Bangka Belitung Islands

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Bangka Belitung Islands
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung
Province
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawi بڠک بليتوڠ
 • Chinese 邦加-勿里洞
PantaiParaiBangka.jpg
Tanjung pesona shade.jpg Chinese temple in AirDuren.jpg
Tanjung Tinggi Beach, Bangka-Belitung Province, Indonesia.jpg Lengkuas Island.JPG
Pasir-padi.jpg Matras beach.jpg
Clockwise, from top left : Parai Beach, Fuk Tet Che temple, Lengkuas Island, Matras Beach, Pasir Padi Beach, Tanjung Tinggi Beach, Tanjung Pesona Beach
Official seal of Bangka Belitung Islands
Seal
Motto: Bumi Serumpun Sebalai (Malay)
(Meaning: "The same root, the same place")
Location of Bangka-Belitung in Indonesia
Location of Bangka-Belitung in Indonesia
Coordinates: 2°8′S 106°7′E / 2.133°S 106.117°E / -2.133; 106.117Coordinates: 2°8′S 106°7′E / 2.133°S 106.117°E / -2.133; 106.117
Country  Indonesia
Capital Lambang Kota Pangkal Pinang.png Pangkal Pinang
Established 21 November 2000
Government
 • Body Bangka-Belitung Regional Government
 • Governor Rustam Effendi (PDI-P)
 • Vice Governor Hidayat Arsani
Area
 • Total 16,424.14 km2 (6,341.40 sq mi)
Area rank 27th
Highest elevation 669 m (2,195 ft)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Total 1,372,813
 • Rank 29th
 • Density 84/km2 (220/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Bangka-Belitungese
Warga Bangka-Belitung (id)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Malays (52.5%), Chinese (29.1%), others.
 • Religion Muslim (60%), Buddhist (22.2%), Confucianism (8.3%), Protestantism (4.8%), Roman Catholicism (1.2%), Hindu (0.1%)[2]
 • Languages Indonesian, Bangka Malay, Hakka
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Postcodes 30xxx, 31xxx, 32xxx
Area codes (62)7xx
Vehicle sign BN
HDI Increase 0.682 (Medium)
HDI rank 15th (2014)
Largest city by area Pangkal Pinang - 118.80 square kilometres (45.87 sq mi)
Largest city by population Pangkal Pinang - (174,838 - 2010)
Largest regency by area South Bangka Regency - 3,607.08 square kilometres (1,392.70 sq mi)
Largest regency by population Bangka Regency - (2,029,308 - 2010)
Website Government official site
Bangka Belitung Islands
Chinese 邦加-勿里洞

The Bangka Belitung Islands (Indonesian: Kepulauan Bangka Belitung), is a province of Indonesia, previously a part of South Sumatra Province. Lying off the southeastern coasts of Sumatra, the province comprises two main islands, Bangka and Belitung, and several smaller ones. The Bangka Strait separates Sumatra and Bangka, and the Gaspar Strait separates Bangka and Belitung. The Natuna Sea is to the north, the Java Sea is to the south, and the province is separated from Borneo in the east by the Karimata Strait. The province bordered South Sumatra to the West, Riau Islands to the north, West Kalimantan to the east and the Java Sea to the south. The capital is Pangkal Pinang, which is is the economic center of the province and seat of the Bangka-Belitung Provincial Government. Other cities and towns in Bangka-Belitung include Sungailiat, Tanjung Pandan and Manggar. As of the 2015 census, the population of Bangka-Belitung was 1,372,813. The province has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests, which however is disappearing due to deforestation. Mount Maras is the highest point in the province and the island of Bangka, with a height of 699 m. There are several rives in the province, such as the Sebuku River, Baturusa River and Mendo River.

Bangka Belitung Islands, especially Bangka Island alternated into the kingdom of Sriwijaya and Majapahit Kingdom. After the fall of Majapahit, this province was occupied by the Sultanate of Palembang before it was colonized by the Dutch. After that, Bangka Belitung became a British colony and then handed over to the Dutch government held at Muntok on 17 March 1824 after the signing of the [[Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824]|Anglo-Dutch Treaty]]. During the Dutch colonial period, there was a continuous resistance made by the local people, especially Depati Barin then followed by his son named Depati Amir. The resistance was crushed after Depati Amir was captured and ended in exile to Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara by the Dutch Government. The province remain peaceful until the Japanese captured the area on the eve of World War II. After the Japanese surrendered, the territory was handed to the Indonesian government. The territory was governed under the province of South Sumatra before being separated in 2000 as the 31st province of Indonesia. The province is governed under a governor, like other province of Indonesia. The province is separated into administrative divisions, and regency, each governed by a regent. This is closely modeled after the Residencies during the Dutch colonial era, which is again separated into smaller districts (afdeeling).

The province is ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse; major ethnic groups including Malay, Chinese and Javanese. Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of the province, while the local Malay dialect and Hakka serves as the lingua franca of the province

Etymology

The name "Bangka" is derived from the word wangka (vanca) meaning "tin" in Sanskrit, because this region is indeed rich in tin mining. The name "Wangka" first appeared along with the name "Swarnabhumi" in the Indian literary book Milindrapantha from the 1st Century BC. Swarnabhumi is identified as the island of Sumatra, the strong allegation that the so-called "Wangka" is the island of Bangka. Loius-Charles Damais, in his book Epigraphy and History of the Nusantara, affirms that Bangka comes from the word vowel (vanca).

The name "Belitung" is derived from Batu Satam, or the Black Meteorite, which is commonly found in the island of Belitung. The Dutch named this meteorite as Billitonite. This stone itself was discovered at the time of tin mining in Belitung. Now, Batu Satam also known as Billitonite, is souvernir from Belitung Island.

History

Historical affiliations
Majapahit Empire 14th century-1527

Sultanate of Palembang 1527-1722
Dutch East India Company 1722-1799
United Kingdom 1812-1824
Dutch East Indies 1799–1812; 1824–1942
Empire of Japan 1942–1945

 Indonesia 1945–present

Bangka Belitung is an area that has a unique range of cultures and languages. Just like other areas, Bangka belitung has various stories as events that occur in this place. here are many things you can get about and the history of the province of bangka belitung. Before becoming a colony of Europeans and Japanese, Bangka Belitung has become an area in jajah by several kingdoms in Sumatra and Java. Sriwijaya and Majapahit are the kingdoms who colonized Bangka Belitung to expand its power. With the period of power that was done by Sriwijaya which then in conquered by Majapahit. After the fall of Majapahit, Bangka Belitung was colonized by Europeans. Europeans who came first was England on May 20, 1812. But with the London convention 13 August 1824, England left Bangka Belitung and replaced by the Dutch. With the transition from this existing agreement finally the Dutch began to control the Pacific Islands to rule this place as a place that has extraordinary wealth. however, with the opposition carried out by Depati Barin and his son Depati Amir who was familiar with the war of Depati Amir with a war time of about 3 years (1849-1851). However, this war was then won by the Dutch who caused Depati Amir to be foreigned to Kupang in East Nusa Tenggara

With the power that is done by the Dutch is finally the Dutch can easily master and do the colonization of the population in Bangka Belitung. 11 March 1933 in the resident form Bangka Belitung Onderhogenheden led by a Resident of Bangka Belitung with power covering from 6 Onderafdehify. Japan is a country that managed to make the Dutch must leave and leave Bangka Belitung. With this condition then the power to switch to the hands of Japan by doing some changes that are done by Japan. Bangka Belitung Ginseibu who became the residency of the Japanese military government.

Most of the first Chinese workers who came to Indonesia were men (mainly Hakka people). They began assimilating with local people and intermarriages followed, residents coexisting peacefully in spite of differences in religion and ethnicity. When anti-Chinese riots occurred in some parts of Indonesia at the end of the Soeharto regime in 1998, local people and those of Chinese descent lived peacefully in the Bangka Belitung province.[3]

Bangka Belitung province is created as the 31st province of Indonesia by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia based on Law No. 27 of 2000 on the establishment of Bangka Belitung Province which was part of the province of South Sumatra. The provincial capital is Pangkalpinang.[4]

Weather and Climate

In 2007 the moisture in the Bangka Belitung Province ranged from 77.4% to 87.3% with an average monthly reach of 83.1%, with a rainfall of 58.3 mm to 476.3 mm and air pressure during 2007 approximately 1010.1 MBS. The average temperature during 2007 in the province reached 26.7 °C with an average maximum temperature of 29.9 °C and average minimum temperature of 24.9 °C. The maximum air temperature was highest in October, with temperatures of 31.7 °C, while the minimum temperature was lowest in February and March with temperatures of 23.2 °C.

Bangka Belitung Islands have tropical climate influenced monsoons are experiencing a wet month for seven months throughout the year and dry month for five months continuously. In 2007 the dry months occurred in August to October with rainy days 11–15 days per month. For the month of wet rainy days 16–27 days per month, occurred in January to July and November to December.

Geography

The province of Bangka-Belitung is entirely surrounded by water. It borders:

The natural state of Bangka Belitung Province is largely a plateau, valley and a small portion of the mountains and hills. Lowland altitude average of about 50 meters above sea level and altitude mountain areas among others to Mount Maras reach 699 meters in Belinyu District, Bangka. Mount Tajam Kaki height is approximately 500 meters above sea level on the island of Belitung. As for the hilly areas like Bukit Menumbing reaches a height of approximately 445 meters in the Bukit Nenas and Mangkol district with a height of about 395 meters above sea level in the Pangkalan Baru district. Soil in Bangka Belitung generally have a pH or acidic soil reaction averaging below 5, but has a very high aluminum content. Within it are various minerals, such as tin, sand, quartz sand, granite, kaolin, clay, and others.

The province is connected by sea waters and small islands. Overall land and water Bangka Belitung is an integral part of the plains of Sunda, so that its waters are part of the Sunda Shelf with a sea depth of no more than 30 meters. As the water area, Bangka Belitung has two types of waters, namely the open waters and semi-enclosed waters. Open water contained around Bangka island located to the north, east and south of the island of Bangka. While there is a semi-enclosed waters in the straits and bays Kelabat Bangka in Bangka North. Waters on the island of Belitung is generally open. In addition, as the territorial waters of the sea, the area of Bangka Belitung Island also has many rivers such as Baturusa, Layang, Manise, and Kurau rivers.

Bangka Belitung has various kinds of quality wood that is traded outside the region, such as pelawan, meranti, ramin, mambalong, mandaru, bulin and kerengas. Other forest plants found in the island are keramunting, buk-buk, mate ayem, kapuk, jelutung, pulai, gelam, meranti rawa, mentagor, mahang, various species of mangrove, and others. Other forest products are natural honey and rattan. Bangka Belitung is also known for its bitter honey. Fauna in Bangka Belitung have more common similarities with the fauna in the Riau Archipelago and Peninsular Malaysia than with Sumatra. Some of the animals that can be found in Bangka Belitung are deer, wild boar, beruk, eagle, weasel, and hare, among others.

Economy

In 2007, GDP at current prices in Bangka Belitung province with oil and gas amounted to 17,895,017 million, while the GDP without oil and gas amounted to 17,369,399 million. When compared with the previous year showed an increase where in 2006 the GDP at current prices with the oil and gas is 15,920,529 million and the GDP without oil and gas amounted to 15,299,647 million. Likewise, GDP at constant 2000 prices, either with or without oil and gas in 2007 showed an increase. The rate of economic growth in Bangka Belitung province in 2007 has improved compared to 2006. Based on the calculation of GDP at constant 2000 prices, the economic growth rate in 2007 with oil and gas is about 4.54 percent and non-oil economic growth is around 5.37 percent. The value of GDP at 2000 constant prices in 2006 with oil and gas is 9,053,906 million in 2007 increased to 9,645,062 million, while without the oil and gas into 9,257,539 million.

The economy in Bangka Belitung Province in 2007 is supported by the primary sector and secondary sector. The primary sector includes agriculture and mining and quarrying. The primary sector has a considerable contribution each by 18.67 percent and 20.40 percent. While in the secondary sector, namely the manufacturing sector provides a sizeable contribution in the GDP Bangka Belitung province that is equal to 22.51 per cent and for electricity, gas and water supply and construction sectors each contributed 0.65 percent and 5, 87 percent. For the tertiary sector is trade, hotel and restaurant sector, transport and communications, financial services, leasing and business services sector and the services sector has accounted for 34.81 percent. In terms of the use of GDP at current prices is used for household consumption. In 2007 the amount of household consumption expenditure amounted to 9,015,057 million or about 50.38 percent of total GDP. Besides foreign trade activities also have a substantial contribution to exports worth 8,741,217 million or 48.84 percent and for imports were valued at 5,284,414 million or 29.53 percent of total GDP.

The balance of trade which include exports and imports of Bangka Belitung province in 2007 increased the value of the surplus from the previous year. The value of exports in 2007 reached 1254.43 million US dollars, up 17.38 percent over the previous year. While the value of imports declined from 25.09 million US dollars in 2006 to 21.58 million in 2007 or a decrease of 16.27 percent. The amount of trade surplus in 2007 amounted to 1232.85 million US dollars. Thus the surplus value in 2007 increased by 18.13 percent.

Industry

In 2007, Bangka Belitung province dominated by the chemical industry and building materials in quantity, as many as 1187 business units spread across the districts / cities, mostly in Central Bangka regency with 339 business units. Employment in the industrial sector reached 19 462 people where 7375 is the largest employment were in the group of metal machinery and electronics industry. Handicraft industry in Bangka Belitung Islands is a result of agro industry processing industry, fishery, agriculture and marine products. Industry craft cultivated population are hand crafted pewter industry in the form of tin, bracelet / ring / stick from the root bahar, woven cap / cap resam and so on. While the craft industry in the form of food / confectionary in the form of paste, rusip, brittle / crackers, and others.

Health

According to the Indonesian Health Department, Bangka-Belitung is highly malarious area, with an annual malaria incidence rate of 29.3/1000 population.[5]

Administrative divisions

Pangkal Pinang, the capital city as well as the largest city in the province.
Tanjung Pandan, the largest town in Belitung Island.

Bangka-Belitung is divided into six regencies and one city, below with their (provisional) populations at the 2010 Census and at the most recent (January 2014) estimates.

Name Area
(km2)
Population
Estimate 2005
Population
Census 2010
Population
2014 Estimate
Capital HDI[6]
2014 Estimates
Pangkal Pinang City 118.80 145,945 174,838 159,689 Pangkal Pinang 0.762 (High)
Bangka Regency 2,950.69 246,579 277,193 312,886 Sungailiat 0.697 (Medium)
Central Bangka Regency (Bangka Tengah) 2,126.36 133,380 161,075 152,645 Koba 0.680 (Medium)
South Bangka Regency (Bangka Selatan) 3,607.08 148,912 172,476 164,867 Toboali 0.635 (Medium)
West Bangka Regency (Bangka Barat) 2,820.61 147,855 175,110 164,555 Muntok 0.664 (Medium)
Total Bangka 11,623.54 822,671 960,692 954,642
Belitung Regency 2,293.69 132,777 155,925 176,041 Tanjung Pandan 0.695 (Medium)
East Belitung Regency (Belitung Timur) 2,506.91 87,380 106,432 95,827 Manggar 0.681 (Medium)
Total Belitung 4,800.60 220,157 262,357 271,868

Tourism

Bangka-Belitung Islands have numerous beaches and several small islands. Some beaches are famous for their natural attractiveness with blue sea waters, variety of coral reefs, white sand, and giant granite rock formations. Thus, Bangka-Belitung beaches have attracted tourists from around the world. Some of the well-known beaches in Bangka Island are Pasir Padi, Matras, Parai Tenggiri, Tanjung Pesona, Rambak, Teluk Limau, Teluk Uber, Tanjung Penyusuk,Tanjung Kalian, and Tanjung Kerasak.[7]

Some of the beaches in Belitung Island are Tanjung Kiras, Tanjung Pendam, Tanjung Tinggi, Tanjung Kelayang Beach, Tanjung Binga, Panyaeran Beach, Tanjung Kubu, Teluk Gembira, and Tanjung Ru Beach. Most of the beaches in Belitung features the sites for diving, scuba, snorkeling, fishing and sailing.[8]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 507,231 —    
1980 653,897 +28.9%
1990 822,900 +25.8%
2000 900,197 +9.4%
2010 1,223,296 +35.9%
Source: Statistics Indonesia 2010. Bangka-Belitung part of South Sumatra Province until 2000

Demographics

Religion in Bangka Belitung Islands (2010 census)[9]
religion percent
Islam
  
89%
Buddhism
  
4.24%
Confucianism
  
3.25%
Christianity
  
3%
other, not stated or not asked
  
0.41%
Hinduism
  
0.09%

The population of Bangka Belitung Province in 2010 (SP2010) amounted to 1,223,296 inhabitants showed 36.06 percent increase from 2000, with a population of 899 095 inhabitants (the results of the 2000 Population Census). The local Malay who lived in the province are locally called "Melayu Bangka-Belitung".[10]

Number of male population in 2010 about 635 094 inhabitants and a population of 588 202 inhabitants as much as women. The sex ratio of the same year amounted to 108, meaning that in 2010 for every 208 residents in Bangka Belitung there are 100 women and 108 residents of the male population. Population growth rates Bangka Belitung province in 2010 amounted to 2.83 per cent, if the review by district / city for the period of 2010, the growth rate is highest in Bangka Tengah3, 43 percent, followed by 3.06 percent and the City Pangkalpinang Bangka District 2, 79 percent. The number of households in Bangka Belitung in 2010 about 311 145 households and counties that have the largest number of households is Bangka amounted to 70 468 households and who have the lowest number of households is East Belitung amounted to 27 941 households.

The population density Bangka Belitung province reached 74 people per km2, when seen by district / city, Pangkalpinang has the highest density of 1,471 people per km2 and East Belitung province has the lowest density is 42 people per km2.

Ethnicity

The inhabitants of Bangka Island and Belitung Island originally inhabited by the Orang Laut, in the course of a long history formed the process of culture and acculturation. The Orang Laut themselves came from various islands. Sea people from Belitung sail and inhabit the coast along the Malay Peninsula, then returned to Bangka Island and Belitung Island. While those who live in Riau Islands sail to Bangka. There are also groups of Orang Laut from Sulawesi and Kalimantan. In the next wave, the Bugis, who was originally from South Sulawesi, came and settled in Bangka, Belitung and Riau. Then came the Johor Malay, Siantan Malay, Malay-Chinese, and also native Chinese, mingling in the process of acculturation and culture. Then came the Minangkabau, Javanese, Banjarese, Madurese, Acehnese and some other ethnic groups.

The Malay is the largest ethnic group in the province. They formed around 52.5% of the total population. The Malays are mostly concentrated around the interior of Bangka and Belitung. The Malay are divided into the Bangka Malay and the Belitung Malay. These 2 group are slightly different ranging from their culture to their language. Most of the Malays works in either the farming industry or the fishing industry. The Malay in Bangka Belitung have a very distinct lifestyle compared to other Malay people, especially with those in Malaysia. Another group of Malay inhabiting Bangka Belitung is known as the Orang Laut. They inhabit the coastal part of the province and are usually nomadic, living in one place or another.

The second largest ethnic group is the Chinese, forming around 29.1% of the total population. The Chinese are mostly concentrated in the coastal part of Bangka and Belitung or urban areas. The Chinese in Bangka-Belitung are originally from Southern China, especially the Guangdong province, migrating from the 18th century to the early 20th century to have a better job opportunities. During the colonial era, most of the Chinese works in the mining industry as well as making their own business. Most of the Chinese in Bangka Belitung are Hakka, while significant Hokkien and Cantonese community also exist. The Chinese culture in Bangka is slightly different from the Chinese in Belitung. The Chinese in Bangka were imported in the early 18th century when the mine was officially opened. They generally did not bring their wives to marry indigenous people, so the Chinese in Bangka are mostly peranakans who speak Hakka Language mixed with Malay. Belitung Chinese are considered "totok" because it came in the 19th century brought the wife. They adapt to the culture of the archipelago, among others, by changing their clothing with local clothing such as clothes with kebaya kurung or sarong. They still speak with the original Hakka language spoken in China today.

The rest of the population consist of immigrants from other parts of Indonesia such as the Javanese, Minangkabau and the Bugis.

Employment

The population of Bangka Belitung Islands aged 15 years and above or which includes the Working Age Population (PUK) in 2007 as many as 766,428 people or 69.25 percent of the total population. 66.78 percent of the PUK is included in the workforce population (working and / or seeking employment) and the remaining 33.72 percent are non-workforce residents (schools, taking care of households and others). The labor force participation rate of Bangka Belitung Islands in 2007 amounted to 66.28 percent meaning that 66 percent of the working age population is economically active. The open unemployment rate for the Bangka Belitung Islands in the same year amounted to 6.49 percent, meaning that out of 100 people including the labor force, on average 5-6 people are job seekers. The working age population when viewed from the employment sector shows that as much as 34.4 percent of the working age working population is absorbed in the agricultural sector, 20.9 percent is absorbed by the mining sector and the trade sector absorbs 18.7 percent.

Religion

The people of Bangka Belitung Islands are religious people and uphold religious harmony. There are 730 mosques, 87 Protestant churches, 30 Catholic churches and 48 monasteries. Number of pilgrims registered and departed to Mecca in 2007 as many as 1012 pilgrims.

Based on the Population Census in 2015, the percentage of religion in Bangka Belitung Islands is 88.71%, Buddhist 4.49%, Christianity 3.37% (Protestant 2.06% and Roman Catholic 1.31%), Confucian 3.30% and Hinduism 0.01%.

Education

The history of universities in Bangka Belitung was initiated by the inauguration of Sriwijaya Bangka Bangka University in 1970s. But in accordance with the regulations that did not allow state universities to open branches, then in the early 1980s the university was closed. The educators in Bangka Island who care about the importance of higher education then initiated the presence of universities in Bangka by forming the Foundation of Education Bangka (Yapertiba) which later in 1982 founded STIH Pertiba with the Department of Law and STIE Pertiba with Management majors located in Pangkalpinang City. Yapertiba also established STAI Bangka located in Sungailiat City. PT. Timah Tbk. participated in developing the world of higher education by establishing Polytechnic of Tin Manufacturing in 1994 located in Sungailiat City which has 3 majors. In the 1990s, Pangkalpinang City Government took part in establishing the Nursing Academy to produce reliable health workers in accordance with the needs of the region located in Pangkalpinang District Hospital. Yapertiba in 1999 established STIPER Bangka located in Sungailiat City in 1999, then STIPER Bangka in 2006 merged into part of University of Bangka Belitung. In 1999 also stands Bakti Accounting Academy founded by Yayasan Pendidikan Bakti.

In Belitung Island a number of educational observers in 1999 established the Belitung Management Academy. STIE IBEK Babel was also present to enliven the world of higher education in Bangka which was established in 2000 located in Pangkalpinang City with majoring in Accounting and Management. In 2001 AMIK Atma Luhur stood in Pangkalpinang City with a specialty in informatics expertise, has 2 majors namely Management Informatics and Computer Accounting. In the same year STIKES Abdi Nusa was also present at Pangkalpinang with Public Health department. In 2003 the Stisipol Pahlawan 12 and TT Pahlawan 12 were established in Sungailiat City. The Ministry of Religious Affairs in 2005 established STAIN Syekh Abdurrahman Sidik located in West Mendo District. In 2006 stood the first university in Bangka Belitung namely University of Bangka Belitung (UBB) which is the forerunner to the establishment of a state university in Bangka Belitung. UBB is a merger of 3 universities namely Polman Timah, STIPER Bangka and STT Heroes 12. In February 2009 UBB officially became a state university with the signing of MoU submission of all UBB assets from Yayasan Cendikia Bangka to Dirjen Dikti Depdiknas.

References

  1. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (in Indonesian)
  2. ^ "Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010". 
  3. ^ "Heaven on earth in Bangka Belitung". February 8, 2012. 
  4. ^ Sekilas Sejarah Bangka Belitung
  5. ^ Indonesia Health Map 2007, Department of Health, Government of Indonesia.
  6. ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
  7. ^ http://www.bangka.go.id/content.php?id_content=pantai
  8. ^ http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/71131/swb-2011-to-become-biggest-international-marine-event
  9. ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010. 
  10. ^ A. J. Gooszen, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands), A demographic history of the Indonesian archipelago, 1880-1942, KITLV Press, 1999, ISBN 978-90-6718-128-0

Further reading

  • Somers Heidhues, Mary F.(1992)Bangka tin and Mentok pepper : Chinese settlement on an Indonesian island Singapore : Social Isuues in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-3035-99-4
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