Battle of Haengju

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Battle of Haengju Fortress
Part of Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)
Date 14 March 1593
Location
Han River
Result Joseon victory
Belligerents
Joseon Toyotomi Japan
Commanders and leaders
Gwon Ryul Ukita Hideie
Konishi Yukinaga
Kuroda Nagamasa
Ishida Mitsunari
Kobayakawa Takakage
Strength
2,300[1] 30,000[1]
Casualties and losses
130 5000~15000[2] (likely much more since the Japanese took the dead back with them)[3]
Battle of Haengju
Hangul
행주대첩
Hanja
幸州大捷
Revised Romanization Haengju Daecheop
McCune–Reischauer Haengchu Taech'ŏp
The Koreans used hwacha for concentrated fire against the Japanese.

The Battle of Haengju took place on 14 March 1593 during the 1592–1598 Japanese invasion of Korea. The Japanese attack failed to overcome Haengju fortress even though they outnumbered the defenders by more than ten to one.

Background

Gwon Ryul was stationed at the fortress of Haengju, a wooden stockade on a cliff over the Han River. Haengju posed a threat to Hanseong (now Seoul) due to its proximity so the Japanese attacked it in March.[1]

The attack

The Japanese attack led by Konishi Yukinaga happened on 14 March 1593 with 30,000 men. They took turns attacking the stockade due to the limited space. The Koreans retaliated with arrows, cannons, and some 40 hwacha (rocket launchers).[1]

After three attacks, one with siege tower, and one where Ishida Mitsunari was wounded, Ukita Hideie managed to breach the outer defenses and reach the inner wall. However he was wounded as well and had to fall back.[4]

In the last attack Kobayakawa Takakage burned a hole through the fort's log pilings, but the Koreans managed to hold them back long enough for it to be repaired.[4]

When the Koreans had nearly run out of arrows, I Bun arrived with supply ships containing 10,000 more arrows, and they continued to fight on until dusk when the Japanese retreated.[4]

Aftermath

Aside from the defeat, the Japanese situation became even more tenuous after Zha Dashou led a small group of raiders to Hanseong, burning more than 6,500 tons of grain. This left the Japanese with less than a month of provisions.[5][6]

After several negotiations with Shen Weijing, the Japanese abandoned Hanseong on 17 May 1593. What Li Rusong and Song Yingchang witnessed upon entering the city was a people who "looked like ghosts."[7]

The site is still undeveloped and now has a memorial and an interpretive center.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Hawley 2005, p. 318.
  2. ^ Swope 2009, p. 168.
  3. ^ Hawley 2005, p. 322.
  4. ^ a b c Hawley 2005, p. 321.
  5. ^ Hawley 2005, p. 323.
  6. ^ Swope 2009, p. 167.
  7. ^ Swope 2009, p. 170.

Bibliography

  • Hawley, Samuel (2005), The Imjin War, The Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch/UC Berkeley Press, ISBN 978-89-954424-2-5
  • Swope, Kenneth M. (2006), "Beyond Turtleboats: Siege Accounts from Hideyoshi's Second Invasion of Korea, 1597–1598", Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies, 6 (2): 177–206

External links

  • Haengju Mountain Fortress
  • 행주산성
  • 역사스페셜 – 승리를 이끈 하이테크 신무기

Coordinates: 37°35′44″N 126°49′44″E / 37.59556°N 126.82889°E / 37.59556; 126.82889

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