Baden-Württemberg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Baden-Wurttemberg)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Baden-Württemberg
State of Germany
Flag of Baden-Württemberg
Flag
Coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg
Coat of arms
Deutschland Lage von Baden-Württemberg.svg
Coordinates: 48°32′16″N 9°2′28″E / 48.53778°N 9.04111°E / 48.53778; 9.04111
Country Germany
Capital Stuttgart
Government
 • Body Landtag of Baden-Württemberg
 • Minister-President Winfried Kretschmann (Greens)
 • Governing parties Greens / CDU
 • Bundesrat votes 6 (of 69)
Area[1]
 • Total 35,751.46 km2 (13,803.72 sq mi)
Population (2017-12-31)[2]
 • Total 11,023,424
 • Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code DE-BW
GDP (nominal) €477/ $561 billion (2016)[3]
GDP per capita €42,000/ $49,400 (2015)
NUTS Region DE1
Website www.baden-wuerttemberg.de
A campaign sticker, translated, "We can [do] anything. Except [speak] Standard German." This is an allusion to Baden-Württemberg being one of the principal centres for innovation in Germany and having its own distinctive dialects of Alemannic German.

Baden-Württemberg (/ˌbɑːdən ˈvɜːrtəmbɜːrɡ/;[4] German: [ˌbaːdn̩ ˈvʏʁtəmbɛʁk] (About this soundlisten)) is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 10.8 million inhabitants.[5] The state capital and largest city is Stuttgart.

The sobriquet Ländle ("small land" in the local Swabian and Alemannic German dialects) is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg.[6][7]

History

Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, and Württemberg, and also parts of Swabia.[8]

In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes (fortified boundary zone) along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.

The Holy Roman Empire was later established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics, even after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this mostly rural area to the United States for economic reasons.

20th century to present

After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Baden, and Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger.[5] Baden-Württemberg officially became a state in Germany on 25 April 1952.[5]

Geography

Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate, Hessen, and Bavaria, France (region of Grand Est), and Switzerland (cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Aargau, Zürich, Schaffhausen and Thurgau).[5]

Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream (from southwest to the center, then northwest) through the state past Tübingen, Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Heidelberg, and Mannheim.

The Rhine (German: Rhein) forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border. The Black Forest (Schwarzwald), the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, and the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance (Bodensee, also known regionally as the Swabian Sea) with Switzerland, Austria and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being clearly defined. It shares the foothills of the Alps (known as the Allgäu) with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land.

The Danube River (Donau) has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Täfelberg is a mountain located in the Northern Black Forest and is 565.2 m above sea level.

Government

Administration

Ulm

Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts (Landkreise) and nine independent cities (Stadtkreise), both grouped into the four Administrative Districts (Regierungsbezirke) of Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, and Tübingen.

Cities and Districts in Baden-Wuerttemberg.svg
Map

  1. Alb-Donau
  2. Biberach
  3. Bodensee
  4. Böblingen
  5. Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald
  6. Calw
  7. Konstanz (Constance)
  8. Emmendingen
  9. Enzkreis
  10. Esslingen
  11. Freudenstadt
  12. Göppingen
  13. Heidenheim
  14. Heilbronn
  15. Hohenlohe
  16. Karlsruhe
  17. Lörrach
  18. Ludwigsburg
  1. Main-Tauber
  2. Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis
  3. Ortenaukreis
  4. Ostalbkreis
  5. Rastatt
  6. Ravensburg
  7. Rems-Murr-Kreis
  8. Reutlingen
  9. Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
  10. Rottweil
  11. Schwäbisch Hall
  12. Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis
  13. Sigmaringen
  14. Tübingen
  15. Tuttlingen
  16. Waldshut
  17. Zollernalbkreis

Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district:

Code City
(stadtkreise)
Area (km2) Population
1997
Population
2007
Region
(regierungs-
bezirk
)
A Baden-Baden 140.18 52,672 54,853 Karlsruhe
B Freiburg im Breisgau 153.06 200,519 219,430 Freiburg
C Heidelberg 108.83 139,941 145,311 Karlsruhe
D Heilbronn 99.88 120,987 121,627 Stuttgart
E Karlsruhe 173.46 276,571 288,917 Karlsruhe
F Mannheim 144.96 310,475 309,795 Karlsruhe
G Pforzheim 98.02 118,079 119,423 Karlsruhe
H Stuttgart 207.35 585,274 597,176 Stuttgart
I Ulm 118.69 115,628 121,434 Tübingen

Politics

The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag (Eng. state assembly).

The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU), who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament.

From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag.[9]

2016 state election

e • d Summary of the 13 March 2016 Landtag of Baden-Württemberg elections results
< 2011  Flag of Baden-Württemberg.svg  Next >
Party Popular vote Seats
Votes % +/– Seats +/–
Alliance '90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
1,622,631 30.3 Increase6.1 47 Increase11
Christian Democratic Union
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands – CDU
1,447,249 27.0 Decrease12.0 42 Decrease18
Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland – AfD
809,311 15.1 Increase15.1 23 Increase23
Social Democratic Party
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands – SPD
679,872 12.7 Decrease10.4 19 Decrease16
Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei – FDP
445,430 8.3 Increase3.0 12 Increase5
Left Party
Die Linke
156,211 2.9 Increase0.1 0
Alliance for Progress and Renewal
Allianz für Fortschritt und Aufbruch – ALFA
54,764 1.0 Increase1.0 0
Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei – ÖDP
38,509 0.7 Decrease0.2 0
National Democratic Party
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands – NPD
23,605 0.4 Decrease0.6 0
Pirate Party
Piratenpartei
21,773 0.4 Decrease0.6 0
Other parties
Valid votes 5,360,351 99.0 Increase0.4
Invalid votes 51,950 1.0 Decrease0.4
Totals and voter turnout 5,412,301 70.4 Increase4.2 143 Increase5
Electorate 7,685,778 100.00
Source: Landeswahlleiter[10][11]

Other state institutions

The Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices.[12]

Economy

SAP headquarters in Walldorf

Although Baden-Württemberg has relatively few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany,[5] the state is among the most prosperous[8] and wealthiest regions in Europe with a generally low unemployment rate historically. A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Porsche, Robert Bosch GmbH (automobile industry), Carl Zeiss AG (optics), SAP SE (largest software enterprise in Europe) and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen (precision mechanical engineering). In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources (formerly lead, zinc, iron, silver, copper, and salts) and still rural in many areas, the region is heavily industrialised. In 2003, there were almost 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500. The latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy.[13] Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 exceeded 240,000 million, 43% of which came from exports. The region depends to some extent on global economic developments, though the great adaptability of the region's economy has generally helped it through crises. Half of the employees in the manufacturing industry are in mechanical and electrical engineering and automobile construction. This is also where the largest enterprises are to be found. The importance of the precision mechanics industry also extends beyond the region's borders, as does that of the optical, clock making, toy, metallurgy and electronics industries. The textile industry, which formerly dominated much of the region, has now all but disappeared from Baden-Württemberg. Research and development (R&D) is funded jointly by the State and industry. In 2001, more than a fifth of the 100,000 or so persons working in R&D in Germany were located in Baden-Württemberg, most of them in the Stuttgart area.[14] Baden-Württemberg is also one of the Four Motors for Europe.

A study performed in 2007 by the PR campaign "Initiative for New Social Market Economy" (German: Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM)) and the trade newspaper "Wirtschaftswoche" awarded Baden-Württemberg for being the "economically most successful and most dynamic state" among the 16 states.

The unemployment rate stood at 3% in October 2018 and was the second lowest in Germany behind only Bavaria and one of the lowest in the European Union.[15]

Year[16] 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Unemployment rate in % 5.4 4.9 5.4 6.2 6.2 7.0 6.3 4.9 4.1 5.1 4.9 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.5

Tourism

The Black Forest seen from the Belchen

Baden-Württemberg is a popular holiday destination. Main sights include the capital and biggest city, Stuttgart, modern and historic at the same time, with its urban architecture and atmosphere (and famously, its inner city parks and historic Wilhelma zoo), its castles (such as Castle Solitude), its (car and art) museums as well as a rich cultural programme (theatre, opera) and mineral spring baths in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt (also the site of a Roman Castra); it is the only major city in Germany with vineyards in an urban territory.

The residential (court) towns of Ludwigsburg and Karlsruhe, the spas and casino of luxurious Baden-Baden, the medieval architecture of Ulm (Ulm Münster is the tallest church in the world), the vibrant, young, but traditional university towns of Heidelberg and Tübingen with their old castles looking out above the river Neckar, are popular smaller towns. Sites of former monasteries such as the ones on Reichenau Island and at Maulbronn (both World Heritage Sites) as well as Bebenhausen Abbey are to be found. Baden-Württemberg also boasts rich old Free Imperial Cities such as Biberach, Esslingen am Neckar, Heilbronn, Ravensburg, Reutlingen, and Schwäbisch Hall, as well as the southernmost and sunniest city of Germany, Freiburg, close to Alsace and Switzerland, being an ideal base for exploring the heights of the nearby Black Forest (e.g., for skiing in winter or for hiking in summer) with its traditional villages and the surrounding wine country of the Rhine Valley of South Baden.[8]

The countryside of the lush Upper Neckar valley (where Rottweil is famous for its carnival (Fastnacht)) and the pristine Danube valley Swabian Alb (with Hohenzollern Castle and Sigmaringen Castle), as well as the largely pristine Swabian Forest, the Upper Rhine Valley, and Lake Constance (German: Bodensee), where all kinds of water sports are popular, with the former Imperial, today border town of Konstanz (where the Council of Constance took place), the Neolithic and Bronze Age village at Unteruhldingen, the flower island of Mainau, and the hometown of the Zeppelin, Friedrichshafen a.o., are especially popular for outdoor activities in the summer months.[8]

In spring and autumn (April/May and September/October), beer festivals (fun fairs) take place at the Cannstatter Wasen in Stuttgart. The Cannstatter Volksfest, in the autumn, is the second largest such festival in the world after the Munich Oktoberfest. In late November and early December Christmas markets are a tourist magnet in all major towns, with the largest being in Stuttgart during the three weeks prior to Christmas.

The Bertha Benz Memorial Route is a 194 km signposted scenic route from Mannheim via Heidelberg and Wiesloch to Pforzheim and back, which follows the route of the world's first long-distance journey by automobile which Bertha Benz undertook in August 1888.

Companies owned by Baden-Württemberg

Company Industry Percentage owned Source
EnBW Energy industry 45% [17]
Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus Beverage industry 100%

Education

The University Library Freiburg was reopened in 2015.
University of Karlsruhe, since 2009: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Baden-Württemberg is home to some of the oldest, most renowned, and prestigious universities in Germany, such as the universities of Heidelberg (founded in 1386, the oldest university within the territory of modern Germany), Freiburg (founded in 1457), and Tübingen (founded in 1477). It also contains three of the eleven German 'excellence universities' (Heidelberg, Tübingen, and Konstanz and formerly, Freiburg and Karlsruhe).

Other university towns are Mannheim and Ulm. Furthermore, two universities are located in the state capital Stuttgart, the University of Hohenheim, and the University of Stuttgart. Ludwigsburg is home to the renowned national film school Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg (Film Academy Baden-Wuerttemberg). The private International University in Germany was situated in Bruchsal, but closed in 2009. There is still another private university, located in Friedrichshafen, Zeppelin University.

Furthermore, there are more than a dozen Fachhochschulen, i.e., universities of applied sciences, as well as Pädagogische Hochschulen, i.e., teacher training colleges, and other institutions of tertiary education in Baden-Württemberg. (a.o. in Aalen, Biberach an der Riss, Esslingen, Karlsruhe, Ludwigsburg, Nürtingen, Pforzheim, Ravensburg-Weingarten, Reutlingen, several in Stuttgart, Schwäbisch Hall). Pforzheim University is one of the oldest Fachhochschulen in Germany which is renowned and highly ranked for its Engineering and MBA programs.

The state has the highest density of academic institutions of any territorial state (i.e., excluding the city states of Berlin and Hamburg) in Germany.

Dialects

Two dialect groups of German are spoken in Baden-Württemberg in various variants: Alemannic and Franconian dialects. In central and southern Württemberg, the Alemannic dialect of Swabian is spoken (slightly differing even within the area, e.g., between Upper Swabia, the Swabian Alb, and the central Neckar Valley of the Stuttgart region). In South Baden, the local dialects are Low Alemannic and High Alemannic (i.e., variants of what is also Swiss German). In the northern part of Baden, i.e., the former Kurpfalz (Electorate of the Palatinate) with the former capitals of Heidelberg and Mannheim, the idiom is Rhine Franconian (i.e., Palatinate German), while in the Northeast East Franconian is spoken.

The same or similar Alemannic dialects are also spoken in the neighbouring regions, especially in Bavarian Swabia, Alsace (Alsatian), German-speaking Switzerland (Swiss German), and the Austrian Vorarlberg, while the other Franconian dialects range from the Netherlands over the Rhineland, Lorraine, and Hesse up to northern Bavaria Franconia.

A variant of the Alemannic German of Baden developed into the Colonia Tovar dialect, spoken by descendants of immigrants from Baden who went to Venezuela in 1843.

Demographics

The population of Baden-Württemberg is 10,486,660 (2014), of which 5,354,105 are female and 5,132,555 are male. In 2006, the birth rate of 8.61 per 1000 was almost equal to the death rate of 8.60 per 1000. 14.87 percent of the population was under the age of 15, whereas the proportion of people aged 65 and older was at 18.99 per cent (2008). The dependency ratio - the ratio of people aged under 15 and over 64 in comparison to the working age population (aged 15–64) - was 512 per 1000 (2008).

Baden-Württemberg has long been a preferred destination of immigrants. As of 2013, almost 28% of its population had a migration background as defined by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany; this number clearly surpassed the German average of 21% and was higher than in any other German state with the exception of the city states of Hamburg and Bremen.[18] As of 2014, 9,355,239 of the population held German citizenship, whereas 1,131,421 were foreign nationals.[19]

 
Largest cities or towns in Baden-Württemberg
www.statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de
Rank Regierungsbezirk Pop.
Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Mannheim
Mannheim
1 Stuttgart Stuttgart (region) 613,392 Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
2 Mannheim Karlsruhe (region) 314,931
3 Karlsruhe Karlsruhe (region) 297,488
4 Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg (region) 229,144
5 Heidelberg Karlsruhe (region) 149,633
6 Heilbronn Stuttgart (region) 124,257
7 Ulm Tübingen (region) 123,672
8 Pforzheim Karlsruhe (region) 120,709
9 Reutlingen Tübingen (region) 112,735
10 Esslingen am Neckar Stuttgart (region) 92,629

Vital statistics

[20]

  • Births from January-March 2017 = Increase 25,454
  • Births from January-March 2018 = Decrease 25,161
  • Deaths from January-March 2017 = Negative increase 31,767
  • Deaths from January-March 2018 = Positive decrease 31,725
  • Natural growth from January-March 2017 = Increase -6,313
  • Natural growth from January-March 2018 = Decrease -6,564

Religion

Religion in Baden-Württemberg, 2011[21]
religion percent
Roman Catholics
37%
EKD Protestants
33%
Muslims
6%
Other religions or none
24%

Northern and most of central Württemberg has been traditionally Protestant (particularly Lutheran) since the Reformation in 1534 (with its centre at the famous Tübinger Stift). The former Electorate of the Palatinate (Northwestern Baden) with its capital Heidelberg was shaped by Calvinism before being integrated into Baden. Upper Swabia, and the Upper Neckar Valley up to the bishop seat of Rottenburg, and Southern Baden (the Catholic archbishop has its seat in Freiburg) have traditionally been bastions of Roman Catholicism.

Foreigners

Largest communities of foreigners are listed below : (by 31.12.2017)

 Turkey 257,310
 Italy 182,185
 Romania 131,000
 Croatia 109,500
 Poland 84,340
 Greece 81,150
 Syria 73,705
 Kosovo 55,235
 Hungary 50,025
 Serbia 41,445
 Bulgaria 38,035
 Bosnia-Herzegovina 37,125
 Iraq 29,905
 France 29,880
 Russia 29,860
 Portugal 29,515
 Austria 27,045
 Spain 25,195
 Afghanistan 23,215
 China 21,465

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "The State and its people". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.
  3. ^ Baden-Württemberg, Statistisches Landesamt. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – in Deutschland 1991 bis 2016 nach Bundesländern (WZ 2008) – VGR dL". www.vgrdl.de.
  4. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
  5. ^ a b c d e "Our State". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  6. ^ "man-English Dictionary: ["little country"; local nickname for the state of Baden Wuerttemberg]". dict.cc. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  7. ^ "Baden-Württemberg: Kein schöner Ländle". ZEIT MAGAZIN. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Andrea Schulte-Peevers; Anthony Haywood; Sarah Johnstone; Jeremy Gray; Daniel Robinson (2007). Germany. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-988-7. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  9. ^ The Republikaner(REP): 15 from 146 MPs in 1992 and 14 from 155 MPs in 1996. "Baden-Württemberg. Results of the election from 1964–2011". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
  10. ^ "Landtagswahl 2016 - Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg". statistik-bw.de.
  11. ^ tagesschau.de. "tagesschau.de". wahl.tagesschau.de.
  12. ^ "Government and organs of state". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  13. ^ Cooke, p. 84
  14. ^ "BADEN – WÜRTTEMBERG – Economy". Eurostat. June 2004. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
  15. ^ "Arbeitslosenquote nach Bundesländern in Deutschland 2018 | Statista". Statista (in German). Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  16. ^ (Destatis),, © Statistisches Bundesamt (2018-11-13). "Federal Statistical Office Germany - GENESIS-Online". www-genesis.destatis.de. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  17. ^ Haase, Nina (30 March 2011). "Business leaders wary of Greens' state election victory". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Bevölkerung 2013 nach Migrationshintergrund und Ländern". Statistisches Bundesamt. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  19. ^ "Government and organs of state". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  20. ^ "Gebiet und Bevölkerung". Statistik Portal. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  21. ^ "Religionszugehörigkeit nach Bundesländern in Deutschland - Statista". Statista.

References

  • Philip Cooke, Kevin Morgan (1998). The Associational Economy: Firms, Regions, and Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-19-829659-1.
  • Climate change in Baden-Württemberg: facts – impacts – perspectives / LUBW; Baden-Württemberg, Ministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Verkehr. [In collab. with Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research; Süddeutsches Klimabüro. Transl.: InTra eG Fachübersetzergenossenschaft], Stuttgart: Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Transport Karlsruhe: LUBW, 2010.

External links

  • Official website
  • Baden-Württemberg at Curlie
  • Geographic data related to Baden-Württemberg at OpenStreetMap

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baden-Württemberg&oldid=868638985"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baden-Wurttemberg
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Baden-Württemberg"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA