.8)
11.4
(52.5)
16.2
(61.2)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73.0)
22.6
(72.7)
18.6
(65.5)
13.3
(55.9)
7.3
(45.1)
3.4
(38.1)
12.6
(54.7)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30.0)
0.1
(32.2)
3.3
(37.9)
6.3
(43.3)
11.0
(51.8)
14.5
(58.1)
17.3
(63.1)
17.3
(63.1)
13.8
(56.8)
9.0
(48.2)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F) −15.0
(5.0)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−7.7
(18.1)
−3.6
(25.5)
1.7
(35.1)
4.2
(39.6)
8.9
(48.0)
8.4
(47.1)
5.1
(41.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.0
(19.4)
−12.4
(9.7)
−20.1
(−4.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.1
(2.60)
54.0
(2.13)
71.5
(2.81)
87.4
(3.44)
122.5
(4.82)
121.2
(4.77)
91.9
(3.62)
100.3
(3.95)
114.3
(4.50)
121.5
(4.78)
87.5
(3.44)
64.4
(2.54)
1,102.6
(43.41)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.1 5.3 7.0 9.3 11.1 9.1 6.3 7.2 6.5 8.3 7.1 6.6 90.9
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 68 71 69 67 67 68 71 75 78 79 72
Source: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity 1961–1990)[22][23][24]

Cityscape

Lower City seen from Upper City
Walled city scheme

The town has two centres: Città alta ("upper city"), a hilltop medieval town, surrounded by 16th-century defensive walls, and the Città bassa ("lower city"). The two parts of the town are connected by funicular, roads, and footpaths.

Upper city

The Upper City
The Angelo Maj library

The upper city, surrounded by Venetian walls built in the 16th century, forms the historic centre of Bergamo.[25] Notable buildings within the upper city include:

Parco regionale dei Colli di Bergamo
Regional Park of the Bergamo Hills
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Bergamo - panoramio - Qwesy.jpg
San Vigilio Hill from Città Alta
Location  Lombardy, Bergamo
Area 11,613 acres (47.00 km2)
Established 1977 (1977)
Governing body Parco dei Colli di Bergamo, Regione Lombardia
Website http://parcocollibergamo.it/ITA/Home.asp

Lower city

Bergamo Upper City, Lower City and Bergamo Hills

The lower city is the modern centre of Bergamo. At the end of the 19th century Città Bassa was composed of residential neighborhoods built along the main roads that linked Bergamo to the other cities of Lombardy. The main boroughs were Borgo Palazzo along the road to Brescia, Borgo San Leonardo along the road to Milan and Borgo Santa Caterina along the road to Serio Valley. The city rapidly expanded during the 20th century. In the first decades, the municipality erected major buildings like the new courthouse and various administrative offices in the lower part of Bergamo in order to create a new center of the city. After World War II many residential buildings were constructed in the lower part of the city which are now divided into twenty-five neighborhoods:

Neighborhoods of Bergamo

Boccaleone, Borgo Palazzo, Borgo Santa Caterina, Campagnola, Carnovali, Celadina, Centro-Papa Giovanni XXIII, Centro-Pignolo, Centro-Sant'Alessandro, Città Alta, Colli, Colognola, Conca Fiorita, Grumello del Piano, Longuelo [it], Loreto [it], Malpensata, Monterosso, Redona, San Paolo, San Tomaso de' Calvi, Santa Lucia (Bergamo)|Santa Lucia, Valtesse-San Colombano, Valverde con Valtesse-Sant'Antonio, Villaggio degli Sposi

The most relevant sites are:

  • Accademia Carrara
  • Galleria d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea (GAMeC, Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art).

Government

Demographics

In 2010, there were 119,551 people residing in Bergamo (in which the greater area has about 500 000 inhabitants), located in the province of Bergamo, Lombardia, of whom 46.6% were male and 53.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.79 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 23.61 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 17.88 percent (minors) and 20.29 percent (pensioners).

The average age of Bergamo residents is 45 compared to the Italian average of 43. In the eight years between 2002 and 2010, the population of Bergamo grew by 5.41 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 5.77 percent.[26]

Economy

Bergamo is situated in Lombardy, Italy's northern region where about a quarter of the country's GDP is produced.[27]

Nowadays, the city has an advanced tertiary economy focussed on banking, retail, and services associated to the industrial sector of its province. Corporations and firms linked to the area include UBI banking group, Brembo (braking systems), Tenaris (steel), ABB (power and automation technology), S. Pellegrino (beverage company based in San Pellegrino Terme), Italcementi (cement and concrete) and Riva-Ferretti (yachts and luxury ships based in Sarnico).

Bergamo produces the Denominazione di origine controllata wines Moscato di Scanzo e Valcalepio.

Culture

Notable natives

Bergamo was the hometown and last resting place of Enrico Rastelli, a highly technical and world-famous juggler who lived in the town and, in 1931, died there at the early age of 34. There is a life-sized statue of Rastelli within his mausoleum. A number of painters were active in the town as well; among these were Giovanni Paolo Cavagna, Francesco Zucco, and Enea Salmeggia, each of whom painted works for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. Sculptor Giacomo Manzù and the bass-baritone opera singer Alex Esposito[28] were born in Bergamo.

The American electrical engineer and professor Andrew Viterbi, inventor of Viterbi's algorithm, was born in Bergamo, before migrating to the US during the Fascist era because of his Jewish origins. Designers born in Bergamo include the late Mariuccia Mandelli, the founder of Krizia and one of the first female fashion designers to create a successful line of men's wear.[29]

Sports

Education

Transportation

Airport

Bergamo is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport 5 km (3 mi) south-east of the town. The city is also served by Milan Linate Airport 50 km (31 mi) south-west of Bergamo.

Motorway

Motorway A4 is the main axis connecting the city with the east and the west of the country, to cities such as Milan, Turin, Venice and Trieste.

Railway

Bergamo railway station is connected to Milan, Lecco, Cremona, Treviglio, Brescia and Monza with regional trains operated by Trenord. The city is also served by two daily Frecciargento services to Rome operated by Trenitalia.

Urban transport

Transport within Bergamo is managed by ATB and includes a network of bus lines together with two funicular systems opened in 1887 ("Funicolare di Bergamo Alta") and in 1912 ("Funicolare di Bergamo San Vigilio"). The Bergamo–Albino light rail was inaugurated in 2009.

Two light rail lines are currently in the planning stage:

  • Line 2 Bergamo FS - Villa d'Almè - San Pellegrino Terme
  • Line 3 Hospital-Railway Station FS-Trade Fair - Bergamo Airport

International relations

Twin towns − sister cities

Bergamo is twinned with:[30]

Bergamo has a partnership with:

Consulates

Bergamo is home to the following consulates:

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Historical German: Welschbergen or Wälsch-Bergen,[5][6][7] from the common Germanic *berg + *heim, "mountain home".[8][9]

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Bergamo". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Bergamo". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Relation History: Bergamo (45681)". OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  6. ^ Büsching, Anton Friedrich (1797). Anton Friedrich Büschings Erdbeschreibung: welcher Amerika begreist. Die vereinten Staaten von Nordamerika. Siebenter Theil. Vierter Band (in German). bey Carl Ernst Bohn.
  7. ^ Schleswigsches Journal: 1792,3 (in German). Korten. 1792.
  8. ^ "L'ETIMOLOGIA DI BERGAMO". ROSEBUD - Arts, Critique, Journalism (in Italian). 3 November 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  9. ^ "Comune di Bergamo (BG)". www.comune.bergamo.it. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Urbanismi in Italia, 2011" (PDF). cityrailways.it (in Italian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  11. ^ "OECD Territorial Review - Milan, Italy". [permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Competitiveness of Milan and its metropolitan area
  13. ^ ISTAT
  14. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "The city of Bergamo - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  15. ^ "RSY Lombardia-Arrivals and nights spent by guests in accommodation establishments, by type of resort and by type of establishment. Total accommodation establishments. Part III. Tourist resort. Year 2012". asr-lombardia.it. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  16. ^ "Lombardia, Pil più alto in Italia Bergamo disoccupazione ai minimi" (in Italian). Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  17. ^ "Collection search: You searched for". British Museum.
  18. ^ Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw, The Italian Wars: 1494–1559. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2012.
  19. ^ Max Boot, War Made New: Technology, Warfare, and the Course of History, 1500 to Today. New York: Penguin Group, 2006.
  20. ^ "G7 Agricoltura, approvata la Carta di Bergamo: "Zero fame entro il 2030"". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 15 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  21. ^ "G7, nasce la Carta di Bergamo: cooperazione, trasparenza sui prezzi e lotta allo spreco alimentare". BergamoNews (in Italian). 15 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  22. ^ "Bergamo/Orio Al Serio (BG)" (PDF). Atlante climatico. Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  23. ^ "STAZIONE 076 Bergamo Orio Al Serio: medie mensili periodo 61 - 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  24. ^ "Bergamo Orio al Serio: Record mensili dal 1946" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  25. ^ "The city of Bergamo". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  26. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  27. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania to 336% in Inner London". europa.eu. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  28. ^ "Alex Esposito". www.roh.org.uk. Royal Opera House. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  29. ^ Fox, Margalit (7 December 2015). "Mariuccia Mandelli, Italian Fashion Designer, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h "Gemellaggi e relazioni internazionali" (official website) (in Italian). Comune di Bergamo. 7 April 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  31. ^ "Pueblo's Sister Cities Home" (official website). Pueblo, CO, USA: Pueblo Sister Cities Commission. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  32. ^ "Convenios Internacionales" (official website) (in Spanish). Cochabamba, Bolivia: Gobierno Autónomo Municipal de Cochabamba. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  33. ^ "Bergamo firma il gemellaggio con Olkusz" (in Italian). Comune di Bergamo. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  34. ^ "Posadas y sus hermanas" (in Spanish). Primera Edición. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  35. ^ Consolato Onorario della BOLIVIA "Easydiplomacy" Archived 1 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Consolato Onorario del Malawi a Bergamo > Company Profile | Guida Monaci
  37. ^ "Rappresentanze svizzera in Italia". www.eda.admin.ch.

Bibliography

External links

  • ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) Municipality of Bergamo official website
  • Visit Bergamo
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