Australian Public Service

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Coat of arms of the Commonwealth of Australia.gif
Australian Public Service overview
Formed 1 January 1901 (1901-01-01)
Headquarters Canberra, Australia
(39.1 per cent of staff)[1]
Employees 152,430 (at June 2015)[2]
Australian Public Service executives
Key document
  • Public Service Act 1999

The Australian Public Service (APS) is the federal civil service of the Commonwealth of Australia responsible for the public administration, public policy, and public services of the departments and executive and statutory agencies of the Government of Australia.[3] The Australian Public Service was established at the Federation of Australia in 1901 as the Commonwealth Public Service and modeled on the Westminster system and United Kingdom's Civil Service. The establishment and operation of the Australian Public Service is governed by the Public Service Act 1999 of the Parliament of Australia as an "apolitical public service that is efficient and effective in serving the Government, the Parliament and the Australian public".[4] The conduct of Australian public servants is also governed by a Code of Conduct and guided by the APS Values set by the Australian Public Service Commission.[5]

As such, the employees and officers of the Australian Public Service are obliged to serve the government of the day with integrity and provide "frank and fearless advice" on questions of public policy, from national security to fiscal policy to social security, across machinery of government arrangements.[6] Indeed, the Australian Public Service plays a major part in Australian life by providing "cradle to grave" services with a degree of shared responsibility with the State and Territory governments.[7] The Australian Public Service as an entity does not include the broader Commonwealth public sector including the Australian Defence Force, Commonwealth companies such as NBN Co Limited or the Australian Rail Track Corporation, or Commonwealth corporate entities such as the Australian National University or the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.[8] The Australian Public Service does not include the civil services of the State and Territory governments.

Public servants are ultimately responsible to the Parliament of Australia via their respective portfolio Minister. The Australian Public Service Commission is responsible for promoting the values of the public service, evaluating performance and compliance, and facilitating the development of people and institutional capabilities.[9] The Secretary of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet is the most senior public servant and plays a leadership role as the chair of the intergovernmental Secretaries Board made up of all Commonwealth departmental secretaries.[10] The Australian National Audit Office, the Department of Finance, the Department of the Treasury, and the Attorney-General's Department also have whole-of-government oversight and management responsibilities.

As at June 2015, the Australian Public Service comprises some 152,430 officers alongside a further 90,000 people employed in the broader Commonwealth public sector.[11] Accordingly, the Australian Public Service is one of the largest employers in Australia.[12]

History

Inaugural Departmental Heads of the Australian Commonwealth Public Service-1901
Standing (l-to-r): Muirhead Collins (Defence);[13] Atlee Hunt (External Affairs);[14] David Miller (Home Affairs).[15]
Seated (l-to-r): Robert Garran (Attorney-General's);[16] Harry Wollaston (Trade and Customs);[17] Robert Scott (Post-Master General's);[18] George Allen (Treasury).[19]

The public service was established at Federation. The departments established on 1 January 1901 were Attorney-General’s, Defence, External Affairs, Home Affairs, Trade and Customs, Postmaster-General's, and The Treasury.[20]

The first public service appointments were made under section 67 of the Constitution of Australia, and this arrangement remained in place until the commencement of the Commonwealth Public Service Act 1902, which came into force on 1 January 1903.[20] At the commencement of the Commonwealth Public Service Act, there were 11,374 officials employed under the Act.[20]

A new legislative framework was introduced in 1923 in the form of the Commonwealth Public Service Act 1922.[21]

A section in both the 1902 Act and the 1922 Act stated that every female officer was deemed to have retired from the Commonwealth service upon her marriage.[22][23] In November 1966 Australia became the last democratic country to lift the legislated “marriage bar”, which had prevented married women from holding permanent positions in the public service for over 60 years.[22]

In November 1996, Peter Reith issued a discussion paper, Towards a best practice Australian Public Service.[24] The paper, among other things, recommended key elements which might need to be incorporated into a new streamlined and principles-based Public Service Act.[24] After several years spent developing a new Act, the Public Service Act 1999 came into effect on 5 December 1999.[25] The new Act introduced APS Values and a Code of Conduct into the Act for the first time.[25] Public servants who breach the code of conduct can be demoted, fined, reprimanded or fired.[26]

In 2010 a comprehensive reform agenda was introduced as outlined in Ahead of the Game: Blueprint for Reform of Australian Government Administration.[27]The reforms were aimed at strengthening strategic direction, citizen engagement and staff capability across the APS.[28]

Functions and values

Geoff Gallop describes the spectrum of activities undertaken by staff in the APS as fitting into four work functions: service delivery; law making, rule making and policy development; tax collection and managing government finance; and monitoring and enforcing laws and regulations.[29]

The APS Values are set out in section 10 of the Public Service Act 1999.[30] The Values are mandatory and are intended to embody the principles of good public administration.[30]

The APS Values were most recently revised in 2013, with the aim to comprise a smaller set of core values that are meaningful, memorable and effective in driving change.[31] The values are stated in section 10 of the Public Service Act 1999 as follows:

  • Impartial: The APS is apolitical and provides the Government with advice that is frank, honest, timely and based on the best available evidence.
  • Committed to service: The APS is professional, objective, innovative and efficient, and works collaboratively to achieve the best results for the Australian community and the Government.
  • Accountable: The APS is open and accountable to the Australian community under the law and within the framework of Ministerial responsibility.
  • Respectful: The APS respects all people, including their rights and their heritage.
  • Ethical: The APS demonstrates leadership, is trustworthy, and acts with integrity, in all that it does.

Composition

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1901 11,191 —    
1916 22,686 +102.7%
1917 23,028 +1.5%
1929 30,738 +33.5%
1930 30,561 −0.6%
1933 27,030 −11.6%
1939 47,043 +74.0%
1948 120,991 +157.2%
1965 182,689 +51.0%
1966 192,215 +5.2%
1968 211,652 +10.1%
1975 158,763 −25.0%
1982 152,258 −4.1%
1985 173,444 +13.9%
1986 143,339 −17.4%
1990 160,942 +12.3%
1991 162,367 +0.9%
1992 163,669 +0.8%
1993 165,529 +1.1%
1994 160,348 −3.1%
1995 146,035 −8.9%
1996 143,193 −1.9%
1997 134,052 −6.4%
1998 121,003 −9.7%
1999 113,268 −6.4%
2000 110,954 −2.0%
2001 119,237 +7.5%
2002 123,494 +3.6%
2003 131,720 +6.7%
2004 131,522 −0.2%
2005 133,581 +1.6%
2006 146,234 +9.5%
2007 155,482 +6.3%
2008 160,011 +2.9%
2009 162,009 +1.2%
2010 164,596 +1.6%
2011 166,252 +1.0%
2012 168,580 +1.4%
2013 167,257 −0.8%
2014 159,126 −4.9%
2015 152,430 −4.2%
2016 155,771 +2.2%
APS staff employed by year. Figures gathered from annual State of the Service reports and historic news articles[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][2][42]
A Centrelink office in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. The Department of Human Services, which administers Centrelink services, is the largest APS agency.

The Australian Public Service formally comprises all Australian Government departments and agencies where staff members are or can be employed under the Public Service Act 1999.[43][44][45] At June 2013, there were 167,257 APS employees,[1] down from 168,580 APS employees in June 2012.[46] The 2013 figure included 152,230 ongoing (or permanent) employees,[47] and 15,027 non-ongoing (or contract) employees.[48] Staffing in Australian Public Service agencies accounts for around half of total employment in Australian Government administration. Public servants employed by the Commonwealth Government under legislation other than the Public Service Act include Australian Defence Force personnel, government business enterprise employees, parliamentary staff, Australian Federal Police staff and public servants under other Commonwealth agency-specific legislation.[49]

In the decade to December 2012 the APS grew in numbers; there was also notable 'classification creep', in which a higher proportion of staff are employed at higher pay-grade levels.[50] Before the 2013 federal election, the Coalition promised to reduce the size of the public service by at least 12000 jobs, through natural attrition.[51] Joe Hockey told an Adelaide radio station in May 2013 that the Coalition planned for the loss of 12,000 public service jobs to be just a starting point in the first two years of a Coalition government.[52]

Demographics

Overall the APS has quite a feminised workforce—57.9 per cent of all APS employees are women.[53] 39.1 per cent of APS employees work in the Australian Capital Territory.[1] At June 2013, the median age for ongoing APS employees was 43 years.[54] Like the Australian population, the APS workforce has been ageing rapidly since the early 1990s.[55]

At June 2013 the largest federal government agency was the Department of Human Services with 33,658 employees, followed by the Australian Taxation Office with 24,274 employees and the Department of Defence with 22,330.[56]

In 2009 there was a ratio of one APS official for every 135 Australians, compared to 1991 ratios of 1:106.[57]

Measuring APS performance

Beginning in 2009–10 all APS entities were required to report in accordance with the Outcomes and Programs Framework, whereby programs provide the link between Australian Government decisions, actitivities and their actual outcomes.[58] In the Outcomes and Programs Framework, organisations identify and report against the programs that contribute to government outcomes over the budget and forward years.[59] All APS agencies contribute to Portfolio Budget Statements that inform Parliament and the public of the proposed allocation of Government outcomes.[60] Portfolio budget statements outline:

  • outcome statements, which specifically articulate the intended results, impacts or consequences of actions by the Government on the Australian community;[61]
  • programs to address outcomes, which are designed to deliver benefits, services or transfer payments to target groups; and[62]
  • resourcing information, deliverables and key performance indicators for each program.[63]

Annual reports report performance of agencies in relation to services provided.[64]

Prior to the introduction of the Outcomes and Programs Framework APS entities reported against an Outcomes and Outputs Framework, which had been introduced in 1999.[65] Reforms have been progressively introduced to the APS with the specific aim of making it more efficient, accountable and responsive to community needs since the mid-1980s.[66]

The Australian National Audit Office provides the Australian Parliament and the public with an independent assessment of selected areas of public administration in the APS, and assurance about APS financial reporting, administration and accountability.[67]

Benchmarking the APS

In November 2009 KPMG published a report benchmarking Australian Public Service performance against international public services.[68] The report found that the APS measured up well against some of the world's leading public services.[69] The report found that the APS is a high performer compared to other public services when it came to: being responsive to economic changes; being independent and values-based; and for proportions of women employed.[69] It found that the APS performed poorly in: its capability for coordinated, informed and strategic policy; its mechanisms for integrating external stakeholders into policy development and service design; and its understanding of government priorities through an overarching framework.[69]

Public opinion and criticism

The APS is often the target of public criticism. For example, in 2011 and again in 2013, the director, deregulation at the Institute of Public Affairs, Alan Moran, argued that the Australian Government was not seeking enough savings from a bloated Australian Public Service.[70][71] In October 2013, newly appointed Defence Minister David Johnston told media he had 'inherited a mess' and that he believed that in the Defence department '23,000 public servants is too heavy.'[72] The Noetic group said in 2014 that most Australian Public Service organisations could not demonstrate the benefits from large and expensive programs of work.[73]

Other commentators, including political scientist Richard Mulgan, have argued that rhetoric in 2013 about a bloated APS is ill-informed and unsustainable, if service benchmarks are to be met.[74] Rob Burgess, in a Business Spectator article in November 2012 argued that efficiency dividends imposed on the public service are actually delivering one of the world's leaner public sectors.[75]

Personnel organisation

All APS vacancies for ongoing and non-ongoing jobs for more than 12 months are notified in the APS Employment Gazette, a weekly electronic publication.[76] Public service wages were decentralised in 1997, allowing individual APS agencies to negotiate their own pay deals.[77] Individual Australian Government agency websites also advertise jobs and some jobs are advertised on external job boards, such as in newspapers.[76]

Employment classifications

The Australian Public Service career structure is hierarchical.[78] [79] The table below lists APS employment classification levels from lowest to highest.

Employment classifications in the Australian Public Service
Level/
classification
Example position titles[A] 'Total annual reward[B]
(median 2017)[80]
Graduate $74,689
APS 1 Departmental Officer $56,511
APS 2 Departmental Officer $66,091
APS 3 Departmental Officer $73,839
APS 4 Departmental Officer $82,300
APS 5 Departmental Officer $89,807
APS 6 Departmental Officer $106,046
EL 1 Assistant Director $131,945
EL 2 Director
Section Head
$165,446
SES Band 1 Assistant Secretary (AS)
Branch Head
Group Manager (GM)
Executive Director (ED)
$248,282
SES Band 2 First Assistant Secretary (FAS)
Division Head
Group Executive Director (GED)
$311,013
SES Band 3 Deputy Secretary (DEPSEC)
Deputy Chief Executive Officer
$421,800
Agency head Chief Executive Officer
Departmental head Secretary[78] $673,000 (2013)[81]
A Position titles vary across APS agencies.
B Total reward includes base salary, plus benefits such as superannuation and motor vehicles plus bonuses such as performance and retention payments.

Leadership

The Australian Public Service Commission (APSC) is responsible to the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Public Service. The APSC is led by a Commissioner, who is tasked with promoting the APS Values, evaluating public service performance and compliance, and helping to build the capability of the Service.[82]

The Government also recognises a role for the Secretary of the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet for certain aspects of leadership of the APS.[citation needed]

See also

Concepts:

Notes

  1. ^ a b c State of the Service Report: 2012–13 2013, p. 143.
  2. ^ a b Australian Public Service Commission (2015), APS at a glance, Australian Government, archived from the original on 26 January 2016
  3. ^ "3 - Public sector performance and accountability". National Commission of Audit. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  4. ^ "Public Service Act 1999". Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Integrity in the APS". Australian Public Service Commission. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  6. ^ Eccles, Chris (26 November 2015). "Chris Eccles: what is frank and fearless advice, and how to give it". The Mandarin. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  7. ^ Whelan, James (August 2011). "The State of the Australian Public Service: An Alternative Report" (PDF). Centre for Policy Development. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Governance structures in the public sector". Department of Finance. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  9. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, About the Australian Public Service Commissioner, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 14 May 2013
  10. ^ "3.1 Structure of the Australian Public Service". National Commission of Audit. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  11. ^ "3.1 Structure of the Australian Public Service". National Commission of Audit. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  12. ^ "About the Australian Public Service (APS)". Australian Public Service Commission. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  13. ^ Cunneen, Chris; Smith, Ann G. (1981), "Collins, Sir Robert Henry Muirhead (1852–1927)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 8, archived from the original on 16 May 2013
  14. ^ Davies, Helen M. (1983), "Hunt, Atlee Arthur (1864–1935)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 9, archived from the original on 19 May 2012
  15. ^ Harrison, Peter (1986), "Miller, David (1857–1934)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 10, archived from the original on 18 October 2012
  16. ^ Parker, R. S. (1981), "Garran, Sir Robert Randolph (1867–1957)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 8, archived from the original on 3 May 2013
  17. ^ McDonald, D. I. (1990), "Wollaston, Sir Harry Newton Phillips (1846–1921)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 12, archived from the original on 6 November 2013
  18. ^ Carnell, Ian (1988), "Scott, Sir Robert Townley (1841–1922)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 11, archived from the original on 6 November 2013
  19. ^ Cunneen, Chris (1979), "Allen, George Thomas (1852–1940)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, 7, archived from the original on 6 November 2013
  20. ^ a b c A history in three acts: Evolution of the Public Service Act 1999 2004, p. 1.
  21. ^ A history in three acts: Evolution of the Public Service Act 1999 2004, pp. 19, 22.
  22. ^ a b Sawer, Marian (2004). "Women and Government in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013.
  23. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, The Appendixes: Salary, severance benefits and miscellaneous leave, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 15 May 2013
  24. ^ a b A history in three acts: Evolution of the Public Service Act 1999 2004, p. 125.
  25. ^ a b A history in three acts: Evolution of the Public Service Act 1999 2004.
  26. ^ Mannheim, Markus (18 January 2012). "PS on notice over social media use". The Canberra Times. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
  27. ^ Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2010.
  28. ^ Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2010, pp. 80-81.
  29. ^ Gallop, Geoff (11 October 2007), Agile Government (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2011
  30. ^ a b Australian Public Service Commission. "APS Values, Employment Principles and Code of Conduct". Australian Public Service Commission. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  31. ^ "Commission Advice 2013/04: The new APS Values and Employment Principles. Changes to the Code of Conduct". Australian Government. May 2013. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Commonwealth Public Service". Western Mail. 7 June 1918.
  33. ^ "Growth of Public Service". Morning Bulletin. Rockhampton, Queensland. 12 March 1949. p. 10.
  34. ^ "1,214 positions abolished". Chronicle. Adelaide, South Australia. 13 November 1930. p. 23.
  35. ^ "Federal Public Service". Kalgoorlie Miner. Western Australia. 7 December 1933. p. 3.
  36. ^ "695 public servants to arrive by '71". The Canberra Times. 11 September 1968. p. 3.
  37. ^ "Total 5pc rise in public servants". The Canberra Times. 15 September 1966. p. 12.
  38. ^ Simon-Davies, Joanne (26 November 2010), How many are employed in the Commonwealth public sector?, Australian Parliament House, archived from the original on 22 February 2014
  39. ^ Waterford, Jack (10 September 1982). "Figures conflict on Public Service size". The Canberra Times. p. 3.
  40. ^ Fraser, Andrew (8 January 1987). "Public servants older, more of them women". The Canberra times. p. 1.
  41. ^ Main features: APS at a glance 2014.
  42. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, Table 5: All employees: location by base classification and employment category, 30 June 2016, Australian Government, archived from the original on 22 November 2016
  43. ^ Australian Public Service Commission (20 September 2013), Australian Public Service agencies, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 6 November 2013, retrieved 6 November 2013
  44. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, About the APS, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 5 November 2013
  45. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, FAQ: The APS- What is the Australian Public Service?, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 3 May 2013
  46. ^ State of the Service Report: 2011–12 2012, p. 244.
  47. ^ State of the Service Report: 2012–13 2013, p. 231.
  48. ^ State of the Service Report: 2012–13 2013, p. 232.
  49. ^ Whelan 2011, pp. 13-14.
  50. ^ Mannheim, Markus (6 July 2013). "Top-heavy department will shed its executives". The Canberra Times. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  51. ^ Podger, Andrew (24 July 2013), FactCheck: do the Liberals have ‘a secret plan’ to axe 20,000 public service jobs?, The Conversation, archived from the original on 22 August 2013
  52. ^ Towell, Noel (17 May 2013). "Hockey says 12,000 cull just a start". The Canberra Times. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
  53. ^ State of the Service Report: 2012–13 2013, p. 234.
  54. ^ State of the Service Report: 2012–13 2013, p. 104.
  55. ^ State of the Service Report: 2011–12 2012, p. 107.
  56. ^ State of the Service Report: 2012–13 2013, p. 253.
  57. ^ Whelan 2011, p. 22.
  58. ^ Development and Implementation of Key Performance Indicators to Support the Outcomes and Programs Framework 2011, pp. 14-15.
  59. ^ Development and Implementation of Key Performance Indicators to Support the Outcomes and Programs Framework 2011, p. 15.
  60. ^ Department of Finance, Portfolio Budget Statements (PBS), Department of Finance, archived from the original on 9 October 2013
  61. ^ Department of Finance, Outcome Statements Policy and Approval Process, Department of Finance, archived from the original on 30 September 2013
  62. ^ Commonwealth Programs Policy and Approval Process 2009, p. 1.
  63. ^ Commonwealth Programs Policy and Approval Process 2009, p. 3.
  64. ^ Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (24 June 2013), Requirements for Annual Reports June 2013 (PDF), Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2013
  65. ^ Development and Implementation of Key Performance Indicators to Support the Outcomes and Programs Framework 2011, p. 13.
  66. ^ Development and Implementation of Key Performance Indicators to Support the Outcomes and Programs Framework 2011, p. 17.
  67. ^ Australian National Audit Office, About Us, Australian National Audit Office, archived from the original on 18 August 2013
  68. ^ Benchmarking Australian Government Administration Performance 2009.
  69. ^ a b c Benchmarking Australian Government Administration Performance 2009, p. 2.
  70. ^ Hannan, Ewin; Hepworth, Annabel (30 November 2011). "$1.5bn cuts 'will slash 3000 public sector jobs'". The Australian. News Corp Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  71. ^ Moran, Alan (19 February 2013). "Bloated public service chews up industry funds". The Australian. News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013.
  72. ^ Page, Fleta (8 October 2013). "Minister to 'trim' bloated Defence". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013.
  73. ^ Towell, Noel (25 March 2014), "Heat on departments to prove value for taxpayer outlays", The Canberra Times, Farifax Media, archived from the original on 24 March 2014
  74. ^ Mulgan, Richard (2 April 2013). "Public service cuts and other illusions". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013.
  75. ^ "Labor needs to shut up about carbon". Business Spectator. Australian Independent Business Media. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013.
  76. ^ a b Australian Public Service Commission, How to Join the APS, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 5 August 2013
  77. ^ Mannheim, Markus; Towell, Noel (31 July 2013). "Public service pay gap to hit $47,000 a year". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013.
  78. ^ a b Watson 1990, p. 13.
  79. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, Applying for jobs, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 15 May 2013
  80. ^ State of the Service Report: 2016–17 2016.
  81. ^ REMUNERATION TRIBUNAL ACT 1973 INSTRUMENT OF ASSIGNMENT UNDER SECTION 14(3) (PDF), Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, 18 September 2013, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2013
  82. ^ Australian Public Service Commission, About the Australian Public Service Commissioner, Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original on 14 May 2013

References and further reading

  • Australian Public Service Commission (2014), Main features:APS at a glance, archived from the original on 5 October 2014
  • Australian National Audit Office (2011), Development and Implementation of Key Performance Indicators to Support the Outcomes and Programs Framework (PDF), Australian National Audit Office, ISBN 0642812101, archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2012
  • Australian Public Service Commission (29 November 2012), State of the Service Report: State of the Service Series 2011–12 (PDF), Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2013
  • Australian Public Service Commission (2 December 2013), State of the Service Report: State of the Service Series 2012–13 (PDF), Australian Public Service Commission, ISBN 9780987454751, archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2013, retrieved 6 December 2013
  • Australian Public Service Commission (2004), A history in three acts: Evolution of the Public Service Act 1999 (PDF), Australian Public Service Commission, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2013
  • Berg, Chris (10 September 2013), Teaching the public service to obey its new masters, Australian Broadcasting Commission, archived from the original on 10 September 2013
  • Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (March 2010), Ahead of the Game: Blueprint for the Reform of Australian Government Administration, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, archived from the original on 6 November 2013
  • Department of Finance (4 October 2013), Flipchart of FMA Act Agencies/CAC Act Bodies (PDF), Department of Finance, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013
  • Department of Finance and Deregulation (December 2009), Commonwealth Programs Policy and Approval Process (PDF), Department of Finance and Deregulation, archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2013
  • Holmes, Brenton (22 July 2011), Citizens' engagement in policymaking and the design of public services (PDF), Department of Parliamentary Services, ISSN 1834-9854, retrieved 8 November 2013
  • Keating, Paul (1 July 1993), Performance and Accountability in the Public Service, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, archived from the original on 10 December 2013
  • KPMG (November 2009), Benchmarking Australian Government Administration Performance (PDF), KPMG, archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2013
  • Mulgan, Richard (10 November 1998), Politicising the Australian Public Service? (PDF), Department of the Parliamentary Library, archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2013
  • Tiernan, Anne (9 September 2013), Transition to government: what now for the public service?, The Conversation, archived from the original on 17 December 2013
  • Verspaandonk, Rose; Holland, Ian; Horne, Nicholas (11 October 2010), "Chronology of changes in the Australian Public Service 1975–2010", Background note, Parliament of Australia, Department of Parliamentary Services
  • Watson, Sophie, ed. (1990). Playing the State: Australian Feminist Interventions. Verso. ISBN 0-86091-970-6.
  • Whelan, James (August 2011), The State of the Australian Public Service: An alternative report (PDF), Centre for Policy Development, archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2012

External links

  • Australian Federal Government
    • APS Jobs
    • Public Service Gazette
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