Avro Anson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anson
CF15 Avro Anson ZK-RRA 040415 01.jpg
Avro Anson ZK-RRA in flight, Classic Fighters Airshow (2015)
Role Multirole aircraft, primarily a trainer
National origin United Kingdom
Manufacturer Avro
First flight 24 March 1935
Introduction 1936
Retired 28 June 1968 (RAF)
Status One Flying, otherwise retired.
Primary users Royal Air Force
Fleet Air Arm
Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
Produced 1930s–1952
Number built 11,020
Developed from Avro 652

The Avro Anson is a British twin-engined, multi-role aircraft built by aircraft manufacturer Avro. Large numbers of the type served in a variety of roles for the Royal Air Force (RAF), Fleet Air Arm (FAA), Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and numerous other air forces before, during, and after the Second World War.

Initially known as the Avro 652A, the Anson was developed during the mid-1930s from the earlier Avro 652 airliner in response to a request for tenders issued by the British Air Ministry for a maritime reconnaissance aircraft. Having suitably impressed the Ministry, a single prototype was ordered, which conducted its maiden flight on 24 March 1935. Following an evaluation in which the Type 652A bettered the competing de Havilland DH.89, it was selected as the winner, leading to Air Ministry Specification 18/35 being written around the type and an initial order for 174 aircraft being ordered in July 1935. The Type 652A was promptly named after British Admiral George Anson.

The type was placed into service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and was initially used in the envisioned maritime reconnaissance operation alongside the larger flying boats. However, by the outbreak of the Second World War, the Anson was soon found to have become obsolete in front line combat roles. However, large numbers of the type were put to use as a multi-engined aircrew trainer, having been found to be suitable for the role, and became the mainstay of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The type continued to be used in this role throughout and after the conflict, remaining in RAF service as a trainer and communications aircraft until 28 June 1968.

During the post-war climate, the Anson was increasingly produced for the civil market, being used as a light transport and executive aircraft. By the end of production in 1952, a total of 8,138 Ansons had been constructed by Avro in nine variants; in addition, a further 2,882 aircraft were manufactured by Federal Aircraft Ltd in Canada from 1941. By the 21st century, the vast majority of Ansons had been retired from flying. However, a single Anson Mk.I, which had been originally manufactured during 1943, had been restored to airworthiness, having been refitted with later metal wings. On 18 July 2012, this restored aircraft performed its first flight.

Development

In 1933, the British Air Ministry proposed that the Royal Air Force (RAF) acquire a relatively cheap landplane for coastal maritime reconnaissance duties; the proposed aircraft would perform as a supplement to the more capable, but expensive, flying boats which the RAF had adopted for conducting maritime reconnaissance missions. The Air Ministry requested tenders from major aircraft manufacturers to produce a suitable aircraft in order to meet this requirement. Avro decided to respond to the request with the Avro 652A, which was a modified version of the earlier Avro 652, a twin-engined, six-seat monoplane airliner. After evaluating the various submissions received, the Air Ministry decided to place a pair of orders, with Avro and de Havilland respectively, to manufacture single examples of the Type 652A and the de Havilland DH.89 for evaluation purposes in order to meet this requirement late in 1934; an evaluation and the subsequent selection of a design for production to take place by May 1935.[1][2]

On 24 March 1935, the Avro 652A conducted its maiden flight at Woodford Aerodrome, Greater Manchester. Between 11 and 17 May 1935, the prototype participated in a formal evaluation against the competing DH.89M by the RAF's Coastal Defence Development Unit at RAF Gosport, Hampshire. During these trials, the Avro aircraft proved to be superior and was accordingly selected as the winner of the competition on 25 May 1935.[3] In response to its selection, Air Ministry Specification 18/35 was written around the Type 652A; in July 1935, an initial order for 174 aircraft, which had been given the name "Anson", was received.[4]

On 31 December 1935, the first production Anson performed its maiden flight; changes from the prototype included an enlarged horizonal tailplane and reduced Elevator span in order to improve stability. Additionally, while the prototype had not been fitted with flaps, production aircraft could accommodate their installation from the onset to increase the viable glide angle and reduce landing speed.[5] On 6 March 1936, deliveries to the RAF commenced.[6] By the end of production in 1952, a total of 11,020 Ansons had been completed, which made it the second most numerous (after the Vickers Wellington) British multi-engined aircraft of the Second World War.[7]

Design

The interior of an Anson C Mark XI, looking forward from the passenger compartment towards the cockpit

The Avro Anson was a twin-engine, low-wing cantilever monoplane. Developed as a general reconnaissance aircraft, it possessed many features that lent itself to the role, including considerable load-carrying ability, and long range.[8] The structure of the Anson was relatively straightforward and uncomplicated, relying on proven methods and robust construction to produce an airframe that minimised maintenance requirements.[8] Much of the internal structure had retained similar to the earlier Avro 652 airliner from which it had been developed. The Anson Mk I was furnished with a low-mounted one-piece wooden wing, composed of a combination of plywood and spruce throughout the wingbox and ribs. The fuselage was composed of a welded steel tubing framework which was principally clad in fabric; the exterior of the nose was clad in magnesium alloy.[8]

The Anson was powered by a pair of Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IX seven-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, which were each rated at 350 horsepower (260 kW).[9][5] Each engine was provided with its own duplicated fuel pumps and separate fuel and oil tanks; the tanks were composed of welded aluminium and mounted in cradles housed within the wing. The engine cowling were intentionally designed to have a reduced diameter in order to reduce their negative impact upon external visibility, which was considered to be valuable to the type's reconnaissance function.[8] These engines each drove a set of two-bladed Fairey-built metal propellers.[5]

The Anson was equipped with a retractable undercarriage arrangement, which was uncommon upon its introduction; it holds the distinction of being the first aircraft to feature such an innovation to enter service with the RAF.[8][10] While the main undercarriage was retracted into recesses set into the bottom of the engine nacelles, the tail wheel was fixed in position. Commonly, the undercarriage was fitted with Dunlop-built wheels, tyres and pneumatic brakes and Turner legs.[5] The retractable undercarriage was mechanically operated; this mechanism also had a manually operated backup, in which a total of 144 turns of a crank handle, situated besides the pilot's seat, was necessitated.[11][12] To forgo this laborious process, early aircraft would often perform short flights with the landing gear remaining extended throughout, which would reduce the aircraft's cruising speed by 30 mph (50 km/h).[7]

G-VROE, a preserved Anson C.21 operated by the Classic Air Force, 2005

Initially, the Anson was flown with a three-man crew, which comprised a pilot, a navigator/bomb-aimer and a radio operator/gunner, when it was used in the maritime reconnaissance role;[13] from 1938 onwards, it was typically operated by a four-man crew.[14] The bomb-aimer would perform his function from a prone position in the forward section of the nose, which was provisioned with a bombsight, driftsight, and other appropriate instrumentation, including a landing light. The pilot was located in a cockpit behind the bomb-aimer's position and was provided with a variety of contemporary instrumentation, including those to enable flight under instrument flight rules (IFR) and indirect instrument lighting for night flying purposes.[15]

Immediately behind the pilot's position is a small folding seat fixed to the starboard side of the fuselage for an additional crew member or passenger, along with racks that would contain a pair of parachute packs that would be clipped onto the harnesses worn by both the pilot and the navigator. Behind these is the navigator's station, a chair and table provisioned with navigational aids such as compasses, Bigsworth chart boards, sea markers, calculators for course, wind and speed, a signalling lamp and float flares.[13] Aft of the rear spar is the wireless operator's station, this being a table furnished with contemporary wireless apparatus of the era, including a winch for the trailing aerial, which was attached to the upper fuselage immediately behind the aircraft's cockpit.[13]

The defensive armaments of the Anson consisted of a single .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun which was fixed within the forward fuselage and aimed by the pilot, while an Armstrong Whitworth-built manually operated gun turret located on the Anson's dorsal section was fitted with a single Lewis gun.[13] Additionally, up to 360 pounds (160 kg) of bombs, which could consist of a maximum of two 100 pounds (45 kg) and eight 20 pounds (9 kg) bombs, could be carried in the aircraft's wings.[16] Those Ansons that were used in the training role were outfitted with dual controls and usually had the gun turret removed, although specific aircraft used for gunnery training were fitted with a Bristol hydraulically operated gun turret, similar to that used in the Bristol Blenheim.[17][18] The tail fairing of the starboard nacelle contains an inflatable dinghy which is provided with automatic actuators and marine distress beacons.[13]

Operational history

On 6 March 1936, the Anson entered RAF service, No. 48 Squadron was the first RAF unit to be equipped with the type. Upon the type's introduction, it represented a new level of capability for the service, serving not only in a general reconnaissance capacity but also being an effective general-purpose aircraft [8] By the outbreak of the Second World War, the RAF had received a total of 824 Ansons while there were 26 RAF squadrons that were then operating the Anson I: 10 of these were assigned to Coastal Command and the other 16 were with Bomber Command.[19]

By 1939, all of the squadrons assigned to Bomber Command that had been equipped with the Anson I served as operational training squadrons which were used to prepare crews for frontline service. 12 of the squadrons were in No. 6 (Operational Training) Group. Newly formed crews, having previously completed individual flying and technical training courses, were first trained as bomber crews in Ansons before they would advance to the various frontline aircraft types, which were also in the same squadrons with the Ansons. After training in the frontline aircraft type, crews would advance to the frontline bomber squadrons with those aircraft types (Fairey Battle, Bristol Blenheim, Vickers Wellington, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, and Handley-Page Hampden). At the start of the war, the Lockheed Hudson was beginning to replace the Ansons in Coastal Command, one squadron having been fully equipped with Hudsons and another with both Ansons and Hudsons.

An Anson of No. 320 (Netherlands) Squadron, Coastal Command, about to take off on a patrol mission, circa 1940–1941

Limited numbers of Ansons continued to serve in operational roles such as coastal patrols and air/sea rescue. Early in the war, an Anson scored a probable hit on a German U-boat[citation needed]. In June 1940, a flight of three Ansons was attacked by nine Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 109s. Remarkably, before the dogfight ended, without losing any of their own, one of the Ansons had destroyed two German aircraft and damaged a third.[20]

The aircraft's true role, however, was to train pilots for flying multi-engined bombers, such as the Avro Lancaster. The Anson was also used to train the other members of a bomber's aircrew, such as navigators, wireless operators, bomb aimers and air gunners. Postwar, the Anson continued in the training and light transport roles. The last Ansons were finally withdrawn from RAF service with communications units on 28 June 1968.[7]

During the 1939–45 war years, the British Air Transport Auxiliary operated the Anson as its standard taxi aircraft, using it to carry groups of ferry pilots to and from aircraft collection points. There was no fatal mechanical failure of an Anson in ATA service, and it was typically very well regarded.[21]

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) operated a total 1,028 Ansons, the majority of these being Mk Is. These aircraft continued to be operated until 1955.[22]

The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) operated 23 Ansons as navigation trainers during the Second World War, (alongside the more numerous Airspeed Oxford), and acquired more Ansons as communication aircraft immediately after the war. A preserved navigation trainer is in the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum at Wigram.

The Royal Indian Air Force operated several Ansons as part of the No.1 Service Flying Training School (India) for Pilot and Navigation training. These Ansons continued this role post-independence and were retired at an unknown date.[23]

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) operated the aircraft until 1952. Although the Canadian Ansons were used throughout the training schools of the British Commonwealth Air Training plan for training aircrew, some aircraft were pressed into operational service with the RCAF's Eastern Air Command. A good example of the training schools involvement in combat operations with the EAC during the emergency of the battle is illustrated in an article dated 1 March 2006 of the Royal Canadian Legion magazine entitled Eastern Air Command: Air Force, Part 14; the author Hugh A. Haliday wrote: "The need for Atlantic patrols was undiminished, yet the Battle of the St. Lawrence stretched EAC resources. Based at Charlottetown, 31 General Reconnaissance School was mobilized to fly patrols using Avro Ansons, each carrying two, 250-pound bombs. At the very outset of the war the Anson and its ordnance had failed in RAF anti-submarine work. Now in Canada it was remobilized as an aerial scarecrow. German views varied as to Canadian countermeasures. The captain of U-517 found his operations increasingly restricted by strengthened air patrols. In October 1942, U-69 reported “strong sea patrol and constant patrol by aircraft with radar."

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), employed 50 Canadian-built Ansons, which were designated the AT-20.

The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) operated a fleet of Ansons in communications and VIP duties. A specially outfitted Anson was presented to the then King of Egypt by the RAF. The Royal Afghan Air Force obtained 13 Anson 18 aircraft for various duties from 1948. These aircraft survived until 1972.

Postwar civil use

Anson 11 G-ALIH of Ekco Electronics at Blackbushe, Hants, in September 1955

After the war, Ansons continued in production with Avro at Woodford. At this time, large amounts of the type were being produced for civilian use, where they were operated as light transports by a range of small charter airlines and as executive aircraft by large corporations. Countries which saw civilian operations with Ansons included the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Denmark.

An Anson XIX, which had been operated for aerial survey work in the United Kingdom up to 1973

Railway Air Services operated Ansons on scheduled services from London's Croydon Airport via Manchester to Belfast (Nutts Corner) in 1946 and 1947. Sivewright Airways operated three Mk XIX aircraft from their Manchester Airport base on charter flights as far as Johannesburg and on scheduled flights to Ronaldsway Airport in the Isle of Man until 1951. Finglands Airways operated an ex-RAF Anson I on inclusive tour flights and on scheduled flights from Manchester Airport to Newquay Airport between 1949 and 1952. Kemps Aerial Surveys operated several Anson XIXs on survey work within the UK until their retirement in 1973.[24]

In 1948, India ordered 12 new Anson 18Cs for use by the Directorate of Civil Aviation as trainers and communications aircraft; these were delivered from Yeadon in the spring of 1949.[25]

Ansons continued to be manufactured by Avro at Woodford for the RAF until March 1952; the type was used as trainers and served in the role of Station communications aircraft until 1968.

The wooden wings of Ansons flying in Australia were found to fail at a high rate. The phenolic glue bonds would part, and it was speculated that the problem was due to the high humidity. In 1962, the Commonwealth Government decided to ground the majority of wooden-winged aircraft then in operation; amongst those aircraft affected, the Anson and De Havilland Mosquito were included. Of the Ansons, no such aircraft were re-registered as the government had mandated a test that essentially destroyed the wings, thus requiring the fitting of new wings. Most owners decided to voluntarily scrap their aircraft well before this time.

By the 21st century, the vast majority of Ansons had been retired from flying. However, a single Anson Mk.I, which had been originally manufactured during 1943, had been restored to airworthiness, having been refitted with later metal wings. On 18 July 2012, this restored aircraft returned to the air in Nelson, New Zealand.[26]

Accidents and incidents

Rear three-quarter view of two military monoplanes lying wheels down on a field, one atop the other
The two Ansons involved in the Brocklesby mid-air collision of 1940 lying interlocked in a paddock
Two military monoplanes lying wheels down on a field, one atop the other
Engines and forward sections of the two Ansons

Variants

The main Anson variant was the Mk I, of which 6,704 were built in Britain. The other variants were mainly distinguished by their powerplant with Canadian-built Ansons using local engines. To overcome steel shortages, the 1,051 Canadian-built Mk V Ansons featured a plywood fuselage.

Sergeant, No. 14 (P) Squadron, RCAF, installing a vertical camera in an Avro Anson V, Rockcliffe, Ont., 4 July 1944
Mk I
6,688 Mk Is were built. Powered by two 350 hp (261 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IX or 395 hp (295 kW) XIX engines.
Mk II
1,822 Mk IIs were built in Canada; powered by two 330 hp (246 kW) Jacobs L-6MB R-915 engines and fitted with hydraulic landing gear retraction rather than the manual system used on the Anson I.
Mk III
Powered by two 330 hp (250 kW) L-6MB R-915 engines; British-built.
Mk IV
Powered by two Wright Whirlwind engines; British-built.
Mk V
1,069 Mk Vs were built in Canada for navigator training; powered by two 450 hp (340 kW) Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior R-985 engines and given a new locally developed wood monocoque fuselage.
Mk VI
One aircraft was built in Canada for bombing and gunnery training; it was powered by two 450 hp (340 kW) Wasp Junior engines.
Mk X
104 Anson Mk Is were converted into Mk Xs.
Mk XI
90 Anson Mk Is were converted into Mk XIs.
Mk XII
20 Anson Mk Is were converted into Mk XIIs, plus 221 new Mk XII aircraft built.
Mk XIII
Gunnery trainer powered by two Cheetah XI or XIX engines; never built.
Mk XIV
Gunnery trainer powered by two Cheetah XV engines; never built.
Mk XVI
Navigation trainer; never built.
Mk XV
Bombing trainer; never built.
C 19
264 were built for the RAF; used as communications and transport aircraft.
T 20
Navigation trainer for the RAF, a variant of the Mk XIX to meet Air Ministry Specification T.24/46 for an overseas navigation trainer, one pilot two wireless operators (one trainee and one instructor) and five navigator positions (three trainees and two instructors). Used for bombing and navigation training in Southern Rhodesia, 60 built.
T 21
Navigation trainers for the RAF, a variant of the Mk XIX to meet Air Ministry Specification T.25/46 for a home navigation trainer, one pilot two wireless operators (one trainee and one instructor) and five navigator positions (three trainees and two instructors). A prototype was flown in May 1948, 252 were built.
C.21
Modification of T.21s for communications and transport duties.
T 22
Radio trainers for the RAF, a variant of the Mk XIX to meet Air Ministry Specification T.26/46, one pilot and four wireless operator stations (three for trainees and one for an instructor), a prototype was flown in June 1948, 54 built.
Anson 18
Developed from the Avro Nineteen; 12 aircraft were sold to the Royal Afghan Air Force for use as communications, police patrol and aerial survey aircraft.
Anson 18C
13 aircraft were built for the Indian government; used for training civil aircrews.
Avro Nineteen
(Also known as the Anson XIX): Civil transport version; 56 aircraft were built in two series.
AT-20
United States military designation for Canadian-built Anson IIs used by the United States Army Air Forces, 50 built.

Operators

Military Anson operators
 Afghanistan
Royal Afghan Air Force – 13 Anson 18 aircraft were delivered to the Royal Afghan Air Force from 1948 and retired by 1972
 Argentina
At least one, LV-FBR, in use in 1960
 Australia
Royal Australian Air Force – 1,028 Ansons were operated by the Royal Australian Air Force, retired in 1955
  • Brain & Brown Airfreighters (one Anson until at least 1977)
  • East-West Airlines, one preserved (non-flying), at Tamworth Airport
 Bahrain
 Belgium
 Brazil
Companhia Meridional de Transportes (three Avro Anson Mk. IIs operated between 1945 and 1946)
 Canada
Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian Navy Ansons were retired in 1952
 Cuba
three Canadian-built Ansons were transported to Cuba, operated by ANSA-Aerolíneas del Norte S.A., a regional airline from 1947 until the mid-1950s
 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakian Air Force three aircraft, in service from 1945 to 1948
 Egypt
Egyptian Air Force
 Estonia
Estonian Air Force
 Ethiopia
Ethiopian Air Force
 Finland
Finnish Air Force three Avro Anson Mk. Is purchased 1936 and used as training and liaison aircraft. One lost and another written-off in accidents, last flight in 1947.[32]
 France
French Air Force and Aeronavale
 Greece
Hellenic Royal Air Force
 India
Royal Indian Air Force [23]
 India
Directorate of Civil Aviation
Indian Air Force
 Iran
Imperial Iranian Air Force
 Iraq
Royal Iraqi Air Force
 Ireland
Irish Air Corps
 Israel
Israeli Air Force
 Netherlands
Royal Netherlands Air Force and Dutch Naval Aviation Service
 New Zealand
Royal New Zealand Air Force
 Norway
Royal Norwegian Air Force
 Paraguay
Paraguayan Air Arm one Mk.V bought in Argentina in 1947.
 Portugal
Portuguese Air Force
 Rhodesia
Royal Rhodesian Air Force
 Saudi Arabia
Royal Saudi Air Force
 South Africa
South African Air Force
 Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesian Air Force
 Syria
Syrian Air Force
 Turkey
Turkish Air Force
 United Kingdom
Royal Air Force and Royal Navy
 United States
50 Canadian built Ansons were delivered to the USAAF as the AT-20.
 Yugoslavia
SFR Yugoslav Air Force

Surviving aircraft

Anson ZK-RRA performing a public display at Classic Fighters 2015
An Avro Anson flying in close formation with a de Havilland Dragon Rapide at the Duxford Jubilee Airshow 2012
The cockpit of Avro C.19 141, displayed at the Irish Air Corps Museum, 2014
A preserved Avro Anson in flight, 2012

Australia

On display
Stored or under restoration

Canada

On display
Stored or under restoration

Ireland

On display

Netherlands

On display
  • VM352 – Anson 19 on static display at the Canadian Allied Forces Museum Foundation in Groningen.[48]

New Zealand

Avro 19 (Anson) of the BAe Systems Heritage Flight based at The Shuttleworth Collection at Old Warden in 2013
Airworthy
On display
  • Composite – Anson I on static display at the Air Force Museum of New Zealand in Wigram, Canterbury. This airframe is a composite of several aircraft including the fuselage of NZ415, center section, mainplane, and tailplane of VL352, and various other parts from NZ410 and NZ422.[51]

United Arab Emirates

On display

United Kingdom

Airworthy
  • G-AHKX – Avro XIX Anson owned by BAe Systems (Heritage Flight) remains airworthy in 2017 and is based at the Shuttleworth Collection at Old Warden Aerodrome, Bedfordshire.[53]
  • WD413 – Anson C.21, now privately owned and registered as G-VROE, previously operated by Classic Air Force at Coventry Airport.[54]
On display
Stored or under restoration

Specifications (Mk I)

Avro Anson T20

Data from The Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft of World War II[9]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Notable appearances in media

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Sturtivant Air Enthusiast Forty-two, pp. 38–39.
  2. ^ Jackson 1990, pp. 321–322.
  3. ^ Jackson 1990, pp. 322–323.
  4. ^ Middleton Aeroplane Monthly April 1980, p. 187.
  5. ^ a b c d Flight 30 January 1936, p. d.
  6. ^ Middleton Aeroplane Monthly April 1980, pp. 187–188.
  7. ^ a b c Gunston, Bill. Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways. London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Flight 30 January 1936, p. c.
  9. ^ a b Mondey 1994, p. 26.
  10. ^ Jackson 1990, p. 323.
  11. ^ Sturtivant Air Enthusiast Forty-two, p. 40.
  12. ^ Flight 30 January 1936, pp. c–d.
  13. ^ a b c d e Flight 30 January 1936, p. 117.
  14. ^ Jackson 1990, p. 326.
  15. ^ Flight 30 January 1936, pp. 117–119.
  16. ^ Sturtivant Air Enthusiast Forty-two, p. 39.
  17. ^ Sturtivant Air Enthusiast Forty-two, pp. 43–44.
  18. ^ Middleton Aeroplane Monthly April 1980, p. 191.
  19. ^ March 1985, pp. 262–263.
  20. ^ Franks 1983, pp. 125, 181.
  21. ^ Cheesman 1946, pp. 66–67.
  22. ^ Wilson 1994, p. 216.
  23. ^ a b "No.1 Service Flying Training School (India)". Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. 
  24. ^ Sturtivant, 1988, p. 294.
  25. ^ Jackson 1990, pp. 338–339, 344–345.
  26. ^ Neal, Tracy. "Restored-bomber-returns-to-the-skies." Nelson Mail, 18 July 2012. Retrieved: 19 July 2012.
  27. ^ Dunn, Peter. "Crash of An Avro Anson near Riverstone, 28 April 1939". ozatwar.com. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  28. ^ Dunn, Peter. "Crash of an Avro Anson on Richmond Golf Course, 18 December 1939". ozatwar.com. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  29. ^ "B.C. lumberjacks find bodies of Second World War airmen 72 years after Vancouver Island plane crash". National Post. 30 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  30. ^ Pereira, Aldo. Breve História da Aviação Comercial Brasileira (in Portuguese). Europa, (Rio de Janeiro), 1987, p. 290.
  31. ^ Poole 1999, pp. 123–24.
  32. ^ Heinonen and Valtonen 2010, pp. 100–101.
  33. ^ "Anson 652-A Mk 1 R9883". The Camden Museum of Aviation. The Camden Museum of Aviation. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  34. ^ "Avro Anson". Aviation Heritage Museum. Aviation Heritage Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  35. ^ "Restorations". South Australian Aviation Museum. South Australian Aviation Museum. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  36. ^ "Restoration image library". Nhill Aviation Heritage Centre. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  37. ^ "Restoring an Avro Anson – 2016 Update". Aces Flying High. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  38. ^ "Avro Anson II (1937)". Alberta Aviation Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  39. ^ "AVRO ANSON MKII". Greenwood Military Aviation Museum. GMAM. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  40. ^ "Avro Anson Mk II". Bomber Command Museum of Canada. Nanton Lancaster Society. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  41. ^ "AVRO ANSON V". Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Canada Science and Technology Museums Corporation. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  42. ^ "AVRO 652 ANSON MK. II". The Hangar Flight Museum. The Hangar Flight Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  43. ^ "The War Birds (1939–1945)". British Columbia Aviation Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  44. ^ Macdonald, Ian M. "AVRO 652A ANSON 1, K8786, BRITISH COLUMBIA AVIATION MUSEUM". ABPic. Air-Britain. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  45. ^ "Aviation Gallery". Western Development Museum. Western Development Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  46. ^ "Avro Anson Mk. V". Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  47. ^ a b c Simpson, Andrew (2012). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY [TX214]" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum. Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  48. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Avro Anson C.19, s/n VM352 RAF, c/n 7356". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  49. ^ "RR AVIATION". Top of the South Aviation Cluster. Top of the South Aviation Cluster. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  50. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Avro 652A Anson, s/n MH120 RAAF, c/n MH-120, c/r ZK-RRA". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  51. ^ "Featured Aircraft". Air Force Museum of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  52. ^ Leeuw, Ruud. "Al Mahatta aviation museum – Sharjah, Feb.2010". Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  53. ^ The Shuttleworth Collection - C19 Anson Retrieved: 4th December 2017]
  54. ^ CAA G-INFO Retrieved: 4th December 2017]
  55. ^ "Avro Anson Mk 1". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  56. ^ "Avro Anson 1". Royal Air Force Museum. Trustees of the Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  57. ^ Simpson, Andrew (2012). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY [W2068]" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  58. ^ "Avro Anson C.19 (TX213/G-AWRS)". North East Aircraft Museum. North East Land, Sea and Air Museums. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  59. ^ "Avro Anson C.19". Royal Air Force Museum. Trustees of the Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  60. ^ "Aircraft List". Newark Air Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  61. ^ "OUR AIRCRAFT". Norfolk and Suffolk Aviation Museum. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  62. ^ "Avro Anson". National Museums Scotland. National Museums Scotland. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  63. ^ "Avro Anson G-APHV". National Museums Scotland. National Museums Scotland. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  64. ^ Ellis 2016, p. 294.
  65. ^ a b Ellis 2016, p. 275.
  66. ^ Ellis 2016, p. 321.
  67. ^ "Wings Over Carew" (PDF). GEM. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  68. ^ "Avro Anson T.21". The Yorkshire Air Museum. The Octane Factory. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 

Bibliography

  • Cheesman, E. C. Brief Glory: the story of the ATA. Harborough Publishing, 1946.
  • Donald, David and Jon Lake, eds. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
  • Ellis, Ken. Wrecks & Relics – 25th Edition. Manchester, England:Crecy Publishing, 2016. ISBN 978 191080 9037
  • Franks, Norman. The Air Battle of Dunkirk. London: William Kimber, 1983. ISBN 0-7183-0349-0.
  • Gunston, Bill. Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways. London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
  • Heinonen, Timo; Valtonen, Hannu (2010). Albatrossista Pilatukseen – Suomen sotilaslentokoneet 1917–2010 (in Finnish). Tikkakoski: Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo. ISBN 978-952-99989-2-0. 
  • Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  • Hall, Alan W. Avro Anson Mks. 1–22 (Warpaint Series No. 53). Blechley, Buckinghamshire, UK: Warpaint Books Ltd., 2006.
  • Hall, Alan W. and Eric Taylor. Avro Anson Marks I, III, IV & X. London: Almark Publishing Co. Ltd., 1972. ISBN 0-85524-064-4.
  • Holmes, Harry. Avro Anson (Images of Aviation). London: Tempus Publishing Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-7524-1738-X.
  • March, Peter R. "Anson's 50th Birthday". Air Pictorial, Vol. 47, No. 7, July 1985. pp. 260–264.
  • "Modernity for the R.A.F.: A Low-wing Cantilever Monoplane Goes Into Service — The Avro Anson, Equipped for Long-Range Over-water Reconnaissance: High Performance and a Comfortable Cabin". Flight, 30 January 1936, Vol. XXIX, No. 1414, pp. c–d, 117–119.
  • Middleton, Don. "RAF Piston Trainers No. 8: Avro Anson". Aeroplane Monthly, April 1980, Vol. 8, No. 4. pp. 186–193. ISSN 0143-7240.
  • Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft of World War II. London: Chancellor Press. 1994. ISBN 1-85152-668-4.
  • Poole, Stephen. Rough Landing or Fatal Flight. Douglas, Isle of Mann, UK: Amulree Publications, 1999. ISBN 1-901508-03-X. 
  • Sturtivant, Ray C. The Anson File. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-156-8.
  • Sturtivant, Ray. "Avro Anson: The chronicles of 'Faithful Annie'". Air Enthusiast, Forty-two, 1991. pp. 37–51. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Wilson, Stewart (1994). Military Aircraft of Australia. Weston Creek, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1875671080. 

External links

  • RNZAF Museum Anson page
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avro_Anson&oldid=814707323"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avro_Anson
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Avro Anson"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA