Barremian

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System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0 72.1
Campanian 72.1 83.6
Santonian 83.6 86.3
Coniacian 86.3 89.8
Turonian 89.8 93.9
Cenomanian 93.9 100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5 ~113.0
Aptian ~113.0 ~125.0
Barremian ~125.0 ~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4 ~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9 ~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8 ~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale (or a chronostratigraphic stage) between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago) and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch (or Lower Cretaceous series). It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.[2]

Stratigraphic definitions

Barremian sedimentary rock layers, France

The original type locality for the Barremian stage is in the vicinity of the village of Barrême, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France. Henri Coquand defined the stage and named it in 1873.

The base of the Barremian is determined by the first appearance of the ammonites Spitidiscus hugii and Spitidiscus vandeckii. The end of the Barremian is determined by the geomagnetic reversal at the start of the M0r chronozone, which is biologically near the first appearance of the ammonite Paradeshayesites oglanlensis.

Regional equivalents

The Barremian falls in the Gallic epoch, a subdivision of the Cretaceous that is no longer used by the ICS. It overlaps the lower part of the Urgonian stage, which is sometimes used in western European stratigraphy. In North America, the late Coahulian and the early Comanchean correspond to the Barremian. In New Zealand, it falls within the Mokoiwian, and in Japan it corresponds to the late Aritan.[2]

Subdivision

The Barremian is often subdivided into two substages or subages, Lower/Early and Upper/Late Barremian.

In the Tethys domain, the Barremian stage contains eleven ammonite biozones:

Palaeontology

Much knowledge about the Barremian fauna—especially regarding birds, mammals and pterosaurs—derived from the famous Yixian Formation of China, part of which dates from this stage.

Cephalopods

Ammonoidea

Annuloceras

Neocoleoids

Neocoleoids of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Maioteuthis

Neololigosepia

Oxyteuthis

†Belemnites

Belemnites of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Curtohibolites

Belemnites

Neohibolites

Oxyteuthis

Nautiloidea

Nautiloids of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Eucymatoceras

An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Palelialia

Pseudaturoidea

Chondrichthyes

Squamata

Dinosaurs (including birds)

Cerapoda

Cerapoda of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Cedrorestes

Utah, USA
Dollodon bampingi Steveoc86.jpg
Hypsilophodon.jpg
Jinzhousaurus yangi.JPG
Psittacosaurus sibiricus whole BW.jpg

Fukuisaurus

Japan

Hypsilophodon

England

Iguanodon

Europe

Jeholosaurus

China

Jinzhousaurus

China

Mantellisaurus

Europe

Planicoxa

Poison Stirp Sandstone Member, Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA

Proplanicoxa

Wessex Formation, Isle of Wight

Psittacosaurus

China, Mongolia, Russia, possibly Thailand

Siluosaurus

Gansu, China

Stenopelix

Obernkirchen Sandstein Formation, Germany

Valdosaurus

Europe

Sauropoda

Sauropods of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Amargasaurus

Neuquén, Argentina

Amargatitanis

Neuquén, Argentina

Aragosaurus

Aragón, Spain

Cedarosaurus

Utah, USA

Chondrosteosaurus

Wessex Formation, Isle of Wight, England

Eucamerotus

Isle of Wight, England

Histriasaurus

Croatia

Ornithopsis

Oplosaurus

Isle of Wight, England

Phuwiangosaurus

Sao Khua Formation

Theropoda

Theropods of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aristosuchus

Wessex Formation, Isle of Wight England
Baryonyx
Caudipteryx
Changchengornis
Falcarius
Longipteryx
Harpymimus
Incisivosaurus
Iberomesornis
Microraptor
Neovenator
Shenzhousaurus
Sinornithosaurus
Utahraptor

Baryonyx

England, Spain, Portugal

Calamosaurus

Isle of Wight, England

Caudipteryx

Liaoning, China

Changchengornis

Liaoning, China

Concavenator

Spain A sail-backed carcharodontosaurid

Concornis

Cuenca, Spain

Eoalulavis

Calizas de La Huérgina Formation Spain

Falcarius

Utah, USA A therizinosaur that is one of the few North American varieties of its clade.

Fukuiraptor

Japan

Harpymimus

Gobi Desert, Mongolia

Huaxiagnathus

Liaoning, China

Iberomesornis

Cuenca, Spain

Incisivosaurus

Liaoning, China

Longipteryx

Liaoning, China

Microraptor

Liaoning, China

"Nanshiungosaurus" bohlini

Neovenator

Isle of Wight, England

Pelecanimimus

Cuenca, Spain

Prodeinodon

China, Mongolia

Sapeornis

Liaoning, China

Shenzhousaurus

Liaoning, China

Siamosaurus

Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

Sinornithosaurus

Liaoning, China

Sinovenator

Liaoning, China

Utahraptor

Utah, USA

Yaverlandia

Isle of Wight, England

Yixianosaurus

Liaoning, China

Thyreophora

Thyreophora of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Craterosaurus

England

Gastonia

Utah, USA

Liaoningosaurus

Liaoning, China

Polacanthus

England

Sauroplites

Gansu, China

Mammals

Mammals of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Crusafontia

EL Castellar Formation and La Huéguina Formation, Spain
Skeleton of the primitive mammal Eomaia

Eobaatar

several species from Hauterivian to Albian Spain, Mongolia

Eomaia

Jeholodens

Yixian Formation

Repenomamus

Sinobaatar

Yixian Formation

Zhangheotherium

Yixian Formation

Plesiosaurians

Plesiosaurs of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Stenorhynchosaurus

S. munozi Paja Formation, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia A brachaucheniin pliosaurid, described by María Páramo

Pterosaurs

Liaoningopterus

References

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  2. ^ a b See Gradstein et al. (2004) or the online geowhen database (link below)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Earliest occurrence: Upper Barremian
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Earliest occurrence: Lower Barremian
  5. ^ Only known from this stage

Literature

  • Cossmann, M. & Pelat, E. (1907): Le Barrémien supérieur à faciès Urgonien de Brouzet-lès-Alais (Gard). Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, Paléontologie 15(37): 5-42. (in French)
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; (2004): A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Guzhikov, A.Yu. & Baraboshkin, E.J. (2006): Assessment of diachronism of biostratigraphic boundaries by magnetochronological calibration of zonal scales for the Lower Cretaceous of the Tethyan and Boreal belts. Doklady Earth Sciences 409(6): 843-846. doi:10.1134/S1028334X06060018

External links

  • GeoWhen Database - Barremian
  • Mid-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
  • Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
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