Benteng Chinese

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Benteng Chinese people
Tionghoa Benteng / Cina Benteng
Cina Benteng.JPG
Mass wedding ceremony of Benteng Chinese, Jakarta 2012.
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia (Tangerang)
Languages
Peranakan Malay, Hokkien language, Indonesian language
Religion
Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism
Related ethnic groups
Peranakan, Chinese Indonesian

Benteng Chinese (Bahasa Indonesia: Cina Benteng or Tionghoa Benteng) are a Chinese-Indonesian community of 'Peranakan' or mixed descent, native to the historic Tangerang area in the modern-day Indonesian provinces of Jakarta, Banten and West Java.[1][2][3]

Etymology

The name 'Benteng' is derived from the Malay word for 'fortress', used formerly to refer to the historic Tangerang area. It refers to a colonial fortress on the banks of the Cisadane River, built by the Dutch East India Company in the seventeenth century as part of their defence system against the neighbouring Sultanate of Banten.[1][3]

History

According to a Sundanese manuscript Tina Layang Parahyang (Notes from Parahyangan), the Chinese community of Batavia and Tangerang has existed since at least 1407 CE.[4][5][6] This manuscript recounts the arrival of among the earliest Chinese migrants to the area, led by a certain Tjen Tjie Lung, also dubbed 'Halung'.[4] They landed at the mouth of the Cisadane river, now called Teluk Naga (Dragon's Bay).[4]

Subsequent waves of Chinese immigration from the seventeenth century onwards took place under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company.[7][1] Some Benteng Chinese trace their origin to those fleeing Batavia during the Chinese Massacre of 1740.[8]

During the Indonesian Revolution from 1945 to 1949, tension rose between indigenous Indonesians and Benteng Chinese, who were perceived to be in favour of the Dutch colonial status quo.[9][10] On 23 June 1946, riots targeting Benteng Chinese homes broke out in Tangeran, where revolutionary militiamen sympathetic to the Indonesian republican cause looted Chinese possessions, including Chinese prayer tables.[10] These riots were apparently triggered by placement of an Indonesian flag with a Dutch flag by a Dutch colonial army soldier of Chinese descent.

Indonesian journalist Rosihan Anwar wrote in the Merdeka daily on 13 June 1946 that relationship between native and Chinese Indonesians had reached an all-time low. Conditions worsened after Pao An Tui, a pro-Dutch Benteng Chinese youth group, mobilized armed groups to evacuate Benteng Chinese residents to Batavia. Anti-Chinese rioting was successfully suppressed by the alliance of Pao An Tui and Dutch colonial troops.

At the time, nearly the entire Benteng Chinese population was displaced, and upon return, they found that their properties were no longer intact: their land holdings had been confiscated or their homes had been looted.

Traditional dress

The traditional dress of the Benteng Chinese is a mixture of the Chinese traditional dress mostly of Hokkien heritage and the Betawi traditional dress. The males wear a black shirt and long pants with a traditional hat in conical shape. The female dress called 'hwa kun' is a blouse with headdress and veil. An alternative costume is the 'kebaya encim' of Peranakan heritage.

Contributions to Dutch colonialism

The Benteng Chinese contributed strongly to Dutch colonial operations in Tangerang. Many became 'kapitein Tionghoa,' representing an entire Chinese enclave and acting as landlord in Tangerang, with strong loyalty towards the Dutch.

During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia many Benteng Chinese resisted the Japanese even if they were ultimately unsuccessful. Upon Indonesian independence, Tangerang was the last part of Java returned to the Republic of Indonesia by the Dutch. Many Benteng Chinese emigrated to the Netherlands where they still reside today.

Benteng Chinese today

Benteng Chinese culture today is a mixture of Betawi and Chinese cultures. One example is cokek, a dance featuring a male and female couple set to gambang kromong music. Religiously, the Benteng Chinese adhere to Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, ancestor worship, and few adhere to Islam.

Even if most Benteng Chinese do not speak Chinese language, they maintain Chinese traditions including the use of Qing wedding costumes. They are uniquely the only Chinese community in Indonesia with significant Manchu ancestry.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lohanda, Mona (1996). The Kapitan Cina of Batavia, 1837-1942: A History of Chinese Establishment in Colonial Society. Jakarta: Djambatan. ISBN 9789794282571. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  2. ^ "Sejarah Cina Benteng di Indonesia !". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Knorr, Jacqueline (2014). Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia. Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781782382690. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c Ensiklopedi Jakarta: culture & heritage (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Pemerintah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, Dinas Kebudayaan dan Permuseuman. 2005. ISBN 9789798682506. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  5. ^ ""Heritage Trail" ke Pecinan Tangerang - Kompas.com". nasional.kompas.com. Kompas. Kompas. February 24, 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  6. ^ Boen Tek Bio. "Boen Tek Bio - Sejarah". www.boentekbio.org. Boen Tek Bio. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  7. ^ Blussé, Leonard (1986). STRANGE COMPANY E-BOOK. Riverton, USA: Foris Publications. ISBN 9783111544304. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  8. ^ Aria, Pingit (December 12, 2010). "Asal Muasal "Cina Benteng" Dalam Teater Batavia 1740". Tempo Metro. Tempo. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  9. ^ Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (1997). Political Thinking of the Indonesian Chinese, 1900-1995: A Sourcebook. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 9789971692018. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Mozingo, David (2007). Chinese Policy Toward Indonesia, 1949-1967. Singapore: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 9789793780542. Retrieved 20 September 2017. 

External links

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