Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering

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Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
USD(R&E)
US Under Secretary of Defense flag.svg
Michael D. Griffin.jpg
Incumbent
Michael D. Griffin

since February 19, 2018
Office of the Secretary of Defense
Reports to Secretary of Defense
Deputy Secretary of Defense
Nominator The President
with the advice and consent of the Senate
Term length No fixed term

The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USD(R&E)) is a senior official of the United States Department of Defense. The USD(R&E) and the office s/he heads are charged with the development and oversight of DoD technology strategy for the DoD. The post (or effectively the same post) has at various times had the titles Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD(R&E)), or Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E). The latter title has itself historically varied between the rank of Under Secretary and that of Assistant Secretary.

USD(R&E) is the principal staff advisor for research and engineering matters to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense. In this capacity, USD(R&E) serves as the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) for the Department of Defense charged with the development and oversight of DoD technology strategy in concert with the Department’s current and future requirements. The goal of USD(R&E) is to extend the capabilities of current war fighting systems, develop breakthrough capabilities, hedge against an uncertain future through a set of scientific and engineering options and counter strategic surprise. USD(R&E) also provides advice and assistance in developing policies for rapid technology transition.

From 1987 until February 1, 2018, ASD(R&E) was subordinate to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. On February 1, 2018, the research and engineering were split into an independent office, with the head position being elevated from an assistant secretary to an under secretary level. The remaining acquisition office became the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment (A&S).[1] The current under secretary is Michael D. Griffin, who took office on February 15, 2018, following nomination by President Donald Trump.[2][3]

Organization

Organizations included under the USD(R&E) include the following. As of February 2018, organizational relationships remained to be finalized as the organization was being formed.[1][4]

Upon the February 2018 reorganization, the USD(R&E) assumed responsibility for administering the Small Business Innovation Research and Rapid Innovation Fund programs.[4]

History

The National Security Act of 1947 and its 1949 amendments established the Department of Defense, including the establishment of two statutory boards: a Munitions Board, and a Research and Development Board. In June, 1953, President Eisenhower’s Reorganization Plan No. 6 abolished the boards as such, and created six new Assistant Secretaries of Defense. Two of these Assistant Secretary positions—Applications Engineering, and Research and Development—were combined in March 1957 to become the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD(R&E)).

Under the DoD Reorganization Act of 1958 (PL 85-599, effective August 6, 1958), the position of ASD(R&E) was abolished and replaced by a Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E).

From May 19, 1961, until July 15, 1965, a Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering held the additional title of ASD(R&E), on the theory that this position reported to, in rank, an Under Secretary—the DDR&E. On October 21, 1977, PL 95-140 made the rank of the DDR&E unambiguous by renaming it to the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USD(R&E)).

The history of Department of Defense management of science and technology up to the 1980s is described at greater length in a report available from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).[6]

The Military Retirement Reform Act of 1986 expanded the scope of USD(R&E) position to encompass acquisition and logistics, as well as technology, and it was renamed USD(AT&L). A subordinate position at the Assistant Secretary level was reestablished with the previous title DDR&E. However, budget control of the technology portfolio was kept by USD(AT&L), diminishing the importance of the DDR&E position subsequently.

On January 7, 2011, President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act with several redesignated titles within the Department of Defense. These changes included renaming the DDR&E as, once again, ASD(R&E).[7]

On February 1, 2018, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics was split into two new offices: the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (R&E) and the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment (A&S), as a result of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.[1][4]

Office holders

The table below includes both the various names which this position has been named over time, as well as all the holders of those various offices. [8]

Name Tenure SecDef(s) Served Under President(s) Served Under
Chairman, Research and Development Board
Vannevar Bush Sept 30, 1947 – Oct 14, 1948 James V. Forrestal Harry Truman
Karl T. Compton Oct 15, 1948 – March 14, 1950 James V. Forrestal
Louis A. Johnson
Harry Truman
William Webster March 15, 1950 – July 31, 1951 Louis A. Johnson
George C. Marshall
Harry Truman
Walter G. Whitman Aug 1, 1951 – June 29, 1953 George C. Marshall
Robert A. Lovett
Charles E. Wilson
Harry Truman
Dwight Eisenhower
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Development)
Donald A. Quarles Sept 1, 1953 – Aug 14, 1955 Charles E. Wilson Dwight Eisenhower
Clifford C. Furnas Dec 1, 1955 – Feb 15, 1957 Charles E. Wilson Dwight Eisenhower
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Applications Engineering)
Frank D. Newbury Aug 18, 1953 – March 17, 1957 Charles E. Wilson Dwight Eisenhower
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Engineering)
Frank D. Newbury March 18, 1957 – May 17, 1957 Charles E. Wilson Dwight Eisenhower
Paul D. Foote Sept 10, 1957 – Oct 31, 1958 Charles E. Wilson
Neil H. McElroy
Dwight Eisenhower
John H. Rubel (as Deputy DDR&E) May 19, 1961 – June 15, 1963 Thomas S. Gates
Robert S. McNamara
Dwight Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy
Eugene G. Fubini (as Deputy DDR&E) July 3, 1963 - July 15, 1965 Robert S. McNamara John F. Kennedy
Director, Defense Research and Engineering
Herbert F. York Dec 30, 1958 – April 30, 1961 Neil H. McElroy
Thomas S. Gates
Robert S. McNamara
Dwight Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy
Harold Brown May 8, 1961 – Sept 30, 1965 Robert S. McNamara John F. Kennedy
Lyndon Johnson
John S. Foster, Jr. Oct 1, 1965 – June 21, 1973 Robert S. McNamara
Clark M. Clifford
Melvin R. Laird
Elliot L. Richardson
Lyndon Johnson
Richard Nixon
Malcolm R. Currie June 21, 1973 – Jan 20, 1977 James R. Schlesinger
Donald H. Rumsfeld
Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
William J. Perry April 11, 1977 – Oct 21, 1977 Harold Brown Jimmy Carter
Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
William J. Perry Nov 4, 1977 – Jan 20, 1981 Harold Brown Jimmy Carter
Walter B. Laberge (Acting) January 21, 1981 - March 10, 1981 Caspar W. Weinberger Ronald Reagan
James P. Wade, Jr. (Acting) March 11, 1981 - May 6, 1981 Caspar W. Weinberger Ronald Reagan
Richard D. DeLauer May 7, 1981 – Nov 4, 1984 Caspar W. Weinberger Ronald Reagan
James P. Wade, Jr. (Acting) December 1, 1981 - July 5, 1985 Caspar W. Weinberger Ronald Reagan
Donald A. Hicks Aug 6, 1985 – Oct 10, 1986 Caspar W. Weinberger Ronald Reagan
Director, Defense Research and Engineering
Robert C. Duncan Dec 17, 1987 – Nov 30, 1989 Frank C. Carlucci III
William H. Taft IV (Acting)
Richard B. Cheney
Ronald Reagan
George H. W. Bush
Charles M. Herzfeld March 12, 1990 – May 18, 1991 Richard B. Cheney George H. W. Bush
Victor H. Reis Dec 3, 1991 – May 31, 1993 Richard B. Cheney
Leslie Aspin, Jr.
George H. W. Bush
William Clinton
Anita K. Jones June 1, 1993 – May 23, 1997 Leslie Aspin, Jr.
William J. Perry
William S. Cohen
William Clinton
Hans M. Mark July 1, 1998 – May 10, 2001 William S. Cohen
Donald H. Rumsfeld
William Clinton
George W. Bush
Ronald M. Sega Aug 14, 2001 – Aug 3, 2005 Donald H. Rumsfeld George W. Bush
John J. Young Jr. Nov 2, 2005 – Nov 20, 2007 Donald H. Rumsfeld
Robert M. Gates
George W. Bush
Alan R. Shaffer (Acting) Nov 21, 2007 – July 1, 2009 Robert M. Gates George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Zachary J. Lemnios July 2, 2009 – January 7, 2011 Robert M. Gates Barack Obama
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Engineering)
Zachary J. Lemnios January 7, 2011 – November 30, 2012 Leon Panetta Barack Obama
Alan R. Shaffer (Acting) December 1, 2012 - June 12, 2015 Leon Panetta
Chuck Hagel
Ashton B. Carter
Barack Obama
Stephen P. Welby (Acting) June 13, 2015 - December 13, 2015 Ashton B. Carter Barack Obama
Stephen P. Welby December 14, 2015 - January 20, 2017 Ashton B. Carter Barack Obama
Mary J. Miller (Acting) January 20, 2017 - July 19, 2017 James Mattis Donald Trump
Mary J. Miller (Performing the Duties of) July 19, 2017 - February 1, 2018 James Mattis Donald Trump
Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
Ellen Lord (Performing the Duties of) February 1, 2018 - February 15, 2018 James Mattis Donald Trump
Michael D. Griffin February 19, 2018[3] - present James Mattis Donald Trump

References

  1. ^ a b c Mehta, Aaron (2018-02-02). "The Pentagon's acquisition office is gone. Here's what the next 120 days bring". Defense News. Retrieved 2018-02-22. 
  2. ^ "President Donald J. Trump Announces Key Additions to his Administration". whitehouse.gov. December 4, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Tritten, Travis J. "Senate picks up the pace with confirmations of Pentagon chief manager, top Air Force weapons buyer". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 2018-02-22. 
  4. ^ a b c "Report to Congress: Restructuring the Department of Defense Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Organization and Chief Management Officer Organization" (PDF). 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2018-02-22. 
  5. ^ Johnnson, Derek B. (2018-03-05). "White House names deputy undersecretary for DOD R&E". FCW. Retrieved 2018-03-08. 
  6. ^ O'Neil, William D. and Gene H. Porter, “What to Buy? The Role of Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E): Lessons from the 1970s,” IDA Paper P-4675 (Alexandria, Virginia: Institute for Defense Analyses, Jan 2011) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA549549.
  7. ^ Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering Archived November 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "A History of the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering". DoD. 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 

External links

  • Office of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E)
    • A History of the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering
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