Awadhi language

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Awadhi
अवधी
Native to India, Nepal, Fiji (as Fijian Hindustani)[1]
Region Awadh and Lower Doab regions in Uttar Pradesh and Nepal and adjacent areas of neighboring states
Ethnicity Awadhis
Native speakers
3 million (2001)[1]
501,752 in Nepal (2011)[2] Census results conflate most speakers with Hindi.[3]
Devanagari, Kaithi, Perso-Arabic
Official status
Official language in
 Fiji (as Fiji Hindi)
   Nepal
Language codes
ISO 639-2 awa
ISO 639-3 awainclusive code
Individual codes:
hns – Caribbean Hindustani
hif – Fiji Hindi
Glottolog awad1243[4]

Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal. Awadhi was classified as Eastern Hindi by George Abraham Grierson, who commissioned the Linguistic Survey of India.[5]

Geographical distribution

Awadhi is spoken in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh. The dialect can be found in the following districts:

Vocabulary

Kinship

English Awadhi
Mother Mahtari / Maai / Amma
Father Baap / bappa / abba / Babu
Brother Bhaiya / Bhai / Bhaijan / Daada
Sister Bhaini / Didiya / didda / bachchi
Son Put / Beta / lerka / launda / ladika
Daughter Bitiya / ladiki / bitti
Grandfather Daada (paternal) / Nana (maternal) / aaja / baba / babu
Grandmother Daadi (paternal) / Nani (maternal) / aaaji / ajiya / Amma
Brother-in-law Devar / Saala=saar / Jeeja=bahnoi
Sister-in-law Bhauji / Saali=saari / Nanad=nand / Sarhaj
Uncle Chacha / Kaka (paternal), Phupha (paternal, by marriage) / Mama (maternal), Mausiya (maternal, by marriage)
Aunty Chachi / Kaki (paternal, by marriage), Bua or Phua (paternal) / Mami or Mayi (maternal, by marriage), Mausi (maternal)

Color

English Awadhi
Red Laal
Yellow Peela or Piyar
Orange Nevrangi
Green Hara or Hariyar
Blue Asmani
Black Kariya
Brown Bhura or Bhuwar
Maroon Katthai/Kathha
White Ujar
pink gulabi

Name of days

English Awadhi
Monday Somwaar, sammar,Som
Tuesday Mangar
Wednesday Buddh
Thursday Biphai, jumerat
Friday Sook, juma
Saturday Sanicchar
Sunday Ittvar, attavar

Interrogatives

English Awadhi
What Kaa/ Kya / kaav
Why Kaahe
Where Kahan
When Kab
Who Ko / Kay
Which Kaun
How Kaise
Whom Kikai or Kaykai
Whose kikai (normal) or kaykai
What stuff Kaa chij
Which stuff Kaun chij

Months

No. हिंदी Hindi Awadhi अवधी संस्कृत Sanskrit
1 चैत Chait Chait चइत चैत्र Chaitra
2 बैसाख Baisakh Baisakh बैसाख वैशाख Vaishakha
3 जेठ Jeth Jeth जेठ ज्येष्ठ Jyeshtha
4 अषाढ़ Asharh Asarh अषाढ़ आषाढ Asharha
5 सावन Sawan Sawan सावन श्रावण Shravana
6 भादो Bhado Bhado भादो भाद्रपद,भाद्र,प्रोष्ठपद Bhadrapada
7 आश्विन Ashwin Kuwar कुवार आश्विन Ashwina
8 कार्तिक Kartik Katik कातिक कार्तिक Kartika
9 अग्रहन Agrahan Agahan अगहन अग्रहायण,मार्गशीर्ष Agrahaayana
10 पौष Paus Poos पूस पौष Pausha
11 माघ Magh Magh माघ माघ Maagha
12 फाल्गुन Phalgun Phagun फागुन फाल्गुन Phalguna

Literature

Important works in Awadhi are the Candayan of Maulana Da’ud, the Padmavat of Malik Mohammad Jaisi (1540 A.D.), the Ramcharitmanas and Hanuman Chalisa of Tulsidas (1575 A.D.), and Indravati by Nur Muhammad (1757 A.D.).[6]

Popular culture

Bollywood star Amitabh Bachhan has a noted propensity for switching to Awadhi in his many movies and songs like Rang Barse Bhige Chunar Wali from Silsila, Holi Khele Raghuvira Awadh Mein from Baghban, and Ek Rahe Eer Ek Rahe Beer from Bhootnath. Recently in the serial Yudh which aired on Sony Entertainment Television (India), Bachchan spoke parts of his dialogue in Awadhi which were received with critical acclaim. According to the Hindustan Times: "We simply loved Amitabh Bachchan speaking Awadhi on TV! Only an actor of his calibre could transform himself from a high-class English speaking businessman to rattle off the dialogues in Awadhi. He has done it in the past for a few Bollywood and regional films, but not as regularly as one would have liked him, to show off grasp over the language. It was great to see him speak in fluent Awadhi in Wednesday's episode."[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Awadhi at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
    Caribbean Hindustani at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
    Fiji Hindi at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/wphc/Nepal/Nepal-Census-2011-Vol1.pdf
  3. ^ "Census of India: Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues –2001". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Awadhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. ^ "The Record News". Retrieved 24 February 2017. 
  6. ^ "Evolution of Awadhi (a Branch of Hindi). - Baburam Saksena - Google Books". Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 
  7. ^ "Yudh review: Amitabh Bachchan's show limps back to sluggish pace". Hindustantimes.com. 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2015-03-02. 

External links

  • Entry for Awadhi at SIL International
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