Bangladesh Police

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bangladesh Police
বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ
Bānlādēśa puliśa
Common name পুলিশ (Police)
Abbreviation BP
Badge of BP.jpg
Patch of Bangladesh Police
Monogram of Bangladesh Police.svg
Logo of Bangladesh Police
Motto শৃঙ্খলা নিরাপত্তা প্রগতি
Discipline Security Progress
Agency overview
Employees 141,123[1]
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency Bangladesh
Bangladesh divisions english.png
Map of Bangladesh Police's jurisdiction.
Size 147,570 km2 (56,977 sq mi)
Population 162,221,000[2]
Constituting instrument The Police Act, 1861
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters 6, Phoenix Road, Fulbaria, Dhaka - 1000
Agency executive AKM Shahidul Haque, BPM, PPM,, Inspector General of Police
Facilities
Stations 636(chandragonj,Lokkhipur)
Notables
Award Bangladesh Police Medal (BPM), Bangladesh Police Medal - Seba (BPM-Seba), President Police Medal (PPM), President Police Medal - Seba (PPM-Seba)
Website
Police Website
Bangladesh police.
Bangladesh police during Bangladesh private University students protests against the imposition of VAT..

The Bangladesh Police (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ ) is the main law enforcement agency of Bangladesh. It is administered under the Ministry of Home Affairs[3] of the Government of Bangladesh. It plays a crucial role in maintaining peace, and enforcement of law and order within Bangladesh. Though the police are primarily concerned with the maintenance of law and order and security of persons and property of individuals, they also play a big role in the criminal justice system.

History

Ancient period

Medieval period

Details of policing activities during the middle age are also challenging to find. However, during the periods of the great sultans, an official holding the position of Muhtasib used to perform the duties of policing. This person was the chief of police, in charge of public works, and the inspector of public ethics simultaneously. In urban areas, Kotwals were responsible for performing police duties. The policing system introduced by Sher Shah Suri was further organised during the period of Emperor Akbar: the Emperor organised his administrative structure introducing Fouzdari (the principal representative of the Emperor), Mir Adal and Kazi (the head of judicial department), and Kotwal (the chief police official of larger cities). This system was effective in maintaining the law and order in cities, and was implemented in Dhaka. Many district sadar police stations are still called Kotwali police stations. In the Mughal period, Kotwal emerged as an institution.

A Fouzdar was appointed to every administrative unit of the government (district), under whom there were some artillery and cavalry forces. There was a disciplined police system during the Mughal period, though there was no professional police force like that in the British period.

British period

In the early stage of the Industrial Revolution, when England was facing grave crisis due to socio-economic transformation, the necessity of an effective organised police service was keenly felt. Sir Robert Peel, then the Prime Minister, introduced a bill in the British Parliament in 1829 which created an organised civil police in London. The success of the London police in controlling social disorder and crime was admired by not only the people of England but also of European and American countries: New York city copied the London model with some modifications when it organised the first Municipal Police Force, in 1833.[4]

In 1858, full control of the Indian Territory was taken over from the East India Company by the British government. The success of the London police organised under Peel's Act of 1829 prompted the British government to reform the police system in the sub-continent in a similar way to British constabularies. With this end in view, a police commissioner was set up 1840, and on the recommendation of the commission of the Police Act (Act V of 1861), was passed by the British Parliament. Under this Act a police force was created in each province of British India, and placed under the control of the provincial government. The administration of the police force of a province was vested upon an officer styled as the Inspector-general of police. The administration of the police in a district was placed under the Superintendent of Police. The Act is still in force throughout the sub-continent, and regulates the function of police in Bangladesh, as well as the other countries of the sub-continent.[4]

Pakistan period

After partition of the sub-continent in 1947, the police force in Bangladesh was first named as the East Bengal Police, and then as the East Pakistan Police; however, it continued to function on the same lines as during the British rule.[5]

Role in Liberation War

In the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali-speaking police officers participated with the citizens, leading to deaths from most ranks, fighting with .303 rifles against the Pakistani. The resistance by the Bengali members of police at Rajarbagh is considered the first chapter of armed struggles during the War of Independence.

Bangladesh period

After the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent country on 16 December 1971, the police force was recognised and assumed the role of a national police force. At present, Bangladesh Police is primarily responsible for the preservation of peace and order, protection of life and property of the people and prevention and detection of crime. The traditional role of police in Bangladesh has undergone change after the liberation: the role of police is no longer confined to maintenance of law and order and prevention and detection of crime, and to meet the need of an independent and developing country, the police are now required to assist in developing the state and such kinds of activities by providing the basic security required for sustained economic growth of the country. It is further playing a vital role in dealing with insurgency in some areas of the country which impedes development activities and threatens the security of the state.[4]

Organisation

Bangladesh Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police (IGP), under whose command, Bangladesh Police is divided into different branches.They are-

Ranks

Superior officers

Industrial Police Ranks

  • Director General (DG)
  • Additional Director General (ADG)
  • Director
  • Deputy Director (DD)
  • Senior Assistant Director (Sr AD)
  • Assistant Director (AD)

Rank badge of superior officers

Bangladesh Police

IGP Rank Badge.gif    Additional IGP Rank Badge.gif    DIG Rank Badge.gif    Additional DIG Rank Badge.gif    SP Rank Badge.gif    Additional SP Rank Badge.gif    Senior ASP Rank Badge.gif    ASP Rank Badge.gif   
IGP    Additional IGP    DIG    Additional DIG    SP    Additional SP    Senior ASP    ASP   

Subordinate officers

Rank Badge of Subordinate Officers

Inspector Rank Badge.gif    SI Rank Badge.gif    Sergeant Rank Badge.gif    ASI Rank Badge.gif    Naik Rank Badge.gif    Constable Rank Badge.gif   
Inspector    SI    Sergeant    ASI    Naik    Constable   

Medals

Police medals are awarded every year in the annual Police Week Parade. They are awarded both for bravery and service.

Bangladesh Police Medal (BPM)

  • Bangladesh Police Medal.png Bangladesh Police Medal (BPM)
  • Bangladesh Police Medal - Service.png Bangladesh Police Medal - Service (BPM-Seba)

President Police Medal (PPM)

  • President Police Medal.PNG President Police Medal (PPM)
  • President Police Medal - Service.png President Police Medal - Service (PPM-Seba)

Strength

Manpower

As of December 2012, the strength of the Bangladesh Police is approximately 152,000. The police:population ratio in Bangladesh is 1:1133.[1]

Selection and training

The recruitment process differs according to the level of position being recruited to, and direct entry (where an applicant does not have to start at the lowest level) is possible. The educational requirements increase with rank. A minimum bachelor's degree is required for Assistant Superintendent of Police, Sub-Inspector, and Sergeant, and for Constable, a Secondary School Certificate is required. Recruitment is conducted in the following three tiers:

  • In the rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)
  • In the rank of Sub-Inspector (SI) or Sergeant
  • In the rank of Constable

Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)

The Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) are recruited C) through the competitive Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examination. They undergo a one-year-long training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Probationary ASPs. After passing from the academy, they undergo an orientation training for six months in the district level as a probationer. After that they have been appointed as a full-fledged ASPs in different units.

Sub-Inspector (SI)

Sub-Inspectors are recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. They undergo a one-year-long training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Outside Cadet Sub-Inspectors. After that they have partake in one year probationary period in different police units.

Sergeant

Sergeants are recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. After appointment they undergo a six-month-long training course in the Bangladesh Police Academy, at the rank of Probationary Sergeant. After passing from the academy, they also undergo an orientation training of six months in the rank of probationer.

Constable

Constables are recruited in the district level. They undergo a six-month-long training in the Police Training Centre as a Trainee Recruit Constable career (TRC).

Training institutions

The main training institution of the Bangladesh Police is the Bangladesh Police Academy, established in 1912 in Sardah.[citation needed] The Police Staff College, which trains officers from ASP to DIG in-service, was established in 2000 in Dhaka.[6] Bangladesh Police also maintains Police Training Centre (PTC) in Tangail, Rangpur, Khulna and Noakhali. The Detective Training School was established in 1962 in Dhaka.

List of training institutions

Moreover, there are in-service training centres in different districts.

Community policing

In Bangladesh police, community policing is an organisation with the aims of promoting community, government and police partnerships, proactive problem solving, and community engagement to address the causes of crime, fear of crime and community issues. Bangladesh Police have been trying to implement this philosophy nationwide. The Police Reform Program (PRP), a UNDP funded project, has been providing Bangladesh Police with technical assistance to implement community-policing nationwide.[7]

Strategic partnership

Under the strategic partnership there are:

  1. a National Community Policing Advisory Committee, chaired by the Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
  2. a National Community Policing Co-ordination Committee headed by the IGP or an additional Inspector General of Police at the Police Headquarters
  3. a Crime Prevention Centre, set up in the police Headquarters having the Detective Inspector General (Crime) at the focal point

Implementation partnership

The implementation partnership starts at the district level: There is a district community-policing cell in every district under the Superintendent of Police. The Additional SP or an ASP looks after the district community-policing cell. Secondly, in the police station level, there is a community policing cell with a full-time community policing officer (CPO), who coordinates the community policing activities in the police station jurisdiction.

Beat policing

Dhaka Metropolitan Police is implementing the beat policing in Dhaka city. In this regard, each Police Station is divided into some police beats, and for each beat there is an assigned Beat Policing Officer.

Women in Bangladesh Police

Women first joined Bangladesh Police in 1974, when fourteen women police officers were appointed in the Special Branch, pf whom, seven were at the rank of Sub-Inspector, and seven were at the rank of Constable. The first female uniformed police members were recruited two years later, in 1976, when fifteen women police officers were appointed in the Dhaka Metropolitan Police for the first time. They were also at the ranks of Constable and Sub-Inspector.[8]

In 1986, there was only one serving female woman police officer: Ms. Fatema Begum was appointed as Assistant Superintendent of Police through 6th Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) examination. After two years, in 1988, four women joined Bangladesh Police through the 7th Bangladesh Civil Service examination. After an interval from 1989 to 1998, in 1999, eight women officers were appointed through the 18th Bangladesh Civil Service examination. On 21 June 2011 an all women Armed Police Battalion (APBn) was created as the 11th battalion of this force.

As of 2010, there are 2,240 women in the Bangladesh Police, from the rank of constable to additional police superintendent.[9]

UN peace-keeping operations

Since its first mission in Namibia in 1989, the Bangladesh Police has contributed to numerous UN peace-keeping missions.[10]

List of completed and present UNPOL and FPU Peacekeeping missions participated by Bangladesh Police:[11]

Sl. No Name of mission Country Period
1 UNTAG Namibia 1989–1990
2 UNTAC Cambodia 1992–1994
3 UNPROFOR Yugoslavia 1992–1996
4 ONUMOZ Mozambique 1993–1994
5 UNAMIR Rwanda 1993–1995
6 UNMIH Haiti 1994–1995
7 UNAVEM III Angola 1995–1999
8 UNTAES East Slovenia 1996–1998
9 UNMIBH Bosnia 1996–2002
10 UNAMET & UNTAET East Timor 1999–2002[citation needed]
11 UNMIK Kosovo 1999–2009
12 UNAMSIL Sierra Leone 2000
13 UNMIL Liberia 2003 to till date
14 UNOCI Ivory Coast 2004 to till date
15 UNMIS Sudan 2005–2011
16 MONUSCO DR Congo 2005 to till date
17 UNMIT East Timor 2006–2012
18 UNAMID Darfur 2007 to till date
19 UNAMA Afghanistan 2008–2010
20 UNMISS South Sudan 2011 to till date[citation needed]

Corruption

Bangladesh Police has been criticized for having political influence in all levels, and the major decisions are taken under political conditions. Corruption is widespread among the law enforcement, with custody deaths and torture being prevalent.

In 2016 January, Dhaka South City Corporation official was tortured by Dhaka Metropolitan Police members.[12] In the same month a sub-inspector at DMP was accused of torturing and attempting to extort money from a Bangladesh Bank official.[13][14] Bangladesh Police have been accused of being involved in crime including rape and murder.[15] Bangladesh opposition party has accused the Police of being used to suppress the opposition parities.[16] The accountability of the police has been question by the media.[17] 230 Police officers in Barisal Metropolitan Police created a collective bribe fund for promotions.[18] Bangladesh Police had faced criticism after telling secular bloggers to self-censure after the Attacks on secularists in Bangladesh.[19] Wife of Avijit Roy had accused Bangladesh Police of Inactivity during the attack on her husband.[20] British Government has faced criticism for its aid to Bangladesh Police which could be used to suppress dissidents.[21]

List of IGPs of Bangladesh Police

The Chief of Bangladesh Police is an Inspector General, which is the only three star rank of Bangladesh Police. This is a list of Inspector Generals of Police since 1971:

Name Period
Abdul Khaleque April 17, 1971 – April 23, 1973 (From Mujibnagar Government)
M. A. K. Chowdhury May 18, 1971 – December 13, 1971
A. Rahim April 23, 1973 – December 31, 1973
A. H. M. Nurul Islam December 31, 1973 – November 21, 1975
Hossain Ahmed November 21, 1975 – August 26, 1978
A. B. M. G. Kibria August 26, 1978 – February 7, 1982
A. M. R. Khan February 8, 1982 – January 31, 1984
E. A. Chowdhury February 1, 1984 – December 30, 1985
Md. Habibur Rahman January 9, 1986 – January 9, 1986
A. R. Khondkar January 9, 1986 – February 28, 1990
Toyob Uddin Ahmed February 28, 1990 – January 8, 1991 & July 20, 1991 – October 16, 1991
A. M. Chowdhury January 8, 1991 – July 20, 1991
M. Enamul Huq October 16, 1991 – July 8, 1992
A. S. M. Shahjahan July 8, 1992 – April 22, 1996
M. Azizul Haque July 22, 1996 – November 16, 1997
Md. Ismail Hossain November 16, 1997 – September 27, 1998
A. Y. B. Siddiqui September 27, 1998 – June 7, 2000
Muhammad Nurul Huda June 7, 2000 – November 6, 2001
Modabbir Hossein Chowdhury, psc November 16, 2001 – April 22, 2003
Shohudul Haque April 22, 2003 – December 15, 2004
Ashraful Huda December 15, 2004 – April 7, 2005
Mohammad Hadis Uddin April 7, 2005 – May 7, 2005
Abdul Kaiyum May 7, 2005 – July 6, 2006
Anwarul Iqbal July 6, 2006 – November 2, 2006
Khoda Baksh Chowdhury November 2, 2006 – January 29, 2007
Nur Mohammad January 29, 2007 – August 31, 2010
Hassan Mahmood Khandker, BPM, PPM, ndc August 31, 2010 – December 31, 2014
AKM Shahidul Haque, BPM, PPM December 31, 2014 – present[22][23][24]

References

  1. ^ a b "134 women cops in UN missions". Daily Sun. Retrieved 2011-07-07. 
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ http://mof.gov.bd/en/budget/12_13/cdg/en/detail/22_home_en.pdf
  4. ^ a b c "Police administration, interrogation of offenders". The New Nation. 8 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-02 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ "History of Bangladesh Police". Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  6. ^ "History". Police Staff College Bangladesh. Retrieved 2017-06-29. 
  7. ^ "Community Policing in Bangladesh". The Independent. Dhaka. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  8. ^ Raza, Razzak (21 February 2008). "Women in the Police". The New Nation. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  9. ^ Arzu, Alpha; Zannat, Mahbuba; Urmee, Farhana (8 March 2010). "Bangladeshi women on the move". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2017-06-29. 
  10. ^ "Bangladesh Police in UN Missions". Bangladesh Police. Retrieved 2017-06-29. 
  11. ^ "List of Mission Completed UNPOL and FPU Peacekeepers". Bangladesh Police. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2010-04-04. 
  12. ^ "Police brutality continues". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  13. ^ "Police officer 'tried to blackmail Bangladesh Bank official' threatening Yaba taint". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  14. ^ "BB official assault: SI Masud did not behave like police, says Home Minister". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  15. ^ "Policemen's involvement in crimes rising". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  16. ^ "Police going overboard on government indulgence, says BNP". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  17. ^ Huq Zahid, Shamsul. "Are police unaccountable?". The Financial Express. Dhaka. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  18. ^ "10 cops disciplined". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  19. ^ "Petition calls for Bangladeshi police chief to resign after he warned secularists not to insult religion". National Secular Society. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  20. ^ "Wife of murdered US blogger Avijit Roy says Bangladesh police 'did not act' during attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  21. ^ Holehouse, Matthew. "Did British aid help Bangladeshi police lock up dissidents?". Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2016-01-18. 
  22. ^ Bangladesh Police
  23. ^ "Shahidul new IGP, Benazir RAB DG". Banglanews24.com. 30 December 2014. 
  24. ^ New IGP, RAB DG, DMP commissioner named in a major police shake-up - bdnews24.com

Further reading

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bangladesh_Police&oldid=805981427"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Police
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Bangladesh Police"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA