Balakovo

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Balakovo
Балаково (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Усадьба Мальцева.jpg
Maltsev Manor in the historical part of the city
Map of Russia - Saratov Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Saratov Oblast in Russia
Balakovo is located in Saratov Oblast
Balakovo
Balakovo
Location of Balakovo in Saratov Oblast
Coordinates: 52°02′N 47°47′E / 52.033°N 47.783°E / 52.033; 47.783Coordinates: 52°02′N 47°47′E / 52.033°N 47.783°E / 52.033; 47.783
Coat of Arms of Balakovo (Saratov oblast).png
Coat of arms
Anthem none[2]
Administrative status (as of 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Saratov Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Balakovo[3][4]
Administrative center of Balakovsky District,[4] city of oblast significance of Balakovo[5]
Municipal status (as of February 2013)
Municipal district Balakovsky Municipal District[6]
Urban settlement Balakovo Urban Settlement[6]
Administrative center of Balakovsky Municipal District,[7] Balakovo Urban Settlement[6]
Head[9] Alexander Ovsyannikov[8]
Representative body Council[9]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 199,690 inhabitants[10]
Rank in 2010 94th
Time zone SAMT (UTC+04:00)[11]
Founded 1762[12]
City status since 1913[12]
Postal code(s)[13] 413840, 413841, 413843, 413849–413851, 413853, 413855–413861, 413863–413866
Dialing code(s) +7 8453[citation needed]
Website
Balakovo on Wikimedia Commons

Balakovo (Russian: Балаково, IPA: [bəlɐˈkovə]) is a city in Saratov Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Volga River about 131 kilometers (81 mi) northeast of Saratov, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 199,690 (2010 Census);[10] 200,470 (2002 Census);[14] 197,391 (1989 Census).[15]

History

It was founded in 1762 by the Old Believers who returned from Poland and was granted town status in 1913.[12]

Russian Empire

For a long time it was believed that the city of Balakovo was founded in 1762, but later a document dated 1738 was found in the archives of St. Petersburg, which mentions the Cossack meadow possession of Balakov Yurt, located two versts from the Volga. December 14, 1762 Empress of Russia Catherine II issued a manifesto calling on the Old Believers, who had fled to Poland, to return from abroad to Russia and settle on the lands between the Bolshoy and Maly Irgiz rivers. To the zealots of the old faith, 70,000 dessiatins (76,300 hectares) of the best land on the left bank of the Volga were allocated for use. Returned Old Believers founded several new settlements, including the village of Balakovo. In 1861 there were 2,700 people living in the village of Balakovo. The convenient location on the shipping routes helped the village to grow rapidly due to wheat trade. In one season, up to 10 million poods of grain were sent from Balakovo. More than 300 spacious barns that stood on the shore of Balakovo, allowed to store grain from harvest to harvest. In the 1860s for one navigation, from Balakovo could go up to 180 barges with cargo. Another commodity, to which the Balakovo merchants traded in huge quantities, was the forest. Balakovo was an intermediary between the forest provinces of the Upper Volga region and the forestless left bank of the Volga. Here, from such rivers as Kama, Belaya, Vyatka, it was brought annually up to 500 thousand poods of firewood and up to three million poods of forest building materials. Part of this forest was processed in two sawmills.

With the development of trade, the pier freight turnover grew, the fleet of freight and passenger ships increased. To repair them, the ship-repair industry was created. In 1897 the population of the village reached 18388 people.

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by a significant expansion of the borders of the village, as well as an increase in the number of industrial enterprises. In May 1911, the Highest Ordinance was signed to confer on Balakovo the status of a city with the rights of self-government. Ivan Mamin, the industrialist, became the first city head. On the eve of the 1917 revolution, there were 6 churches, 7 schools, the grain market, the ironworks of Fyodor Blinov and the mechanical plant of oil engines of the Mamin brothers, ship repair and furniture workshops, sawmills, mills, a commercial college opened in 1910, with considerable financial assistance of the merchant - a patron of Ivan Kobzar, the Zemsky hospital and the city factory ambulance (polyclinic), a library, and a power plant, which was organized by the "Light" partnership.

Inventors-self-taught Fyodor Abramovich Blinov and Yakov Mamin glorified Balakovo as the birthplace of the world's first caterpillar tractor, wheel self-propelled gun and Russian diesel engine. The plant of oil engines and tractors Yakov Mamin in 1915 produced 325 diesel engines, with a total capacity of 5100 horsepower. The image of the old Balakovo was created by such architects as H. F. Meyer and academician Fyodor Schechtel. Carefully preserving and restoring the historical landscape of the central part, the Balak people constantly improve the appearance of a new, young city with spacious avenues, straight as arrows, avenues, slender buildings with elegant facades.

Soviet Union

Until 1928, Balakovo was part of the Samara Governorate (Balakovo county existed in 1919-1924), after the Lower Volga region, from December 5, 1936, to the Saratov Oblast.

In the period from 1956 to 1971, the Saratov Hydroelectric Station was built in Balakovo, which led to the flooding of the Volga and the flooding of part of the coastal territory and the changing appearance of the modern city, as well as its sharp growth associated with obtaining the necessary electricity. In a short time the Balakovo industrial complex was created, numbering more than two dozen enterprises of chemistry, engineering, energy, construction industry, food industry. In 1985, the first power unit of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant was put into operation, which currently has 4 operating power units.

As a result of the referendum on December 22, 1996, the Balakovo municipal formation was created, which included the city of the regional subordination of Balakovo and the rural Balakovo district. In 2004 the Balakovo municipal formation was renamed Balakovo municipal district.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Balakovo serves as the administrative center of Balakovsky District,[4] even though it is not a part of it.[5] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately[5] as the city of oblast significance of Balakovo—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[3] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Balakovo is incorporated within Balakovsky Municipal District as Balakovo Urban Settlement.[6]

Economy

Balakovo is the location of the Saratov Hydroelectric Station on the Volga River and the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant. It is served by the Balakovo Airport which currently does not work. Balakovo has rail connection to Moscow, and is an end destination for some train routes.

Climate

Balakovo has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with long cold winters and warm, often hot summers. The warmest month is July with daily mean temperature near +22 °C (72 °F); the coldest month is February with −8 °C (18 °F). Balakovo has distinct cold and warm seasons, like cold winters and warm summers. The temperatures at night are cooler than during daytime.

Winter has prolonged freezing periods, with the coldest month most often being December. August is on average the month with most sunshine. Rainfall and other precipitation has no distinct peak month, but June is slightly the wettest.

Climate data for Balakovo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
17
(63)
31
(88)
34
(93)
40
(104)
41
(106)
41
(106)
38
(100)
25
(77)
16
(61)
11
(52)
41
(106)
Average high °C (°F) −5
(23)
−4
(25)
1
(34)
13
(55)
21
(70)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
20
(68)
12
(54)
3
(37)
−3
(27)
11.6
(52.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8
(18)
−8
(18)
−3.5
(25.7)
8
(46)
15
(59)
20
(68)
21.5
(70.7)
20.5
(68.9)
14.5
(58.1)
7.5
(45.5)
0
(32)
−6
(21)
6.79
(44.24)
Average low °C (°F) −11
(12)
−12
(10)
−6
(21)
3
(37)
9
(48)
14
(57)
15
(59)
14
(57)
9
(48)
3
(37)
−3
(27)
−9
(16)
2.2
(35.8)
Record low °C (°F) −37
(−35)
−35
(−31)
−27
(−17)
−17
(1)
−3
(27)
2
(36)
6
(43)
4
(39)
−2
(28)
−12
(10)
−23
(−9)
−33
(−27)
−37
(−35)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 39
(1.54)
31
(1.22)
31
(1.22)
30
(1.18)
38
(1.5)
42
(1.65)
35
(1.38)
27
(1.06)
41
(1.61)
34
(1.34)
35
(1.38)
35
(1.38)
418
(16.46)
Average rainy days 3 2 4 6 7 6 6 5 6 9 7 4 65
Average snowy days 16 12 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 14 60
Average relative humidity (%) 85 84 81 65 54 58 56 55 59 72 84 86 69.9
Source #1: Myweather.com[16]
Source #2: Meteoblue.com[17]

Infrastructure

Passenger transportations are carried out by buses, route taxis, taxis and trolleybuses. In 2002 a new section of the contact network was put into operation, which allowed increasing the number of trolleybus routes.

The connection between the two parts of the city is carried out by the lock bridge. In 2003, it was decided to build a second bridge across the Navigable Canal. Since December 9, 2015 the Bridge "Victory Bridge" has been put into operation. Intercity transport

There is a bus station "Balakovo", railway station Balakovo, railway station "Linyovo" (for freight trains, electric trains), river station, river port, ship repair port.

Earlier in Balakovo, there was a similar airport (located near the village of Malaya Bykovka), which until the late 1990s received regular flights.[18] In 2003 the airport was closed.

Sports

There is a speedway team called SK Turbina.

Cityscape

[[|x150px|alt=]]
[[:| ]]
Panorama of Balakovo

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Balakovo is twinned with:

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Charter of Saratov Oblast, Article 10
  2. ^ The official symbols of Balakovo enumerated in Article 2 of the Charter of Balakovo do not include the anthem.
  3. ^ a b Law #21-ZSO
  4. ^ a b c Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 63 207», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 63 207, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
  5. ^ a b c Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 63 407», в ред. изменения №275/2015 от 1 сентября 2015 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 63 407, as amended by the Amendment #275/2015 of September 1, 2015. ).
  6. ^ a b c d Law #103-ZSO
  7. ^ Law #78-ZSO
  8. ^ Official website of Balakovo. City Head. Biography. (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b Charter of Balakovo, Article 15
  10. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  12. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 33. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Myweather.com". Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Meteoblue.com". Retrieved April 27, 2017. 
  18. ^ Балаковская энциклопедия: Аэрофлот

Sources

  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №46-ЗСО от 2 июня 2005 г. «Устав (Основной Закон) Саратовской области», в ред. Закона №54-ЗСО от 28 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Саратовской области». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Неделя области", Спецвыпуск, №38 (156), 4 июня 2005 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #46-ZSO of June 2, 2005 Charter (Basic Law) of Saratov Oblast, as amended by the Law #54-ZSO of April 28, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Saratov Oblast. Effective as of after the official publication.).
  • Совет муниципального образования г. Балаково. Решение №14 от 12 декабря 2005 г. «Устав муниципального образования город Балаково», в ред. Решения №324 от 25 ноября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав муниципального образования город Балаково Балаковского муниципального района Саратовской области, принятый Решением Совета муниципального образования город Балаково от 12 декабря 2005 г. №14». Вступил в силу с момента официального опубликования, за исключением положений, для которых установлены иные сроки и порядок вступления в силу. (Council of the Municipal Formation of the City of Balakovo. Decision #14 of December 12, 2005 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Balakovo, as amended by the Decision #324 of November 25, 2011 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Balakovo in Balakovsky Municipal District of Saratov Oblast, Adopted by the Decision #12 of the Council of the Municipal Formation of the City of Balakovo of December 12, 2005. Effective as of the moment of the official publication, with the exception of clauses for which other dates and procedures of taking effect are specified.).
  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №21-ЗСО от 3 апреля 2000 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Саратовской области», в ред. Закона №15-ЗСО от 4 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Саратовской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Саратовской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Саратовские вести по понедельникам", №12 (12), 10 апреля 2000 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #21-ZSO of April 3, 2000 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Saratov Oblast, as amended by the Law #15-ZSO of February 4, 2014 On Amending the Law of Saratov Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Saratov Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №79-ЗСО от 23 декабря 2004 г «О городских округах». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №264 (1215), 24 декабря 2004 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #79-ZSO of December 23, 2004 On the Urban Okrugs. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №103-ЗСО от 27 декабря 2004 г «О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Балаковского муниципального района», в ред. Закона №41-ЗСО от 28 апреля 2015 г. «О преобразовании Быково-Отрогского, Еланского, Комсомольского, Кормежского, Красноярского, Маянгского, Наумовского, Новоелюзанского, Новополеводинского, Пылковского и Сухо-Отрогского муниципальных образований Балаковского муниципального района Саратовской области и внесении изменений в Закон Саратовской области "О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Балаковского муниципального района"». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №7–8 (1230–1231), 18 января 2005 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #103-ZSO of December 27, 2004 On the Municipal Formations Constituting Balakovsky Municipal District, as amended by the Law #41-ZSO of April 28, 2015 On the Transformation of Bykovo-Otrogskoye, Yelanskoye, Komsomolskoye, Kormezhskoye, Krasnoyarskoye, Mayangskoye, Naumovskoye, Novoyelyuzanskoye, Novopolevodinskoye, Pylkovskoye, and Sukho-Otrogskoye Municipal Formations in Balakovsky Municipal District of Saratov Oblast and on Amending the Law of Saratov Oblast "On the Municipal Formations Constituting Balakovsky Municipal District". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
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