Battle of Norfolk

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Battle of Norfolk
Part of the Persian Gulf War
AsadBabil-Dug-in.jpg
A dug-in Iraqi T-72 Asad Babil tank at the Battle of Norfolk, 26 February 1991
Date February 27, 1991
Location Muthanna Province, Iraq
(now Al Muthanna Governorate, Iraq)
Result Coalition victory
Belligerents
 United States
 United Kingdom
Iraq Iraq
Commanders and leaders
United States Norman Schwarzkopf
United States Frederick Franks
United States Thomas G. Rhame[1]
United Kingdom Rupert Smith[2]
Salah Aboud Mahmoud
Brig. Gen Saheb Mohammed Alaw
General Ayad Futayih al-Rawi[3]
Brig Gen. Bassil Omar Al-Shalham[4]
Units involved
United States 1st Infantry Division
United States 1st Cavalry Division
United Kingdom 1st Armoured Division
United States 2nd Armored Division(Fwd)
United States 3rd Armored Division
United States 210th Field Artillery Brigade[5]
United States 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment[6][7]
Tawakalna Republican Guard Division
10th Armored Division
12th Armored Division
52nd Armored Division
25th Infantry Division
26th Infantry Division
31st Infantry Division
48th Infantry Division[8]
9th Armored Brigade[9]
18th Mechanized Brigade[5]
50th Armored Brigade
29th Armored Brigade
Casualties and losses
American Sector
21 killed[10]
67 wounded[11]
5 tanks destroyed[12][13]
4[13]–5 IFVs destroyed[14]
Objective Dorset:
15 killed[15]
27 wounded[16]
3 tanks damaged[17][18]
British Sector
15 killed[19]
43 wounded.[20]
2 British Warrior IFVs destroyed[21]
Ba'athist Forces
American Sector
Heavy casualties
937 soldiers captured
550 tanks destroyed[22]
480 other vehicles destroyed[22]
396 artillery pieces destroyed[23]
Objective Dorset:
Heavy casualties
300 tanks/IFVs destroyed[24]
2,500 Iraqi soldiers captured[25]
British Sector
Heavy casualties
300 tanks destroyed/captured[26]
IFVs heavy losses[27][28]
Heavy artillery losses[29]
7,000+ Iraqi soldiers captured[30]

The Battle of Norfolk was a tank battle fought on February 27, 1991, during the Persian Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States and United Kingdom, and those of the Ba'athist Iraqi Republican Guard. The primary participants were the U.S. 2nd Armored Division (Forward),1st Infantry Division (Mechanized), and the Iraqi 18th Mechanized and 9th Armoured Brigades of the Republican Guard Tawakalna Mechanized Infantry Division along with elements from eleven other Iraqi divisions.[31] The 2nd Armored Division(Fwd) was assigned to the American 1st Infantry Division as its 3rd maneuver brigade due to the fact that one of its brigades was not deployed.[32] The 2nd Armored Division(Fwd)'s Task Force 1-41 Infantry would be the spearhead of VII Corps.[33] The British 1st Armoured division were responsible for protecting the right flank of VII Corps, their main adversary being the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division and multiple infantry divisions. It was the final battle of the war before the unilateral ceasefire took effect. One more battle occurred near the oil field at Rumaila after the ceasefire.[25][34] The Battle of Norfolk has been recognized by some sources as the second largest tank battle in American history and the largest tank battle of the 1st Gulf War.[35] No fewer than 12 divisions participated in the Battle of Norfolk along with multiple brigades and elements of a regiment.[31][28][36][37] American and British forces destroyed approximately 850 Iraqi tanks and hundreds of other types of combat vehicles.[22][27][28][38] This goes without even taking into consideration the destruction of two additional Republican Guard divisions at Objective Dorset by the 3rd Armored Division on 28 February 1991.[34][25] During this battle the U.S. 3rd Armored Division destroyed 300 enemy vehicles and captured 2,500 Iraqi soldiers.[39]

Overview

The battle took place about 60 miles (97 km) east of and 18 hours after the Battle of Al Busayyah, and several kilometers east of the Battle of 73 Easting, which had ended just two hours earlier. The Battle of Norfolk is named for Objective Norfolk, an area that encompassed the intersection of the IPSA Pipeline Road and several desert trails and a large Iraqi supply depot defended by Iraqi armor. Objective Norfolk was located west of Phase Line Kiwi, east of Phase Line Smash, and north of Phase Line Grape. Phase lines are map references occurring every few kilometers used to measure progress of an offensive operation.[40]

Participants

The forces involved in the battle were the American 1st Infantry Division, the 3rd Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division (Fwd) ('Hell on Wheels') and the Iraqi 18th Mechanized and 9th Armoured Brigades of the Republican Guard Tawakalna Mechanized Infantry Division along with elements from eleven other Iraqi divisions including the Iraqi 26th, 48th, 31st, and 25th Infantry Divisions.[31] The American 1st Infantry Division was quite formidable consisting of 334 M1A1 tanks and 224 M2A2 Bradley fighting vehicles.[41] The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division was also a participant.[42] The Iraqi 52nd Armored Division was also a primary participant.[28] It was a powerful division consisting of 245 tanks and 195 armored fighting vehicles.[43] The Iraqi 10th and 12th Armored Divisions were also present. The Iraqi 10th Armored Division was considered the best regular division in the Iraqi Army.[44] It had more modern equipment than the other regular Iraqi units.[45] It was equipped with T-72 and T-62 tanks.[46] The Iraqis also had elements of two other independent armoured brigades in theatre, those being the 50th and 29th Armoured Brigades.[36] The British fielded their 1st Armoured Division.[37] The U.S. 3rd Armored Division handled responsibilities at Objective Dorset.[34]

Counter reconnaissance

Task Force 1-41 Infantry was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February 1991 and conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February 1991.[47] Task Force 1-41 Infantry was a heavy battalion task force from the 2nd Armored Division (Forward). It consisted primarily of the 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment, and the 4th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment. Shortly after arrival in theatre Task Force 1-41 Infantry received a counter-reconnaissance mission along with the 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment.[48] This joint effort became known as Task Force Iron.[49] Counter-reconnaissance generally includes destroying or repelling the enemy's reconnaissance elements and denying their commander any observation of friendly forces. On 15 February 1991 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector that were observing American forces.[50] On 16 February 1991 several groups of Iraqi vehicles appeared to be performing reconnaissance on the Task Force and were driven away by fire from 4-3 FA.[51] Another enemy platoon, including six vehicles, was reported as being to the northeast of the Task Force. They were engaged with artillery fire from 4-3 FA.[52] Later that evening another group of Iraqi vehicles was spotted moving towards the center of the Task Force. They appeared to be Iraqi Soviet-made BTRs and tanks. For the next hour the Task Force fought several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units. TF 1-41 IN fired TOW missiles at the Iraqi formation destroying one tank. The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4-3 FA.[52] On 17 February 1991 the Task Force took enemy mortar fire, however, the enemy forces managed to escape.[53] Later that evening the Task Force received enemy artillery fire but suffered no casualties.[54]

Soldiers of 2nd Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment pose with a captured Iraqi tank during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Elements of Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment's Reconnaissance Team drive past a burning Iraqi tank. Vehicles from 4-3 FA follow closely behind during the Battle of Norfolk during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Task Force 1-41 Infantry destroyed multiple Iraqi tanks in defensive entrenchments.
An Iraqi tank destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during a night combat operation during the Gulf war, February 1991.
Destroyed Iraqi tanks burning at the Battle of Norfolk during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
An Iraqi Republican Guard tank destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
A M109A2 howitzer belonging to Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division(FWD) during the Gulf War, February 1991.
Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division(FWD) moves into position to conduct fire missions during the Battle of Norfolk, February 1991.
4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) conducts artillery strikes on Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War. 4-3 FA was the primary fire support battalion for Task Force 1-41 during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
M270 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems attack Iraqi positions at the Battle of Norfolk during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.

Breach

The breach was preceded by a heavy artillery barrage, led by 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment and the 210th Field Artillery Brigade, to soften up Iraqi defenses. Around 300 guns from multiple nations participated in the barrage. Over 14,000 rounds of artillery and over 4,900 MLRS rockets were fired at Iraqi forces during these raids.[4] Iraq lost close to 22 artillery battalions during the initial stages of this barrage.[23] This includes the destruction of approximately 396 Iraqi artillery pieces.[23] By the end of these raids Iraqi artillery assets had all but ceased to exist. One Iraqi unit that was totally destroyed during the preparation was the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division Artillery Group.[55] The group's commander stated his unit lost 83 of its 100 guns to the artillery preparation.[55] These raids were supplemented by air attacks by B-52 Stratofortress bombers and Lockheed AC-130 fixed wing gunships.[56] 1st Infantry Division Apache helicopters and B-52 bombers conducted raids against Iraq's 110th Infantry Brigade.[57] The 1st Engineer Battalion and 9th Engineer Battalion marked and proofed assault lanes under direct and indirect enemy fire to secure a foothold in enemy territory and pass the 1st Infantry Division and the British 1st Armored Division forward.[58][59] On 24 February 1991 the 1st Cavalry Division conducted a couple artillery missions against Iraqi artillery units.[60] One artillery mission struck a series of Iraqi bunkers, reinforced by Iraqi T-55 tanks, in the sector of the Iraqi 25th Infantry Division.[61] The same day the 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division with the 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Battalion, 32nd Armor, and the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry destroyed Iraqi bunkers and combat vehicles in the sector of the Iraqi 25th Infantry Division.[62] On 24 February 1991 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division rolled through the breach in the Iraqi defense west of Wadi Al-Batin and also cleared the northeastern sector of the breach site of enemy resistance.[63] Task Force 3-37th Armor breached the Iraqi defense clearing four passage lanes and expanding the gap under direct enemy fire.[64] Also, on 24 February the American 1st Infantry Division along with the 1st Cavalry Division destroyed Iraqi outposts and patrols belonging to the Iraqi 26th Infantry Division.[65] The two divisions also began capturing prisoners.[66] The 1st Infantry Division also cleared a zone between Phase Line Vermont and Phase Line Kansas.[67] Once the 1st Infantry Division's 3rd Battalion, 37th Armor reached the Iraqi rear defensive positions it destroyed an Iraqi D-30 artillery battery and many trucks and bunkers.[68]

Task Force 1-41 Infantry was given the task of breaching Iraq's initial defensive positions along the Iraq-Saudi Arabia border.[69] The 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment handled similar responsibilities in its sector of operations.[70] The 1st Infantry Division's 5th Battalion, 16th Infantry also played a significant role clearing the trenches and captured 160 Iraqi soldiers in the process.[71] Once into Iraqi territory Task Force 1-41 Infantry encountered multiple Iraqi defensive positions and bunkers. These defensive positions were occupied by a brigade-sized element.[72] Task Force 1-41 Infantry elements dismounted and prepared to engage the enemy soldiers which occupied these well-prepared and heavily fortified bunkers.[72] The Task Force found itself engaged in six hours of combat in order to clear the extensive bunker complex.[72] The Iraqis engaged the Task Force with small arms fire, RPGs, mortar fire, and what was left of Iraqi artillery assets. A series of battles unfolded which resulted in heavy Iraqi casualties and the Iraqis being removed from their defensive positions with many becoming prisoners of war. Some escaped to be killed or captured by other coalition forces.[73] In the process of clearing the bunkers Task Force 1-41 captured two brigade command posts and the command post of the Iraqi 26th Infantry Division.[74] The Task Force also captured a brigade commander, several battalion commanders, company commanders, and staff officers.[74] As combat operations progressed Task Force 1-41 Infantry engaged at short range multiple dug in enemy tanks in ambush positions.[47] For a few hours, bypassed Iraqi RPG equipped anti-tank teams, T-55 tanks, and dismounted Iraqi infantry fired at passing American vehicles, only to be destroyed by other US tanks and fighting vehicles following the initial forces.[75]

The 1st Infantry Division's Task Force 2-16 Infantry cleared four lanes simultaneously through an enemy fortified trench system while inflicting heavy casualties.[76] Task Force 2-16 continued the attack clearing over 13 miles of entrenched enemy positions resulting in the capture and destruction of numerous enemy vehicles, equipment, personnel and command bunkers.[77]

Battle

The Battle of Norfolk was in a sense a continuation of the fighting that began with the Battle of 73 Easting the day before. It took place under rainy and foggy weather conditions.[78] It began at 0030 on 27 February 1991. Two American Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles were destroyed by the Iraqi Republican Guard 18th Mechanized Brigade while conducting forward reconnaissance.[79] American artillery and MLRS units continued to conduct fire missions against Iraqi targets a dozen miles to the east.[80] With air support from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Aviation's attack helicopters[81] and fire support from both the 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment and the 210th Field Artillery Brigade preventing Iraqi artillery from interfering, the U.S. 1st Infantry Division conducted a passage of the 2nd ACR's lines.[82]

The two attacking brigades of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division, including the 3rd Brigade of the 2nd Armored Division (Fwd), were positioned along the 75 Easting, 2,000 meters east of 73 Easting. The Brigades clashed with the Iraqi Tawakalna Division of the Republican Guard, including the 37th Brigade of the 12th Iraqi Armored Division.[40] The Tawakalna Republican Guard Division was Iraq's most powerful division which included approximately 14,000 soldiers, 220 T-72 tanks, 284 infantry fighting vehicles, 126 artillery pieces, and 18 MLRS.[83] Elements of the Iraqi 12th Armored Division was destroyed during this engagement by Task Force 1-41 Infantry. This was a slow moving division that lacked the capability for modern day armored warfare.[84] Some 40 Iraqi tanks were destroyed and a similar number of other combat vehicles.[22] On 27 February 1991 Task Force 1-41 Infantry destroyed an Iraqi T-55 tank battalion that ambushed the Task Force.[85] The Iraqi tank unit managed to destroy a Bradley Fighting Vehicle and killed three soldiers belonging to the Task Force.[86] That same day Task Force 1-41 destroyed an Iraqi RPG team, machine gun nest, and a bunker.[87] On 27 February 1991 Task Force 1-41 destroyed an Iraqi tank unit at great range at Objective Denver.[88] The 2nd Armored Division (Forward) destroyed 60 Iraqi tanks and 35 AFVs along the Iraq Pipeline to Saudi Arabia (IPSA).[89]

In the thick of the fog of war, U.S. units became mixed with Iraqi units dispersed throughout the desert. This confusion led to some friendly fire incidents.[90] Task Force 1-41 Infantry was involved in the worst US "friendly fire" incident of the Gulf War on 27 February 1991.[91]

The 2nd Armored Division(Fwd) continued to fight a series of short, sharp battles with Iraqi tank platoons as it moved across the Wadi Al-Batin into Kuwait.[92] On 27 February 1991 an Iraqi tank unit attacked 4-3 FA.[93] The Iraqi tank unit was destroyed by a Task Force 1-41 tank platoon that was assigned to protect 4-3 FA.[94]

A reconnaissance party from 4-3 FA mistakenly moved well forward of the other Task Force 1-41 Infantry units. Task Force 3-66 Armor was given the assignment of looking for the lost reconnaissance party. As Task Force 3-66 Armor approached the reconnaissance party, enemy infantry foolishly took it under fire from fighting positions near the disoriented 4-3 FA recon party. TF 3-66 M1A1 Abrams tanks and Bradley infantry fighting vehicles fought back with only machine guns rather than cannons to reduce the danger of hitting TF 1-41 IN, which stood just beyond the enemy. TF 3-66 AR machine gun fire drove the enemy right into TF 1-41 IN with Hillman's troops capturing all of the enemy soldiers. TF 3-66 AR recovered the members of the lost reconnaissance party unharmed.[95]

The 1st Engineer Battalion was a key participant in the subsequent destruction of one and the rout of two Iraqi Republican Guard Divisions.[96] Elements of the battalion destroyed 58 Iraqi tanks, 41 anti-aircraft artillery pieces, and other large quantities of ammunition and war material.

The 1st Infantry Division's Task Force 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry destroyed the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division.[97] The 1st Infantry Division's Task Force 2nd Battalion, 34th Armor destroyed the 9th Armored Brigade of the Tawakalna Division of the Republican Guard.[98]

The 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment led the 1st Infantry Division's attack across Iraq and Kuwait, cutting the Iraqi army's escape route along the Kuwait City/Basra Highway. The Squadron continued its rapid advance, culminating with the capture of the Safwan Airfield, Iraq. The 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment destroyed 65 tanks, 66 Armored Personnel Carriers, 66 trucks, 91 bunkers, and captured 3,010 enemy soldiers.[25]

As part of the 1st Infantry Division, Task Force 3-37 Armor attacked 186 miles across southern Iraq into northern Kuwait, severing Iraqi lines of communication, and then drove north into Iraq to assist in the seizure of the City of Safwan, Iraq, and the securing of the Safwan Airfield for the Coalition Forces-Iraqi Cease-Fire negotiations.[99] During the operation, over 50 enemy combat vehicles were destroyed and over 1,700 Iraqi soldiers were captured.[100]

During the battle, the 4th Battalion, 37th Armor, 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division engaged elements of five Iraqi Divisions, destroyed numerous combat vehicles and captured over 450 enemy soldiers, ensuring an unprecedented victory for Coalition Forces.[101]

By dawn, the U.S. 1st Infantry Division controlled Objective Norfolk and the Tawakalna Mechanized Infantry Division had ceased to exist as a fighting force. A total of eight Iraqi divisions were destroyed. Task Force 1-41 Infantry had around a dozen combat vehicles destroyed, including multiple M1A1 Abrams tanks, during combat operations. The 2nd Armored Division(Fwd) and the 1st Infantry Division destroyed 550 Iraqi tanks and 480 other vehicles during combat operations.[22] Approximately 11,500 Iraqi soldiers surrendered to the 1st Infantry Division by the end of combat operations.[102] The 2nd Armored Division(Fwd) suffered 5 M1A1 Abrams tanks destroyed during combat operations.[12][13] It also suffered the loss of 5 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles.[12] The 1st Infantry Division, including the 2nd Armored Division(Fwd), suffered 21 soldiers killed in action and another 67 soldiers wounded in action by the end of combat operations.[103]

British contribution

British Army Challenger 1 main battle tank during Operation Desert Storm. The Challenger proved to be very effective at the Battle of Norfolk. Not a single Challenger was lost in battle and a Challenger set record for the longest tank on tank kill at 2.9 miles.
Challenger 1 of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards near Kuwait City during the Gulf War.
A British Challenger 1 tank during the 1st Gulf War. The British Challenger tank was the most efficient tank of the Gulf war suffering no losses while destroying approximately 300 Iraqi tanks during combat operations.[104]

The British 1st Armoured Division was responsible for protecting the right flank of VII Corps. It was assumed by the Corps' planners the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division would counterattack VII Corps once their penetration into Iraqi defenses was discovered. The British 1st Armoured Division had two brigades (the 4th and 7th) which participated in Operation Granby, the name given to the British military operations during the 1991 Gulf War. The 1st Armoured was equipped with the Challenger 1 main battle tank. The British 1st Armoured Division fielded approximately 176 Challenger 1 tanks.[105] With a 120mm rifled main gun, thermal optics, and state of the art Chobham armor, its only rival in-theatre was the American M1A1 Abrams tank. British infantry rode into battle on the Warrior tracked armoured vehicle. It had reasonable armour protection and a 30-mm gun. Modified versions of the vehicle included mortar carriers, MILAN antitank systems, and command and control vehicles; and the British possessed a variety of excellent light armoured vehicles built on their FV101 Scorpion chassis. British artillery was primarily American made M109 howitzers (155mm), M110 howitzers (203mm), and M270 MLRS which were compatible with American systems. Their air support consisted of Gazelle helicopters, used for reconnaissance, and the Lynx helicopter which was comparable to the American AH-1 Cobra. The British had their full contingent of engineer, logistics, and medical units.[37]

This small but powerful division was commanded by 47-year-old Maj. General Rupert Smith. He was a member of the British Parachute Regiment and an expert on Soviet armour and tank tactics. His division had two brigades at its disposal. The 4th Brigade was reinforced with extra engineers and artillery. The 4th Brigade was used for breakout operations and to clear the ground at the breach. The armour heavy 7th Brigade was used for tank on tank engagements.[106]

On 25 February 1991 the 1st Armoured Division broke into the western flank of the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division which was commanded by Brigadier General Saheb Mohammed Alaw. That night the 48th Infantry Division was destroyed and General Alaw was captured by the British. That same night the British cleared two lines of enemy positions during close combat engagements. The British also destroyed several Iraqi companies of T-55 tanks.[27] That same night other elements of the division were engaging the Iraqi 31st Infantry Division.[27]

Iraqi Type 69 tanks after an attack by the British 1st Armoured Division during Operation Desert Storm.

On 26 February 1991 British artillery units unleashed an hour long artillery strike on Iraqi positions. It was the greatest British artillery display since World War II. That same night the British 7th Brigade fought a night tank battle against an Iraqi tank battalion from the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division. After ninety minutes of battle over 50 Iraqi tanks and armoured personnel carriers were destroyed.[27] That same night the British 4th Brigade destroyed a headquarters and artillery site belonging to the 807th Brigade of the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division. British infantry units cleared Iraqi defensive positions which were occupied by the Iraqi 803rd Infantry Brigade.[107] After 48 hours of combat the British 1st Armoured Division destroyed or isolated four Iraqi infantry divisions (the 26th, 48th, 31st, and 25th) and overran the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division in several sharp engagements. For several hours the 4th Brigade was involved in a battle against a battalion of dug in Iraqi soldiers and T-55 tanks.[108] A Challenger 1 tank achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding-sabot (APFSDS) round fired over a distance of 4,700 metres (2.9 mi)—the longest tank-on-tank kill shot recorded.[109][110] The British 7th Brigade cleared Objective Platinum destroying at least six additional T-55 tanks in dug in positions and a bunker using Milan missiles.[111] The 4th Brigade seized Objective Steel defeating the Iraqi 103rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division in the process.[112] As the British 4th Brigade advanced they destroyed additional Iraqi guns and fighting positions.[113] The British lost two Warrior combat vehicles to friendly fire in the process.[114]

British ground forces had defeated Iraqi forces during combat engagements at Objectives Copper, Zinc, Bronze, and Steel.[115] During combat operations at Objective Zinc the British captured 30 enemy tanks, destroyed 16 IFVs, and captured 1,850 Iraqi soldiers.[116] British forces destroyed a communications site and two artillery positions enroute to Objective Bronze.[117] British forces destroyed 12 Iraqi tanks, 11 guns, and 20 light armor and thin skin vehicles while clearing Objective Bronze.[118] The British 4th Brigade destroyed an entire tank battle group which included 25 main battle tanks at Objective Copper South.[119] The 4th Brigade also cleared Copper South of Iraqi soldiers, IFVs, artillery, logistics support vehicles, and captured two division commanders.[120] The British 26 Field Artillery Regiment conducted fire missions against a tank heavy unit at Objective Brass.[121] This included 48 tanks, APCs, and 25 MTLBs all hidden in fighting positions.[122] A artillery position was also present.[123] The entire enemy position was destroyed and British infantry cleared the trench lines of Iraqi soldiers.[124] British forces destroyed another 25 tanks and 20 APCs at position Brass 3.[125] While taking Objective Platinum 2 the British destroyed an Iraqi tank company in the process.[126] Later in the day the 1st Battalion, Staffordshire Regiment, 7th Brigade engaged Iraqi forces at Objective Lead. The 1st Battalion, Staffordshire Regiment destroyed over 40 Iraqi tanks and numerous other combat systems.[127] The British forces also captured over 800 Iraqi soldiers including the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division commander and killed many more Iraqi soldiers.[128] In the process of moving to Phase Line Smash the British forces took artillery and anti tank fire from Iraqi forces.[129] The Iraqis failed to inflict any casualties on the British forces.[130]

On 27 February 1991 a joint British and American artillery fire mission destroyed what was left of Iraqi artillery and infantry forces at Objective Tungsten.[131] Approximately 70 Iraqi artillery pieces were destroyed.[132] The British also took Objective Waterloo.[133] In the process the British destroyed approximately five Iraqi divisions in 48 hours of combat.[134] The British 1st Armoured Division secured the final objectives on the Basra Highway north of Multa Ridge.[28] In the final operation the British 7th Brigade took Objective Cobalt while the 4th Brigade halted farther west.[135] The British 1st Armored Division had traveled 217 miles in 97 hours. The British 1st Armored Division had captured or destroyed about 300 tanks[26] and a very large number of armored personnel carriers, trucks, reconnaissance vehicles, etc.[27][28] The Desert Rats also destroyed multiple Iraqi artillery positions.[136] The division also took over 7,000 Iraqi prisoners of war including two division commanders and two other general officers.[137] British forces did not lose a single Challenger 1 tank during combat operations.[26] The British suffered 15 soldiers killed and another 43 soldiers wounded during combat operations.[138] The British also lost 2 British Warrior APCs in a friendly fire incident.[139]

Objective Dorset

On 26 February the U.S. 3rd Armored Division was tasked with clearing Objective Dorset which was well defended by Iraqi forces.[140] The 3rd Armored Division, along with the U.S. 1st Armored Division, already was responsible for the destruction of 76 Iraqi tanks and 84 infantry fighting vehicles during the Battle of 73 Easting.[141] The Iraqi Tawakalna Republican Guard division had a significant presence at Objective Dorset.[142] The 50th Armored Brigade was the first unit the 3rd Armored Division encountered during the operation.[143] The Iraqi defenses in this sector also consisted of three mechanized battalions from the 29th Armored Brigade and two armored and one mechanized battalion from the 9th Armored Brigade.[144] The 46th Mechanized Brigade of the 12th Armored Division was also present.[145] A T-62 tank battalion from the 10th Armored Division was also attached to the Tawakalna Republican Guard Division.[146] This added up to approximately eight Iraqi heavy battalions occupying Objective Dorset.[147] In the space of only 270 square kilometers the Iraqis massed over 122 tanks, 78 BMPs, and hundreds of other combat vehicles and fighting systems.[148]

Initially thousands of Iraqi infantrymen engaged the U.S. 3rd Armored Division with Sagger antitank missiles and RPGs from dug in defensive fighting positions.[149] The Iraqi defensive network also consisted of bunkers and dug in vehicles.[150] The Iraqis also had the support of a dozen field artillery batteries directly behind the rear of the Tawakalna Republican Guard Division.[151] There were no soft or exposed Iraqi flanks to exploit.[152] The 3rd Armored Division overcame these Iraqi defensive positions utilizing superior command and control along with well coordinated combined arms tactics.[153]

By late 27 February the U.S. 3rd Armored Division cleared Objective Dorset after meeting stiff resistance and destroying more than 300 enemy vehicles.[154] The 3rd Brigade, 3rd Armored Division also captured 2,500 enemy prisoners.[25] The 3rd Brigade, 3rd Armored Division actions contributed greatly to the destruction of two Iraqi Republican Guard Divisions.[25] In 24 hours of nearly continuous combat, the Brigade destroyed or captured 547 vehicles, including 102 tanks, 81 armored personnel carriers, 34 artillery pieces, 15 AAA guns and captured hundreds of tons of supplies and 528 prisoners of war.[25] The 3rd Armored Division had three M1A1 Abrams tanks damaged during combat operations.[17][155] The 3rd Armored Division suffered 15 soldiers killed between December 1990 and late February 1991.[156] Approximately 7 of the soldiers were killed in action and another 27 soldiers from the division were wounded in action during combat operations.[157]

At the height of the battle, the 3rd Armored Division included 32 battalions and 20,533 personnel. It was the largest coalition division in the Gulf War and the largest U.S. armored division in history. In its moving arsenal were 360 Abrams main battle tanks, 340 Bradley Fighting Vehicles, 128 self-propelled 155 mm howitzers, 27 Apache attack helicopters, 9 multiple-launch rocket systems, and more.

Historical significance

Some sources list the Battle of Norfolk as the second largest tank battle in American history behind the Battle of the Bulge.[35] There are other sources that list it as the second or even the third largest tank battle of the Gulf war behind the Battle of Medina Ridge[158] and the Battle of 73 Easting.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ Bourque, p.14
  2. ^ Bourque, p.43
  3. ^ Bourque P.247
  4. ^ a b Bourque, p.164
  5. ^ a b Bourque, p.333
  6. ^ Bourque P.252
  7. ^ Bourque pp.331,335
  8. ^ Bourque pp.134,144,377
  9. ^ Bourque P.337
  10. ^ Bourque P.471
  11. ^ Bourque P.471
  12. ^ a b c Rostker Tab H
  13. ^ a b c Guardia p.71
  14. ^ Bourque, p.336
  15. ^ Bourque P.471
  16. ^ Bourque P.471
  17. ^ a b Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
  18. ^ official account
  19. ^ Bourque, p.471
  20. ^ Bourque, p.471
  21. ^ Bourque P.289
  22. ^ a b c d e Westwell, p. 88
  23. ^ a b c Bourque P.161
  24. ^ VUA Citation
  25. ^ a b c d e f g VUA Citation
  26. ^ a b c https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/challenger1.htm
  27. ^ a b c d e f Bourque, p.275
  28. ^ a b c d e f Bourque, p.377
  29. ^ Halberstadt P.117, 121
  30. ^ Bourque P.319
  31. ^ a b c Bourque, p.144
  32. ^ Dinackus P.4–10
  33. ^ VUA Citation
  34. ^ a b c Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: final report to Congress p.339
  35. ^ a b http://www.wearethemighty.com/articles/6-massive-tank-battles-from-us-history
  36. ^ a b Bourque P.333, P.337
  37. ^ a b c Bourque, p.260
  38. ^ VUA Citation
  39. ^ VUA Citation
  40. ^ a b Bourque, p.134
  41. ^ Bourque P.195
  42. ^ Bourque P.252
  43. ^ Bourque P.185
  44. ^ Bourque P.243
  45. ^ Bourque P.243
  46. ^ Bourque P.243
  47. ^ a b VUA Citation.
  48. ^ Hillman, p.6
  49. ^ Bourque & Burdan p.95
  50. ^ Bourque, p.96
  51. ^ Bourque, p.98
  52. ^ a b Bourque, p.99
  53. ^ Bourque, p. 102
  54. ^ Bourque, p.103
  55. ^ a b https://armyhistory.org/the-gulf-war-and-european-artillery/
  56. ^ Bourque pp.163
  57. ^ Bourque P.201
  58. ^ VUA Citation
  59. ^ Bourque P.156-157
  60. ^ Bourque P.206
  61. ^ Bourque P.206
  62. ^ Bourque P.206
  63. ^ VUA Citation
  64. ^ VUA Citation
  65. ^ Bourque P.207
  66. ^ Bourque P.207
  67. ^ Bourque P.207
  68. ^ Bourque P.225
  69. ^ VUA Citation
  70. ^ VUA Citation
  71. ^ Bourque P.225
  72. ^ a b c Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award Citations
  73. ^ Bourque, pp.113-133
  74. ^ a b Bourque P.259
  75. ^ http://usdefensewatch.com/2015/04/correcting-myths-about-the-persian-gulf-war-the-last-stand-of-the-tawakalna/
  76. ^ VUA Citation
  77. ^ VUA Citation
  78. ^ Zaloga P.61
  79. ^ Zaloga P.64
  80. ^ Bourque P.332
  81. ^ Bourque, p.330
  82. ^ Bourque, p.331
  83. ^ Bourque P.324
  84. ^ Bourque P.243
  85. ^ Bourque P.334,335
  86. ^ Bourque P.335
  87. ^ Bourque P.335
  88. ^ Bourque P.372
  89. ^ Zaloga (2009), p. 64
  90. ^ Bourque, p.100
  91. ^ Burns
  92. ^ Bourque P.375
  93. ^ Bourque P.375
  94. ^ Bourque P.375
  95. ^ Fontenot P.294
  96. ^ VUA Citation
  97. ^ VUA Citation
  98. ^ VUA Citation
  99. ^ VUA Citation
  100. ^ VUA Citation
  101. ^ VUA Citation
  102. ^ Westwell P.88
  103. ^ Bourque P.471
  104. ^ http://tanknutdave.com/the-british-challenger-1-main-battle-tank/
  105. ^ Dunstan P.8
  106. ^ Bourque, p.261
  107. ^ Bourque, p.276
  108. ^ Bourque P.276
  109. ^ "Desert Storm Part 22: Charge of the Heavy Brigade". British Army Official Blog. 28 February 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  110. ^ "Desert Storm Part 24: Back to Germany". British Army Official Blog. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  111. ^ Bourque P.289
  112. ^ Bourque P.289
  113. ^ Bourque P.289
  114. ^ Bourque P.289
  115. ^ Bourque P.289
  116. ^ Halberstadt P.116-117
  117. ^ Halberstadt P.117
  118. ^ Halberstadt P.117
  119. ^ Halberstadt P.118
  120. ^ Halberstadt P.118
  121. ^ Halberstadt P.119
  122. ^ Halberstadt P.119
  123. ^ Halberstadt P.119
  124. ^ Halberstadt P.119
  125. ^ Halberstadt P.120
  126. ^ Bourque P.315
  127. ^ Bourque P.315
  128. ^ Bourque P.315
  129. ^ Bourque P.315
  130. ^ Bourque P.315
  131. ^ Bourque P.319
  132. ^ Halberstadt P.121
  133. ^ Bourque P.319
  134. ^ Bourque P.319
  135. ^ Bourque P.395
  136. ^ Halberstadt P.117, 121
  137. ^ Bourque P.319
  138. ^ Bourque, p.471
  139. ^ Bourque P.289
  140. ^ Bourque P.337
  141. ^ Bourque P.344
  142. ^ Bourque P.337
  143. ^ Bourque P.337
  144. ^ Bourque P.337
  145. ^ Bourque P.337
  146. ^ Bourque P.337
  147. ^ Bourque P.337
  148. ^ Bourque P.337
  149. ^ Bourque P.337
  150. ^ Bourque P.340
  151. ^ Bourque P.337
  152. ^ Bourque P.337
  153. ^ Bourque P.340,341,342
  154. ^ VUA Citation
  155. ^ official account
  156. ^ Bourque P.471
  157. ^ Bourque P.471
  158. ^ VUA Citation

Works consulted

  • Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: final report to Congress (PDF), United States. Dept. of Defense, 1992, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-15 
  • "Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award (VUA) Citations". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  • Bourque, Stephen A. (2001). Jayhawk! The 7th Corps in the Persian Gulf War. Center of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 2001028533. OCLC 51313637. 
  • Bourque, Stephen A.; Burdan, John (2007). The road to Safwan the 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Denton, Tex: University of North Texas Press. ISBN 9781574412321. 
  • Rostker, Bernard (2000), Environmental Exposure Report, Depleted Uranium in the Gulf (II), US Department of Defense 
  • Westwell, Ian (2001). 1st Infantry Division 'Big Red One'. Spearhead #6. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allen. ISBN 9780711029231. 
  • Zaloga, Steven J. (2009). M1 Abrams vs T-72 Ural:Operation Desert Storm 1991. Osprey. ISBN 9781846034077. OCLC 277201894. 
  • Guardia, Mike (2016). Bradley vs BMP : Desert Storm 1991. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4728-1520-0. 
  • http://www.2cr.army.mil/info/History/2SCR%20History%2020%20Jan%202011.pdf
  • Desert Rats:The British 4 and 7 Armoured Brigades, WW2 to Today by Hans Halberstadt
  • Challenger Squadron by Simon Dunstan
  • The First Infantry Division and the U.S. Army Transformed: Road to Victory in Desert Storm, 1970-1991 by Gregory Fontenot

Bibliography

  • Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War, by Rick Atkinson, Houghton Mifflin, 1993. ISBN 0395710839 OCLC 28378277

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