Battle of Manila (1365)

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The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila) (1365) is an unspecified and disputed battle occurring somewhere in the vicinity of Manila between the forces of the kingdoms in Luzon and the Empire of Majapahit.

Even though the exact dates and details of this battle remain in dispute, there are claims[by whom?] of the conquest of the area around Saludong (Majapahit term for Luzon and Manila) according to the text of the Nagarakretagama[1] which claims that Saludong (Luzon) and Solot (Sulu) were parts of Majapahit. This claim may be mythical because a couple of years earlier, warriors from Sulu had successfully attacked Borney (Brunei) which was a Majapahit vassal, and subsequently repulsed a Majapahit invasion force, and because outside of the Nagarakretagama, there is no evidence among pre-Hispanic Philippine documents that Saludong or Sulu was ever enslaved by the Majapahit empire. In fact, this claim was only mentioned in passing in a lone eulogy poem to Maharajah Hayam Wuruk and was not really a part of statecraft.[2] Furthermore, the earlier Laguna Copperplate Inscription mentioned that Dongdu (Kingdom of Tondo) had diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Medang, not with Majapahit.

Nevertheless, there may have been a battle for Manila that occurred during that time but it was likely a victory for Luzon's kingdoms considering that the Kingdom of Tondo had maintained its independence and was not enslaved under another ruler. Alternatively, Luzon may have been successfully invaded but was able to regain its independence later.[3][4] Scholars are still in dispute over this.


  1. ^ Malkiel-Jirmounsky, Myron (1939). "The Study of The Artistic Antiquities of Dutch India". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Harvard-Yenching Institute. 4 (1): 59–68. doi:10.2307/2717905. JSTOR 2717905.
  2. ^ Day, Tony & Reynolds, Craig J. (2000). "Cosmologies, Truth Regimes, and the State in Southeast Asia". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 34 (1): 1–55. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00003589. JSTOR 313111.
  3. ^ Tiongson, Jaime (2006-11-29). "Pailah is Pila, Laguna". Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2008-02-05. [unreliable source?]
  4. ^ Santos, Hector (1996-10-26). "The Laguna Copperplate Inscription". Archived from the original on 2014-11-21. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
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