Beşiktaş J.K.

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Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü
Full name Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü[1]
Nickname(s) Kara Kartallar (Black Eagles)[2][3]
Siyah Beyazlılar (Black and Whites)
Short name BJK
Founded 4 March 1903; 114 years ago (1903-03-04),[4][5][6][7][8]
as Beşiktaş Bereket Jimnastik Kulübü[9]
Ground Vodafone Park
Istanbul, Turkey
Ground Capacity 41,903
Chairman Fikret Orman[10]
Manager Şenol Güneş
League Süper Lig
2016–17 Süper Lig, 1st
Website Club website
Current season

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Turkish pronunciation: [beˈʃiktaʃ], English: Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), known as simply Beşiktaş, is a Turkish sports club founded in 1903, and based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul.

The club's football team is one of the most successful teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to a lower division. The club last won the Turkish Süper Lig championship during the 2016–17 season.

The home ground of Beşiktaş is Vodafone Park, a 41,903 all-seater capacity stadium located next to Dolmabahçe Palace.

The club also competes in other branches including basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics, boxing, wrestling, chess, bridge, gymnastics, rowing, table tennis, paralympic sports, eSports and beach football.[11]


Active departments of Beşiktaş
Athletics pictogram.svg Basketball pictogram.svg Boxing pictogram.svg
Athletics Basketball
Poker-sm-211-As.png Chess pictogram.svg Simple Game.svg
Bridge Chess e-Sports
Football pictogram.svg Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Handball pictogram.svg
Gymnastics Handball
Rowing pictogram.svg Table tennis pictogram.svg Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg
Rowing Table tennis Volleyball
Wheelchair basketball pictogram (Paralympics).svg Wrestling pictogram.svg
Wheelchair Basketball Wrestling
Mehmet Şamil Şhaplı, one of the founding members and first president of Beşiktaş J.K.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903

Bereket Gymnastic Club was founded under special permission on 4 March 1903.[12] Their sporting activities gained more freedom with the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1908. After the political events of 31 March 1909, Fuat Balkan and Mazhar Kazancı, who were in Edirne, came to Istanbul with the Movement Army. After the political events settled down, Fuat Balkan, who was a good fencing coach, and Mazhar Kazancı, a good wrestler and weight lifter, found the youths involved in gymnastics in Serencebey and got them to agree to participate in sports together. Refik and Şerafettin Beys, friends of Fuat Bey, were also good fencers. Fuat Balkan made the space under his home in Ihlamur the Club’s headquarters, and the title of Bereket Gymnastics Club was changed to Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club. Thus, a stronger sports club, where gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, fencing and athletics were emphasized, was formed. Founding member Mehmet Şamil Şhaplı was elected the first president of the club.

In the meantime, Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club became the first registered Turkish sports club on 13 January 1910 with the encouragement of Beyoğlu Governor Muhittin Bey. The interest among the youths of the neighborhood in the sports club grew and the number of members involved in sports suddenly grew to 150. The headquarters of the club was moved from Ihlamur to Building 49 in Akaretler. When this building became too small, Building 84, also in Akaretler, became their headquarters. The yard behind this building was turned into a sports pitch.

Some of the young patriots from the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul formed two football clubs called "Valideçeşme" and "Basiret" under the leadership of Şeref Bey. The Valideçeşme and Basiret football clubs joined under the Beşiktaş Ottoman Gymnastics Club in 1911. In a very short time, football became the foremost branch in the club.

For years, the original colours of Beşiktaş were believed to be Red and White; and then temporarily changed into Black and White as a sign of mourning for the dead in Balkan Wars, which included some players of the club. Although most written sources endorse this claim, a detailed study carried out for Beşiktaş’s 100th anniversary documentary had shown that red was never used in club’s first colors; and Beşiktaş’s colours were always Black and White.[13]

Initial years of football

1923–24 Istanbul League champions
Players of Beşiktaş before the match against Galatasaray, 19 March 1939.

With football becoming the main sport of the Ottoman Empire around 1910, Beşiktaş members slowly started to give more attention to football. In August 1911, Ahmed Şerafettin started the football team. Beşiktaş didn't enter the Istanbul Friday and Sunday leagues, and didn't have any championships until 1918, when they won the Istanbul Turkish 1st Sports League. In 1921, that particular league's final season, they won it again. In 1924, Beşiktaş entered the Istanbul Football League along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and other Istanbul teams. Beşiktaş became the league's first champion in 1924, but was not able to get more success in the league. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe were the two dominant teams through the middle of the 1930s.

Beşiktaş won their second Istanbul League championship in 1934, as well as their first Turkish Football Championship in the same year. In 1937, the Turkish National League was formed. In the Istanbul League season prior to the National League's first season, Beşiktaş finished in fourth place, which earned them a berth in the National League. Beşiktaş finished third place in the National league, behind Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray. In 1938, Beşiktaş finished in third place in the Istanbul league and second place in the National league, behind Güneş. Beşiktaş won a record five consecutive Istanbul league championships between 1939 and 1943. In the National league, Beşiktaş finished fourth in 1939, fifth in 1940, first in 1941 and third in 1943 (1942 league was not held). The club won the Istanbul league in 1945 and 1946, as well as the National league in 1944 and 1947.

After 1959

In 1959, the Turkish First League was formed, the nation's first professional football league. In the inaugural year, Beşiktaş came in third place, while in 1960 it won the league title. In 1960, the club also participated in the European Cup, becoming the first Turkish team ever to participate in the tournament. In subsequent years, Beşiktaş finished third in both 1961 and 1962, as well as second in 1963, 1964 and 1965. In 1966 and 1967, meanwhile, the club won back-to-back championship titles, and in the latter year, they also won their first Turkish Super Cup. In 1968, Beşiktaş finished in second.

Silent 1970s

After 1967, Beşiktaş's performance declined slightly, finishing in 8th, 12th, 5th, 4th many times, while Trabzonspor, Fenerbahçe and, occasionally Galatasaray continued their success. Beşiktaş only finished in second place once in the decade, in 1975.

1980s Revival

Beşiktaş put an end to their poor performances in 1982 with a surprise Turkish championship, earning another in 1986. They finished the league as runners-up four times in the second half of the decade. Hooliganism was also a major problem that had started in Europe and spread throughout Turkey as well. Beşiktaş fan hooliganism had been a major issue with many fights inside and outside the stadium, although this has become less of an issue in more recent years.

Gordon Milne era: 1987–1993

Vodafone Park

Beşiktaş had their most successful run in the Süper Lig with three consecutive championships under the management of Gordon Milne in the early 1990s. Three players of the squad – Metin Tekin, Ali Gültiken and Feyyaz Uçar – were notable for significant contributions to the team during this period. These players had been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz ("MAF") and they formed the front of the team's line-up. The supporters composed various chants for the trio devoted to their delighting style on the pitch, their goals, and above all for their friendship and modesty. The trio is regarded by supporters as the best ever attacking line of the club.

The only three-in-a-row title term in club history occurred in the 1989–90, 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons. Most notably, Beşiktaş became the first undefeated champion in Süper Lig history.[14][15] So far, Beşiktaş is the only team that has achieved these honors.

Under Milne, the team adopted the 4–4–2 system. By playing down the lines, crossing and winning balls in the air, the team scored many goals. On 15 October 1989, Beşiktaş broke the Süper Lig record for the biggest winning margin in a game with a 10–0 victory over Southern Turkey team Adana Demirspor.[16] This match was designated as one of the 16 biggest matches in club history.[17]

Legend of the Black Eagles

There is a legend surrounding the nicknaming of the team as "The Black Eagles". Beşiktaş, the title holder of the previous two seasons, started the 1940–41 season with a young and renewed team. As the weeks went by, this team was more and more secure in the leader's seat in the league. With five weeks remaining in the season, the opponent was Süleymaniye. Beşiktaş had started the game in Şeref Stadium on Sunday 19 January 1941, with the following players: Faruk, Yavuz, İbrahim, Rıfat, Halil, Hüseyin, Şakir, Hakkı, Şükrü, Şeref, Eşref. The team went ahead in the first half. Halfway through the second half of the game, Beşiktaş attacked continuously, despite being in front. And then, according to legend, a voice was heard from the stands towards which Beşiktaş was attacking. The voice said, "Come on, Black Eagles! Attack, Black Eagles!" The story goes that the owner of the voice from the stands was a fisherman called Mehmet Galin. Beşiktaş finished the game with a 6–0 win. The Beşiktaş players, who had very successfully defeated their opponents that season, were being described as "Black Eagles", and the football they played was being compared to "Attacking like Black Eagles". The comparison resonated with the team and the fans, and so it was adopted by the Beşiktaş community as their team's nickname.[18]

Colours and badge

BJK İnönü Stadium entrance, displaying the club emblem and stars for Turkish Super League championships.

Home colours


Away colours


Third colours



Beşiktaş J.K. vs Bursaspor 11 April 2016 (5).jpg

Beşiktaş play their home games at Vodafone Park. Completed in 2016, it was built on the site of Beşiktaş's former home, BJK İnönü Stadium.


Current squad

As of 30 August 2017[19]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Spain GK Fabricio
2 Croatia DF Matej Mitrovic
3 Brazil DF Adriano
5 Portugal DF Pepe
6 Serbia DF Duško Tošić
7 Portugal MF Ricardo Quaresma
8 Netherlands MF Ryan Babel
9 Spain FW Álvaro Negredo
10 Turkey MF Oğuzhan Özyakup (third-captain)
11 Turkey FW Mustafa Pektemek
12 Chile DF Gary Medel
13 Canada MF Atiba Hutchinson
14 Turkey DF Fatih Aksoy
No. Position Player
15 Turkey MF Orkan Çınar
17 Netherlands MF Jeremain Lens (on loan from Sunderland)
18 Germany MF Tolgay Arslan
20 Turkey MF Necip Uysal (vice-captain)
22 Armenia FW Aras Özbiliz
23 Turkey FW Cenk Tosun
29 Turkey GK Tolga Zengin (captain)
33 Turkey DF Atınç Nukan (on loan from RB Leipzig)
55 Turkey MF Gökhan Töre
77 Turkey DF Gökhan Gönül
88 Turkey DF Caner Erkin
94 Brazil MF Talisca (on loan from Benfica)
97 Turkey GK Utku Yuvakuran

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Colombia DF Pedro Franco (at Boluspor until 30 June 2018)
Sweden DF Alexander Milošević (at Çaykur Rizespor until 30 June 2018)
No. Position Player
Turkey MF Oğuzhan Aydoğan (at Karlsruher SC until 30 June 2018)
Turkey MF Sedat Şahintürk (at Balıkesirspor until 30 June 2018)

Technical staff

Position Name
Manager Turkey Şenol Güneş
Assistant Manager Turkey Şeref Çiçek
Assistant Manager Turkey Mehmet Kulaksızoğlu
First Team Coach Turkey Dolu Arslan
First Team Coach Turkey Eren Şafak
Fitness Coach Spain Miguel Peiró Montanana
Goalkeeping Coach Croatia Marjan Mrmić
First Team Doctor Turkey Sarper Çetinkaya
First Team Doctor Turkey Murat Çevik (former) Günel Kaybetimer Oglu
Physiotherapist Turkey Zeki Cetin
Physiotherapist Turkey Aşkın Dede
Physiotherapist Turkey Mehmet Alpözgen
Football Interpreter Turkey Halil Yazıcıoğlu
Kit Manager Turkey Ünal Akkoyun
Kit Manager Turkey Süreyya Soner
Chief Scout Turkey Gökhan Keskin


Picture of the 2002–03 Süper Lig champions' trophy, won by Beşiktaş during the club's centenary year (1903–2003)


UEFA achievements


Picture of the 2006–07 Turkish Cup Trophy, won by Beşiktaş.

European record


As of 12 December 2017[20]
Competition Played Won Drew Lost GF GA GD Win%
European Cup / Champions League 80 27 19 34 84 123 −39 033.75
Cup Winners' Cup 20 4 4 12 21 38 −17 020.00
UEFA Cup / UEFA Europa League 102 46 21 35 159 125 +34 045.10
Total 202 77 44 81 264 286 −22 038.12

Legend: GF = Goals For. GA = Goals Against. GD = Goal Difference.

Best campaigns

Season Achievement Notes
European Cup / UEFA Champions League
1986–87 Quarter-finals eliminated by Dynamo Kyiv 0–2 in İzmir, 0–5 in Kiev
European Cup Winners' Cup
1993–94 Last 16 eliminated by Ajax 1–2 in Amsterdam, 0–4 in Istanbul
1994–95 Last 16 eliminated by Auxerre 2–2 in İstanbul, 0–2 in Auxerre
1998–99 Last 16 eliminated by Vålerenga 0–1 in Oslo, 3–3 in Istanbul
UEFA Cup / UEFA Europa League
1996–97 Last 16 eliminated by Valencia 1–3 in Valencia, 2–2 in Istanbul
2002–03 Quarter-finals eliminated by Lazio 0–1 in Rome, 1–2 in Istanbul
2011–12 Last 16 eliminated by Atlético Madrid 1–3 in Madrid, 0–3 in Istanbul
2014–15 Last 16 eliminated by Club Brugge 1–2 in Bruges, 1–3 in Istanbul
2016–17 Quarter-finals eliminated by Olympique Lyonnais 1–2 in Lyon, 2–1 in regular time and 6-7 on penalties in Istanbul

Current ranking

As of 25 November 2017[21]
Rank Team Coefficient
28 Spain Villareal CF 52.000
29 Turkey Beşiktaş 50.000
30 Italy AS Roma 49.000
31 Belgium RSC Anderlecht 46.000

Recent seasons

Season Div. Pos. Pl. W D L GS GA P Cup Europe Manager
2005–06 SL 3 34 15 9 10 52 39 54 Winners UC Group stage Rıza ÇalımbayJean Tigana
2006–07 SL 2 34 18 7 9 43 32 61 Winners UC Group stage Jean Tigana
2007–08 SL 3 34 23 4 7 58 32 73 Quarter-finals UCL Group stage Ertuğrul Sağlam
2008–09 SL 1 34 21 8 5 60 30 71 Winners UC First round Ertuğrul SağlamMustafa Denizli
2009–10 SL 4 34 18 10 6 47 25 64 Group stage UCL Group stage Mustafa Denizli
2010–11 SL 5 34 15 9 10 53 36 54 Winners UEL Round of 32 Bernd SchusterTayfur Havutçu
2011–12 SL 4 34+6 15+1 9+2 10+3 50+5 39+9 54+5 Round of 16 UEL Round of 16 Carlos CarvalhalTayfur Havutçu
2012–13 SL 3 34 16 10 8 63 49 58 Round of 16 Samet Aybaba
2013–14 SL 3 34 17 11 6 53 33 62 Round of 32 UEL Play-off Slaven Bilić
2014–15 SL 3 34 21 6 7 55 32 69 Round of 16 UCL
Round of 16
2015–16 SL 1 34 25 4 5 75 35 79 Quarter-finals UEL Group Stage Şenol Güneş
2016–17 SL 1 34 23 8 3 73 30 77 Round of 16 UCL
Group Stage

Last updated: 9 June 2015 (2015-06-09)
Div.=Division; Pos.=Position; Pl=Match played; W=Won; D=Drawn; L=Lost; GS=Goals scored; GA=Goals against; P=Points
SL=Süper Lig; UCL=UEFA Champions League; UCWC=UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; UC=UEFA Cup; UEL=UEFA Europa League; Cup=Turkish Cup
Background colours: Gold=winners; Silver=runners-up; Bronze=third


Name[22] Period[22]
Turkey Mehmet Üstünkaya 1981–84
Turkey Süleyman Seba 1984–00
Turkey Serdar Bilgili 2000–04
Turkey Yıldırım Demirören 2004–12
Turkey Fikret Orman 2012–


There have been managers from various European countries at the helm of the club. The longest serving manager of Beşiktaş is Şeref Bey, managing the club for 14 years. The most successful manager is Gordon Milne, winning the league three times in a row along with other trophies as well.[23]


Years Shirt sponsor Kit manufacturer
1988 Toshiba and Sony Adidas
1988–1998 Beko
1998–2001 Reebok
2001–2004 Puma
2004–2005 Turkcell
2005–2009 Cola Turka Umbro
2009–2011 Adidas
2011–2014 Toyota
2014– Vodafone


  1. ^ "Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü Derneği Tüzüğü" (PDF) (in Turkish). p. 1. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "Kara Kartallar Efsanesi". Beşiltaş JK. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Turkey - Club Nicknames". RSSSF. 10 July 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "Tarihte Bugün - 4 Mart Dünyada ve Türkiye'de Ne Oldu? - Ne Nedir Vikipedi". 
  5. ^ "4 Mart Zaman Tüneli Haberleri - Sabah". 
  6. ^ "Tarihte Bugün - 4 Mart - ComeSpan". 
  7. ^ "»» Erdem802 ««: Beşiktaş (4 Mart 1903)". 
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü". 
  10. ^ "Info Bank » Club Details". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  11. ^ "Branches, Football". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Basketball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Volleyball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Handball". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Athletics". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Boxing". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Wrestling". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Chess". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Cards Bridge". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Gymnastics". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Rowing". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Table Tennis". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Branches, Disabled Sports". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
    "Beşiktaş Beach Football Team is Established". Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  12. ^ zaman, Yazar : bizim. "Bizimzaman: 4 Martta Neler Oldu? Tarihte 4 Martta Yaşananlar Neler? Tarihte 4 Mart". 
  13. ^ "Beşiktaş J.K. Official Web Site". 
  14. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  15. ^ "1991–92 League Ranking". Turkish Football Association. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  16. ^ "Beşiktaş – Adana Demirspor : 10–0". Beşiktaş club website. 1 November 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  17. ^ "Basarilarimiz" [Our Achievements]. Beşiktaş club website. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  18. ^ "Beşiktaş Karakartal Ambleminin Hikayesi". Delinetciler Portal. 
  19. ^ "First team". Beşiktaş J.K. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  20. ^ UEFA club competition record –
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ a b "Başkanlarımız" (in Turkish). Beşiktaş official website. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  23. ^ Teknik Direktörlerimiz Beşiktaş JK

External links

  • Official website (in Turkish) (in English)
  • Beşiktaş J.K. at UEFA
  • Beşiktaş J.K. at TFF
  • Beşiktaş: Istanbul's third club but Constantinople's first at
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