Balti language

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Balti
بلتی
སྦལ་འཐུས་
Balti in nastaliq.jpg
Native to Baltistan, Kashmir, Ladakh, and small pockets in Karachi, Rawalpindi
Region Pakistan, India
Ethnicity Balti people
Native speakers
(290,000 cited 1992–2001)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Perso-Arabic script, revival of Tibetan script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 bft
Glottolog balt1258[2]

Balti (Tibetan: སྦལ་ཏི།, Wylie: bal ti skad; Nastaʿlīq script: بلتی‎) is a Tibetic language spoken in the Baltistan division of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, the Nubra Valley of Leh district, and in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.[3] It is quite different from Standard Tibetan. Many sounds of Old Tibetan that were lost in Standard Tibetan are retained in the Balti language. It also has a simple pitch accent system only in multisyllabic words[4] while Standard Tibetan has a complex and distinct pitch system that includes tone contour.

Ethnography

All people living in Baltistan may be referred to as Balti. The Greeks derived Byaltae from Tibetan: སྦལ་ཏིའི་Wylie: sbal-ti, which, in Tibetan, means "water gorge." The historian Ptolemy, also a general in the army of Alexander the Great, named the region "Byaltae" in his book.[citation needed] In fact, Baltistan is the Persian translation of Baltiyul, "homeland of Balti." Balti people are settled on both banks of the Indus River from Kargil district in the east to Haramosh Peak in the west and from the Karakoram in the north to Deosai National Park in the south.

The Balti ethnicity is primarily Tibetan in origin, with some Dardic admixture. Balti is a Tibetic language.

In some rural areas, the Shina people still speak the Shina language but they are very few in number. Also, their language has many loan words from Balti, as Balti is the majority language in Baltistan . To develop Balti, local intellectuals like Yusuf Hussain Abadi have worked on the language, rediscovering the history and reviving the Tibetan script in Baltistan after six centuries (1980).

He wrote the book 'Balti Zabaan' in 1990, the first book on the language. Abadi translated the Quran into Balti in 1995. Later on, many people inspired by him worked on Balti. Ghulam Hassan Lobsang wrote a book 'Balti Grammar' in both English and Urdu versions: "Balti Grammar" and "Balti English Grammar". The latter was published by Bern University Switzerland in 1995.

The Balti have a reputation for being very forbearing, cheerful and hospitable people. During the Maqpon dynasty (from the twelfth century to 1840), the Balti invaded Ladakh and Tibet in the east and Gilgit and Chitral many times, thus making these people acknowledge the martial abilities of the Balti.

The modern population of Baltistan is a heterogeneous mixture of ethnic groups. Tibetans form the principal ethnic group in the area accounting for 75 percent of the population. Outside Baltistan, there are several Balti communities located in Pakistan's urban and rural areas.

Classification

Tournadre (2005)[5] considers Balti, Ladakhi, and Purgi to be distinct languages because they do not have mutual intelligibility. As a group, they are termed Ladakhi–Balti or Western Archaic Tibetan, as opposed to Western Innovative Tibetan languages, such as Lahuli–Spiti.

Geographical distribution of Balti language speaking area (including Purigi dialect, sometimes considered as different from Balti language)

The missionary, orientalist and linguist Heinrich August Jäschke (1817–1883) classified Balti as one of the westernmost Tibetic languages. In his Tibetan–English Dictionary, he defines it as "Bal (Balti), the most westerly of the districts in which the Tibetan language is spoken".[6]

Script

The predominant writing system currently in use for Balti is the Perso-Arabic script, although there have been attempts to revive the Tibetan script, which was used between the 8th and the 16th centuries.[7]. Additionally, there are two, nowadays possibly extinct, indigenous writing systems,[8] and there have been proposals for the adoption of Roman[9] as well as Devanagari-based orthographies.[10]

The main script for writing Balti is the local adaptation of the Tibetan alphabet which is called yige in baltiyul baltistan, but it is often written in the Persian alphabet, especially within Pakistan.

In 1985, Abadi added four new letters to the Tibetan script and seven new letters to the Persian script to adapt both of them according to the need of Balti language. Two of the four added letters now stand included in the Tibetan Unicode alphabet.

The Tibetan script had been in vogue in Baltistan until the last quarter of the 14th century, when the Baltis converted to Islam. Since then, Persian script replaced the Tibetan script, but the former had no letters for seven Balti sounds and was in vogue in spite of the fact that it was defective. Adding the seven new letters has now made it a complete script for Balti.

Recently, a number of Balti scholars and social activists have attempted to promote the use of the Tibetan Balti or "Yige" alphabet with the aim of helping to preserve indigenous Balti and Ladakhi culture and ethnic identity. Following a request from this community, the September 2006 Tokyo meeting of ISO/IEC 10646 WG2 agreed to encode two characters which are invented by Abadi (U+0F6B TIBETAN LETTER KKA and TIBETAN U+0F6C LETTER RRA) in the ISO 10646 and Unicode standards in order to support rendering Urdu loanwords present in modern Balti using the Yige alphabet.

Areas

Now, Balti is spoken in the whole of Baltistan in the northern Pakistan and some parts of Northern India in Jammu and Kashmir. It is said that Purki-dialect of Purgi and Suru-Kartse valleys come into the Balti group linguistically to some extent. However, Balti is spoken by nearly 0.9 million people living in Baltistan (Pakistan), different parts of the states of northern India like Dehradun, Masoorie, Kalsigate, Chakrotta, Ambadi in Uttrakhand and parts of Jammu and Kashmir like Jammu and Ramban in Jammu region, Hariparbat, Dalgate and Tral in Kashmir region. In the twin districts of Ladakh region (Kargil & Leh) it is spoken in Kargil city and its surrounding villages like Hardass, Lato, Karkitchhoo and Balti Bazar, and in Leh- Turtuk, Bogdang, Tyakshi including Leh city and nearby villages. Apart from these, about 0.1 million Baltis working abroad in different countries.

Evolution

Since Pakistan gained control of the region in 1948, Urdu words have been introduced into local dialects and languages, including Balti. In modern times, Balti has no native names or vocabulary for dozens of newly invented and introduced things; instead, Urdu and English words are being used in Balti.

Balti has retained many honorific words that are characteristic of Tibetan dialects and many other languages.

The first Balti grammar was written in Urdu by Ghulam Hassan Lobsang. Below are a few examples:

Ordinary Balti Text Writing Honorific Ladakhi Meaning
Ata اتا Baba Aba Father
kho کھو kho - he
gashay گشے liakhmo liakhmo Beautiful
paynay پینے khumul painay Money
bila بلا Bila bilo Cat
su سُو su sou Who
Ano/Amo انو/امو Zizi Ama Mother
Kaka ککا Kacho Acho Brother (elder)
Bustring بُسترنگ Zung Nama Woman / Wife
Momo مومو Jangmocho Ajang Maternal uncle
Nene نےنے Nenecho Ane Aunt
Bu بُو Bucho Tugu Son
Fru فُرو Nono Busa Boy
Apo اپو Apocho Meme Grandfather
Api اپی Apicho Abi Grandmother
Ashe اشے Ashcho Singmo Sister (elder)
Zo زو bjes Zo Eat
Thung تُھونگ bjes Thung Drink
Ong اونگ Shokhs Yong Come
Song سونگ Shokhs Song Go
Zair زیر Kasal-byung Zer Speak/Say
Ngid tong نِت تونگ gزim tong Ngid tong Sleep (go to)
Lagpa لقپا Phyaq-laq/g Lagpa Hand/Arm
Khyang کھیانگ Yang/Yari-phyaqpo Khyorang You
Kangma کنگما gzok-po kang Leg

Literature

No prose literature except proverb collections have been found written in Balti. Some epics and sagas appear in oral literature such as the Epic of King Gesar, and the stories of rgya lu cho lo bzang and rgya lu sras bu. All other literature is in verse. Balti literature has adopted numerous Persian styles of verse and vocables which amplify the beauty and melody of its poetry.

Nearly all the languages and dialects of the mountain region in the north of Pakistan such as Pashto, Khowar and Shina are Indo-Aryan or Iranic languages, but Balti is one of the Sino-Tibetan languages. As such, it has nothing in common with neighboring languages except some loanwords absorbed as a result of linguistic contact. Balti and Ladakhi are closely related.

The major issue facing the development of Balti literature is its centuries-long isolation from Tibet, owing to political divisions and strong religious differences and even from its immediate neighbor Ladakh for the last 50 years. Separated from its linguistic kin, Balti is under pressure from more dominant languages such as Urdu. This is compounded by the lack of a suitable means of transcribing the language following the abandonment of its original Tibetan script. The Baltis do not have the awareness to revive their original script and there is no institution that could restore it and persuade the people to use it again. Even if the script is revived, it would need modification to express certain Urdu phonemes that occur in common loanwords within Balti.

Examples of poetry:

تھونما زینب قتلگاہ عباس چھوزورکھا سھوکفامید

تھون نارے ستریمو لا تعزیم چی بیک پارگولا نین مہ مید
Youq fangsay thalang paqzi na mandoq na mabour na
Na drolbi laming yani si soq fangse chi thobtook
Nasir Karmi

See also

References

  1. ^ Balti at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Balti". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Census of India, 1961: Jammu and Kashmir. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 1961. p. 357. 
  4. ^ Sprigg, R. K. (1966). "Lepcha and Balti Tibetan: Tonal or Non-Tonal Languages?". Asia Major. 12: 185–201. 
  5. ^ *N. Tournadre (2005) "L'aire linguistique tibétaine et ses divers dialectes." Lalies, 2005, n°25, p. 7–56 [1]
  6. ^ Heinrich, Heinrich August (1881). A Tibetan-English Dictionary, with Special Reference to the Prevailing Dialects: To which is Added an English-Tibetan Vocabulary. Unger Brothers (T. Grimm). 
  7. ^ Bashir 2016, pp. 808–09.
  8. ^ Pandey 2010.
  9. ^ Bashir 2016, p. 808.
  10. ^ Pandey 2010, p. 1.

Bibliography

  • Bashir, Elena L. (2016). "Perso-Arabic adaptions for South Asian languages". In Hock, Hans Henrich; Bashir, Elena L. The languages and linguistics of South Asia: a comprehensive guide. World of Linguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 803–9. ISBN 978-3-11-042715-8. 
  • Pandey, Anshuman (2010). Introducing Another Script for Writing Balti (PDF) (Report). 
  • Muhammad Yousuf Hussainabadi, 'Baltistan per aik Nazar'. 1984.
  • Hussainabadi, Mohamad Yusuf. Balti Zaban. 1990.
  • Muhammad Hassan Hasrat, 'Tareekh-e-Adbiat;.
  • Muhammad Yousuf Hussainabadi, 'Tareekh-e-Baltistan'. 2003.
  • Engineer Wazir Qalbi Ali, 'Qadam Qadam Baltistan'. 2006.
  • "A Short Sketch of Balti English Grammar" by Ghulam Hassan Lobsang, 1995.
  • Everson, Michael. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N2985: Proposal to add four Tibetan characters for Balti to the BMP of the UCS. 2005-09-05
  • Read, A.F.C. Balti grammar.London:The Royal Asiatic society, 1934.
  • Sprigg, Richard Keith. Balti-English English-Balti dictionary. Richmond: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.
  • Backstrom, Peter C. Languages of Northern Areas (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 2), 1992. 417 pp. ISBN 969-8023-12-7.

External links

  • Unicode
  • Koshur: The Balti Language
  • Tibetan script makes a comeback in Pakistan
  • Proposal to add four Tibetan characters for Balti to the BMP of the UCS
  • Andrew West, Tibetan Extensions 2 : Balti
  • Pakistan's Northern Areas dilemma
  • Northern Areas Development Gateway
  • Pakistan's Northern Areas
  • [2]
  • A Bibliography of Tibetan Linguistics
  • [3]
  • [4]
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