Avro Avian

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Avian
Avro avian.jpg
Bert Hinkler's Avro Avian displayed at the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Australia
Role Tourer/Trainer
Manufacturer Avro
Designer Roy Chadwick[1]
First flight 1926
Introduction 1927
Primary users Private pilot owners
Royal Canadian Air Force
South African Air Force
Chinese Naval Air Service
Estonian Air Force
Produced 1926–1928
Number built 405

The Avro Avian was a series of British light aircraft designed and built by Avro in the 1920s and 1930s. While the various versions of the Avian were sound aircraft, they were comprehensively outsold by the de Havilland Moth and its descendants.

Design and development

The Avro 581 Avian prototype was designed and built to compete in the Lympne light aircraft trials at Lympne Aerodrome in September 1926. Its wooden fuselage was based on that of the Avro 576 autogyro, but it was fitted with conventional biplane wings and powered by a 70 hp (50 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Genet engine.[1] It performed well at the trials, but was eliminated due to engine failure.

Avian IV, SE-ADT preserved in good condition and displayed in a café in a shopping center at Arlanda Stad close to Stockholm – Arlanda Airport, Sweden

In early 1927 it was re-engined with an 85 hp (63 kW) ADC Cirrus engine as the Type 581A and sold to Bert Hinkler.

Production aircraft were designated Type 594 and were built in a number of versions, mainly powered by Cirrus engines.[2] A version with a welded steel tube fuselage was produced in 1929 as the Avro 616 Avian IVM to meet overseas requirements for an easier-to-repair structure.[3] This version was built in the largest numbers, with approximately 190 built.[4]

The Avian was also produced under licence in Canada, by Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company in Ottawa, Ontario.[5]

Operational history

While outsold by the de Havilland Moth and its derivatives, which first flew more than a year earlier than the Avian, the Avian was used extensively as a civil tourer or trainer, with many being sold overseas, Avians being licence-built (or assembed) by the Whittesley Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA, and the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company, Canada,[6] as well as by Avro itself.[7]

After further modifications to wings and undercarriage as the Avro 581E, Hinkler used this aircraft for a series of long-distance flights, culminating in a 15½-day solo flight from Croydon, UK to Darwin, Australia.[8] In 1998 Lang Kidby recreated this flight in a 1927 Type 594 Avian VH-UFZ (ex G-AUFZ)

Avro Avian 594 Avian III (SN R3/AV/101) was owned by Lady Mary Heath and Amelia Earhart. Earhart's Avian had an 84 hp (63 kW) Cirrus Mk II engine. It was originally registered to Lady Heath on 29 October 1927 and given the UK aircraft marking G-EBUG. When Earhart brought it to the United States it was assigned "unlicensed aircraft identification mark" 7083; aircraft not officially certificated in the United States were allowed to be flown as unlicensed but identified aircraft. Avian 7083 was used on Earhart's first long solo flight, which occurred just as Amelia was coming into the national spotlight. By making the trip in August 1928, she became the first woman to fly solo across the North American continent and back. In 2001 Carlene Mendita recreated this flight in Greg Herrick's Type 594 Avian which he had purchased from Lang Kidby. At the time Herrick purchased the Avian from Kidby, two years prior, it was the oldest flying aircraft in Australia. It is now based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Wilfrid R. "Wop" May used a 594 to make his famous January 1929 mercy flight with diphtheria antitoxin from Edmonton to Fort Vermilion, Alberta.[9]

StateLibQld 1 162403 Bert Hinkler's Avro G-EBOV at Camooweal, 1928.jpg

An Avian (Red Rose) was used by Bill Lancaster on a successful long distance flight to Australia, and another (Southern Cross Minor) on his final record attempt to South Africa in 1933.

In July 1930, Winifred Brown won the King's Cup Race flying Cirrus III Avian.[10] One Avian, piloted by Sydney Thorn, took part in the Challenge International de Tourisme 1930 with moderate success (16th place).

On 7 January 1931, Guy Menzies flew an Avian, the Southern Cross Junior, from Australia to New Zealand. He was the first person to fly solo across the Tasman Sea.

A single Genet-powered Avian II was bought by the Royal Air Force, while Avians were also bought by the South African Air Force, the Chinese Naval Air Service, the Estonian Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force.

Famed aviator Beryl Markham used an Avian extensively in East Africa in the 1930s.

Variants

The wreckage of the Southern Cross Minor recovered from the Sahara Desert and displayed at the Queensland Museum
Avro 581 Avian
First prototype, one 70 hp (52 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Genet.[1]
Avro 581A
Modified first prototype, one 85 hp (63 kW) ADC Cirrus and reduced span wings.[11]
Avro 581E
Further modified Avro 581A for long distance flights, with new wings and modified fuselage.[12]
Avro 594 Avian I
Preproduction aircraft, two built.
Avro 594 Avian II
Initial production, 85 hp (63 kW) Cirrus II engine, nine built.
Avro 594 Avian III
Modified engine mount and tubular steel struts, 33 built.
Avro 594 Avian IIIA
95 hp (71 kW) Cirrus III engine, 58 built.
Avro 594 Avian IV
Revised undercarriage and ailerons, 90 built.
Avro 605 Avian
Two Avro 594 Avian IIIs were converted into floatplanes.
Avro 616 Avian IVM
Steel tube fuselage. Powered by 105 hp (78 kW) Cirrus Hermes I or 100 hp (75 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major, approximately 190 built.
Avro 616 Sports Avian
Version for racing with reduced drag, 16 built.
Avro 616 Avian IVA
modified one-off long range version for Charles Kingsford Smith, Southern Cross Junior, 120 hp (90 kW) de Havilland Gipsy II engine, with additional fuel tank and revised 30 ft span wings.[13]
Avro 616 Avian V
Long range single-seater again built for Charles Kingsford Smith, Southern Cross Minor. Bill Lancaster would later attempt to fly solo from England to South Africa in this aircraft, and die in the attempt.
Avro 625 Avian Monoplane
Low-wing monoplane development, two built.

Operators

Military operators

 Canada
 China
 Estonia
 South Africa
 Spain
 Spain
 United Kingdom

Surviving aircraft

Replica of Wop May's Avian at Fort Edmonton Park, Edmonton, Alberta.

Specifications (Avian IVM)

Avro Avian III 3-view drawing from NACA Aircraft Circular No.70

Data from British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume 1[32]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two
  • Length: 24 ft 3 in (7.39 m)
  • Wingspan: 28 ft 0 in (8.53 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m)
  • Wing area: 245 ft² (22.8 m²)
  • Empty weight: 1,005 lb (456 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 1,523 lb (691 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × A.D.C Cirrus Hermes I inline piston engine, 105 hp (78 kW)

Performance

See also

  • Wop May "The Race against Death – Mercy flight in an Avian."

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Jackson 1990, p. 241.
  2. ^ Jackson 1990, pp. 249, 256.
  3. ^ Jackson 1990, p. 265.
  4. ^ Donald 1997, pp. 78–79.
  5. ^ Payne, Stephen, ed. Canadian Wings (Douglas & McIntyre, Ltd., 2006), p.162 & p.163 caption.
  6. ^ Payne, p.162.
  7. ^ Jackson 1990, p. 273.
  8. ^ Jackson 1974, p. 114.
  9. ^ Payne, pp.162–163.
  10. ^ "The King's Cup: Miss W. Brown's Win, A Record Entry." Flight, 11 July 1930 via flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 12 June 2010.
  11. ^ Jackson 1990, p. 243.
  12. ^ Jackson 1990, pp. 243–245.
  13. ^ Jackson 1974, p. 120
  14. ^ Aircraft that took part in the Spanish Civil War
  15. ^ "Moving: Wheels, Wind, Water". Queensland Museum. The State of Queensland. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  16. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Avro 581 Avian, c/n 5116, c/r G-EBOV". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  17. ^ "Bert Hinkler & Avro Avian G-EBOV – c.1928". The Airways Museum & Civil Aviation Historical Society. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  18. ^ "1927 Avro Avian". Golden Wings Flying Museum. Golden Wings Flying Museum. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  19. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N7083]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  20. ^ "Air and Space Hall". Museum of Science & Industry. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  21. ^ "AIRCRAFT". The Aeroplane Collection. The Aeroplane Collection. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  22. ^ "[Untitled]". The Aeroplane Collection. The Aeroplane Collection. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  23. ^ "AVRO AVIAN IVM". Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Canada Science and Technology Museums Corporation. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  24. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Avro 581/594/605/616/625 / Avian, c/n R3/CN/314, c/r CF-CDQ". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  25. ^ Trussell, George (23 July 2008). "AVRO 616 AVIAN IVM, CF-CDV / 316, REYNOLDS ALBERTA MUSEUM". ABPic. Air-Britain. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  26. ^ "Flygaren Allen Widman och hans maskiner" (in Sweden). Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  27. ^ "Aircraft Register [VH-UVX]". Australian Government Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  28. ^ "VH-UVX Avro 616 Avian IVM". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  29. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Avro Avian IV, c/n R3/CN/531, c/r VH-UQE". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  30. ^ "Aircraft Register [VH-UQE]". Australian Government Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  31. ^ "Aircraft G-CAVB Data". Airport-Data.com. Airport-Data.com. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  32. ^ Jackson 1974, p.123.
  33. ^ a b Jackson 1990, p. 272.
Bibliography
  • Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  • Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 2nd edition, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  • Jackson, A.J. British Civil Aircraft since 1919, Volume 1. London: Putnam, 1974. ISBN 0-370-10006-9.

External links

  • NACA Aircraft Circular, Avro Avian (Genet engine)
  • NACA aircraft circular, Avian III
  • British Aircraft of WWII
  • RCAF Avro Avian
  • The Long-Range Avian. Full Details of Kingsford-Smith's Machine., Flight, 31 October 1930
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