Astroblepus

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Astroblepus
Astroblepus sabalo.jpg
Astroblepus sabalo
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Astroblepidae
Genus: Astroblepus
Humboldt, 1805
Type species
Astroblepus grixalvii
Humboldt, 1805

Astroblepus is a genus of fish in the family Astroblepidae found in South America and Panama. This genus is the only member of its family.[1] These catfishes are primarily found in torrential streams in the Andean area.[1] Astroblepus pholeter and A. riberae are troglobites adapted to living in subterranean water systems.[2] These species are typically small, less than 10 cm (4 in).[1] The largest species reaches 30 cm (1 ft).[1] These fish have suckermouths like those of loricariids. They have two pairs of barbels, maxillary and nasal. The dorsal fin spine lacks a locking mechanism.[3] These fish also have odontodes, tiny teeth on their skin. All species exhibit a conical, pointy type on their fin rays like that found in other loricarioids; other species also exhibit a blunt type that is only found on their skin.[3]

Some of these fish are able to live in high altitude and climb the faces of waterfalls.[3] Their climbing ability comes from specially developed pelvic fins, as well as their suckermouths.[3] In their Neotropical Andean habitat, dry and wet seasons are quite extreme, and odontodes may help in sensing food, mates and water flow, as well as help cling to surfaces.[3] They feed upon invertebrates, such as caterpillars and annelids.[3]

The Astroblepidae were usually placed within Siluriformes as the sister family of Loricariidae,[4][5] but a recent study found them to be more closely related to the family Scoloplacidae.[6][7]

Species

There are currently 80 recognized species in this genus:

References

  1. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2016). Species of Astroblepus in FishBase. June 2016 version.
  2. ^ Romero, A. (2001). The biology of hypogean fishes. Developments in Environmental Biology of Fishes. Springer Netherlands. p. 376. ISBN 978-1-4020-0076-8.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Schaefer, S.A.; Buitrago-Suárez, U.A. (2002). "Odontode morphology and skin surface features of Andean astroblepid catfishes (Siluriformes, Astroblepidae)". Journal of Morphology. 254 (2): 139–148. doi:10.1002/jmor.10024.
  4. ^ Diogo, Rui (2004-11-01). "Phylogeny, origin and biogeography of catfishes: support for a Pangean origin of 'modern teleosts' and reexamination of some Mesozoic Pangean connections between the Gondwanan and Laurasian supercontinents". Animal Biology. 54 (4): 331–351. doi:10.1163/1570756042729546. ISSN 1570-7563.
  5. ^ Sullivan, John P.; Lundberg, John G.; Hardman, Michael (2006). "A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 41 (3): 636–662. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.044.
  6. ^ Rivera-Rivera, Carlos J.; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I. (2017-10-25). "Trunk dental tissue evolved independently from underlying dermal bony plates but is associated with surface bones in living odontode-bearing catfish". Proc. R. Soc. B. 284 (1865): 20171831. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.1831. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 5666107. PMID 29046381.
  7. ^ Rivera-Rivera, Carlos J.; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I. (October 2018). "Back to the roots: Reducing evolutionary rate heterogeneity among sequences gives support for the early morphological hypothesis of the root of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 127: 272–279. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.06.004. ISSN 1055-7903.
  8. ^ a b Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2011): Astroblepus itae, Astroblepus acostai. Dos nuevas especies del Río Cáchira y Río Sinú, Colombia. Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla, Colombia. 16 pp.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2015): Five new species of astroblepid fish for Colombian Andes. Revista de la Asociación Colombiana de Ciencias Biológicas, 27 (1): 124-135.
  10. ^ Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2012): Astroblepus ardilai sp. nov. Una nuevas especie de pez del los Andes del Municipio de Floridablanca, Departamento de Norte de Santander – Colombia. Peces del Departamento de Santander – Colombia, 5: 1-21.
  11. ^ Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2011). "Astroblepus cacharas (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Astroblepidae), nueva especie del río Cáchira, cuenca del río Magdalena, Colombia". Dahlia. 11: 23–33.
  12. ^ a b c d Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2013): Astroblepus hidalgoiA. floridaensisA. huallagaensis y A. cajamarcaensis: Cuatro nuevas especies de los Andes del Peru. Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla, Colombia. 22pp.
  13. ^ a b c Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2014): Astroblepus tamboensisA. chinchaoensis y A. moyanensis: Tres nuevas especies de los Andes del Peru. Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla, Colombia. 22pp.
  14. ^ a b c d Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2015): Astroblepus verai sp. nov. – A. pradai, A. curitiensis y A. onzagaensis. Cuatro nuevas especies del Departamento de Santander – Colombia. Barranquilla, Departamento del Atlántico, 2015 (7): 1-24.
  15. ^ Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2016): Astroblepus floridablancaensis sp. nov. una nueva Especie de Janbonero (Siluriformes: Astroblepidae) del Municipio de Floridablanca, Departamento de Santander – Colombia. Peces del Departamento de Santander – Colombia, 8: 1-20.
  16. ^ a b Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2013): Astroblepus martinezi y Astroblepus jimenezae: Dos nuevas especies del Río Sinú y Río Atrato, Colombia. Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla, Colombia. 20pp.
  17. ^ Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2014): Astroblepus mendezi sp. nov. una nueva especie de pez de Panamá. Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla, Colombia. 17pp.
  18. ^ a b Ardila Rodríguez, C.A. (2012): Astroblepus ortegai y Astroblepus quispei. Dos nuevas especies des los Andes del Perú. Universidad Metropolitana de Barranquilla. Barranquilla, Colombia. 16 pp.
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