Bantenese people

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Bantenese
Orang Banten
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Mannen met paarden in de residentie Bantam TMnr 60016521.jpg
Bantenese men with horses in the Bantam Residency (present day, Banten Province), circa 1915-1926.
Total population
(4,657,784 (2010 census)[1])
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia:
Banten 4,321,991
Lampung 172,403
West Java 60,948
North Sumatra 46,640
Jakarta 28,551
South Sumatra 17,141
Languages
Sundanese language (western dialect / Bantenese language), Betawi language, Indonesian language
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Baduy, Javanese, Sundanese

The Bantenese are people living in Banten Province in Java, just west of Jakarta. The area of Banten province corresponds more or less with the area of the former Banten Sultanate.[2] In his book "The Sultanate of Banten", Guillot Claude writes on page 35: “These estates, owned by the Bantenese of Chinese origin, were concentrated around the village of Kelapadua.”[3] People living in Banten, including Chinese, were called Bantenese. Bantenese is actually not an ethnic group, but more as a term for people originated from Banten with Sundanese language as their first language. Most of Bantenese are Muslim.

2010 Population Census

According to the 2010 Population Census carried out by the Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia, the Bantenese people along with the Baduy people are categorized under the Native Bantenese people with a total of 4,657,784 people.[4][1]

Origins

Bantenese people before the establishment of Banten Sultanate.

The origins of the Bantenese people; which are closely related to the Banten Sultanate, are different from the Cirebonese people whom are not part of the Sundanese people nor the Javanese people (unless it is from the result of a mixture of two major cultures, namely Sundanese and Javanese). The Bantenese people along with the Baduy people (Kanekes) are essentially sub-ethnics of the Sundanese people that occupies the former region of the Banten Sultanate (region of Bantam Residency after the abolishment and annexation by the Dutch East Indies). After the formation of the Banten Province only did people began to regard the Bantenese as a group of people with a culture and language of their own.[5]

Language

Language map of western Java (provinces of Banten, West Java and Jakarta capital region.)

The most dominant language is Sundanese.[6][7] The indigenous people living in Banten Province speak a Sundanese dialect derived from archaic Sundanese language. The dialect is classified as informal or harsh layer in modern Sundanese language,[8] having different layers as Javanese language.[9]

Due to the influence of the Javanese culture during the reign of the Islamic Mataram kingdom, the Sundanese language - especially in the Parahyangan area - have different layers starting from the most formal, or "halus/lemes" version, to the everyday "loma/lancaran" version and the informal or harsh version. Mataram Sultanate tried to take control over Java island, including Banten territory covering the whole West Java region. But the Sultanate of Banten could defend its territory except Parahyangan area. In the mountainous regions and most of present-day Banten, the loma version of Sundanese language is the most dominant. By contrast, this version is considered "harsh" by people from Parahyangan. Bantenese language is commonly used especially in the southern region of Banten such as Pandeglang Regency and Lebak Regency.[10]

However, around Serang and Cilegon, Banten Province, a dialect of the Javanese language, the Banyumasan is also spoken by about 500,000 people.[11] And, in Northern part of Tangerang, Indonesian language with Betawi dialect is also used by Betawi immigrants. Besides Sundanese, Javanese and Betawi dialect, Indonesian language is also widely spoken especially by other ethnic immigrants from other parts of Indonesia especially in urban centers.

Religion

Those who considered themselves as Bantenese are generally practicing Muslims, which is due to being inseparable from a strong Islamic cultural background. This case is also closely related to the history of Banten Sultanate as one of the largest Islamic kingdom in the island of Java. Besides that, the artistry in Banten region also portrays Islamic activities of its society, such as art Rampak Bedug from Pandeglang Regency.[12] Even so, Banten Province is a multi-ethnic society consisting of various ethnics and religions.[1] Adherents of other faiths from various non-indigenous ethnic groups live alongside each other peacefully in this region, such as the Benteng Chinese community in Tangerang and the Baduy people that practices Sunda Wiwitan in Kanekes, Leuwidamar, Lebak Regency.

Culture

The land of Banten is rich in culture and customs, and one of the most dominant is the Bantenese culture and customs which forms the majority in Banten province.

Art forms

The cultural distinctiveness of the Bantenese community among other is Pencak Silat martial arts, Debus, Rudad, Umbruk, Saman dance (Dzikir Saman), Tari topeng,[13] Dog-dog, Angklung Gubrag, Rampak Bedug, Walijamaliha dance,[14] Silat Pandeglang dance,[12][15] Palingtung, Lojor, Beluk and so on.[16][17]

Historical landmarks

In addition, there are also relics of ancestral heritage, and among them are such as the Great Mosque of Banten, the Sacred Long Mausoleum[18] and many more.

Great Mosque of Banten and its minaret, circa 1915-1926.
The people are prostrate in Banten mosque, 1933.
Outside of the mosque, 1933.

Culinary

Sate Bandeng commemorated in an Indonesian stamp.

Bantenese culinary includes Sate Bandeng, Rabeg Banten, Pasung Beureum, Ketan Bintul, Nasi Belut, Kue Cucur, Angeun Lada, Balok Menes, Sate Bebek Cibeber, Emping Menes[16][17] and others.[19][20][21]

Notable people

References

  1. ^ a b c "Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama, Dan Bahasa Sehari-Hari Penduduk Indonesia". Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Retrieved 2017-07-18. 
  2. ^ Anugerah Bintang. "Suku Bangsa di Provinsi Banten". Academia. Retrieved 2017-09-10. 
  3. ^ Guillot, Claude (1990). The Sultanate of Banten. Gramedia Book Publishing Division, Jakarta. 
  4. ^ "Provinsi Banten". Badan Pusat Statistik. 2010. Retrieved 2017-09-10. 
  5. ^ "Suku Banten". Kebudayaan Indonesia. 26 August 2013. Retrieved 2017-03-22. 
  6. ^ Language maps of Indonesia (Java and Bali)
  7. ^ ECAI - Pacific Language Mapping
  8. ^ "Bahasa Sunda Banten". Perpustakaan Digital Budaya Indonesia. 2014. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  9. ^ Purwo, Bambang K. (1993). Factors influencing comparison of Sundanese, Javanese, Madurese, and Balinese. 
  10. ^ Batur Parisi (16 March 2017). "Bahasa dan Sastra Sunda Banten Terancam Punah". Metro TV News. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  11. ^ Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 February 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "Pesona Rampak Bedug dan Tari Silat Khas Pandeglang Memperkenalkan Seni Budaya Melalui ISPC 2013". DISBUDPAR. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  13. ^ Khamelia (27 July 2016). "Tarian Topeng Tani Banten Juara Umum Festival Pesona Serumpun Sebalai Nusantara". Bangka Pos. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  14. ^ Dede Mahmud (14 February 2016). "5 Tari Tradisional Banten". Tradisi Kita. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  15. ^ Muna Zakiah (22 September 2014). "Kesenian Rampak Bedug dari Banten". Kebudayaan Indonesia. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  16. ^ a b Official NET News (20 September 2014). "Budaya Desa Menes Pandeglang Banten - NET17". YouTube. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  17. ^ a b "Menes - Pandeglang - Banten / Indonesia Bagus / Fransiska, Wilman & Yasmina/ NetMediatama". YouTube. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  18. ^ Netmediatama (21 September 2014). "Cerita Makam Keramat Terpanjang di Tangerang". Viva. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  19. ^ "7 Makanan Khas Banten yang Wajib Dicoba". Wisata Banten. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  20. ^ "14 Makanan Khas Banten Paling Favorit yang Tidak Boleh Dilewatkan". Portal Wisata. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  21. ^ Wahyu Setyo Widodo (15 July 2016). "Liburan di Banten, Jangan Lupa Cicipi 10 Kuliner Khas Ini". Detik Travel. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
  22. ^ Arif Darma, ed. (13 November 2016). "Ini Tiga Tokoh Dari Banten yang akan Diusulkan Mendapat Gelar Pahlawan". Mulyadi. Retrieved 2017-09-12. 
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