Ashura

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Ashura
Ashura 2016 mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran 02.jpg
Ashura mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran, 2016
Official name Arabic: عاشوراء‎‎ ʻĀshūrā’ 
Also called
Observed by Muslims
Type Islamic and national (In some countries such as Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, and India)
Significance Marks the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali according to Shi'a Islam; the day that Moses fasted as gratitude for the liberation of the Israelites according to Sunni Islam
Observances Mourn and derive messages from Husayn's sacrifice (Shi'a Islam)
Fasting (Sunni Islam)
Date 10 Muharram
2016 date 11 October[1] or 12 October[2]
2017 date 1 October [3]
Frequency Annual

Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء‎‎ ʻĀshūrā’, colloquially: /ʕa(ː)ˈʃuːraʔ/; Urdu: عاشورا‎; Persian: عاشورا‎‎ /ɒːʃuːˈɾɒ/; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or English: Day of Remembrance), is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.[8]

In Sunni and Shi'a Islam, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea, and is the Islamic equivalent to Yom Kippur.[9][10][11][12] Other commemorations include Noah leaving the Ark and Muhammad's arrival in Medina.[13]

For the majority of Shi'a Muslims, Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram,[8] and commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). [14] Sunni Muslims have the same accounts of these events, however ceremonial mourning did not become a custom - although poems, eulogizing and recounting the events were and continue to be common.[15][16][17] Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.[18] In Afghanistan,[19] Iran,[20] Iraq,[21] Lebanon,[22] Azerbaijan, Bahrain,[23] India [24] and Pakistan,[25] Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.[26] [27]

Etymology

The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending.[28] The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims.[29]

Historical background

The Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I.[30][31] Immediately after succession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge their allegiance (Bay'ah).[14] Husayn, however, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad.[32][33] He, therefore, accompanied by his household, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca.[14]

On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledging to support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation, and that, if he found them united as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them because an Imam should act in accordance with the Quran and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of Muslim was initially successful and according to reports 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to deal severely with Ibn Aqeel. Before news of the adverse turn of events had reached Mecca, Husayn set out for Kufa.[14]

On the way, Husayn found that his messenger, Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at a location that was without water.[14]

Name of the Karbala Martyr Husayn with Islamic calligraphy in Hagia Sophia

Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates.[14] On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order.[14]

The Battle of Karbala lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH). Husayn's small group of companions and family members (in total around 72 men and the women and children)[a][35][36] fought against a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river (Euphrates), from which they were not allowed to get water. The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī states:

… [T]hen fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses; nobody in the history of the human kind has seen such atrocities.[37]

Once the Umayyad troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, and took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynab was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus and eventually was allowed to return to Medina.[38][39]

Commemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali

Millions of Shia Muslims gather around the Husayn Mosque in Karbala after making the pilgrimage on foot during Arba'een, which is a Shia religious observation that occurs 40 days after the Day of Ashura.

History of the commemoration by Shi'a

According to Ignác Goldziher,

[E]ver since the black day of Karbala, the history of this family … has been a continuous series of sufferings and persecutions. These are narrated in poetry and prose, in a richly cultivated literature of martyrologies …'More touching than the tears of the Shi'is' has even become an Arabic proverb.[40]

The first assembly (majlis) of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Husayn's 3-year-old daughter, Sakina, died in captivity. She would often cry in prison to be allowed to see her father. She is believed to have died when she saw her father's mutilated head. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid, fearing a potential uprising, freed the captives.[41]

Imam Zayn Al Abidin said the following:

It is said that for twenty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. One day a servant said to him, 'O son of Allah's Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?' He replied, 'Woe upon you! Jacob the prophet had twelve sons, and Allah made one of them disappear. His eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back became bent in gloom,[b] though his son was alive in this world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?'[c] [42][43]

Husayn's grave became a pilgrimage site among Shia Muslims only a few years after his death. A tradition quickly developed of pilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine and the other Karbala martyrs, known as Ziarat ashura.[44] The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites.[45] The tomb and its annexes were destroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850–851 and Shi'a pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala and Najaf were built by the Buwayhid emir 'Adud al-Daula in 979–80.[46]

Public rites of remembrance for Husayn's martyrdom developed from the early pilgrimages.[47] Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu'izz ad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura in Baghdad.[48] These commemorations were also encouraged in Egypt by the Fatimid caliph al-'Aziz.[49] With the recognition of Twelvers as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Muharram extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram.[44]

Significance for Shi'as

10th of the month of Muharrem: The Ashure Day - Huseyn bin Ali was murdered at Kerbela [50] Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash Alevi-Turks and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire.

On the 10th of the month of Muharrem – The Ashure Day – Huseyn bin Ali was murdered at Kerbela [51] Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash Alevi-Turks, and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire

This day is of particular significance to Twelver Shi'a and Alawites, who consider Husayn (the grandson of Muhammad) Ahl al-Bayt, the third Imam to be the rightful successor of Muhammad.

Shi'a devotees congregate outside the Sydney Opera House in Australia to commemorate Husayn.
Mourning of Muharram in Iran
Ashura procession in Tehran, Iran

According to Kamran Scot Aghaie, "The symbols and rituals of Ashura have evolved over time and have meant different things to different people. However, at the core of the symbolism of Ashura is the moral dichotomy between worldly injustice and corruption on the one hand and God-centered justice, piety, sacrifice and perseverance on the other. Also, Shiite Muslims consider the remembrance of the tragic events of Ashura to be an importance way of worshipping God in a spiritual or mystical way."[52]

Shi'as make pilgrimages on Ashura, as they do forty days later on Arba'een, to the Mashhad al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq, that is traditionally held to be Husayn's tomb. On this day Shi'a are in remembrance, and mourning attire is worn. They refrain from listening to or playing music, since Arabic culture generally considers music impolite during death rituals. It is a time for sorrow and for showing respect for the person's passing, and it is also a time for self-reflection, when one commits oneself completely to the mourning of Husayn. Shi'as do not plan weddings and parties on this date. They mourn by crying and listening to recollections of the tragedy and sermons on how Husayn and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Husayn's suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Husayn's martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shi'as as a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression.[53] Shi'as believe the Battle of Karbala was between the forces of good and evil, with Husayn representing good and Yazid representing evil.[54]

Shia Imams strongly insist that the day of Ashura should not be celebrated as a day of joy and festivity. The day of Ashura, according to Eighth Shia Imam Ali al-Rida, must be observed as a day of rest, sorrow, and total disregard of worldly matters.[55]

Some of the events associated with Ashura are held in special congregation halls known as "Imambargah" and Hussainia.[56]

Azadari (mourning) rituals

Traditional Shi'a Talwar zani

Suffering and cutting the body with knives or chains (matam) was banned by the Shi'a Marja' Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran, and Hezbollah in Lebanon, but is still practiced in Bangladesh and India.[57][58] Other marjas like Mohammad al-Husayni al-Shirazi promote hemic flagellation rituals as a way of preserving the revolution of Imam al-Husayn.[57]

On Ashura, very few Shi'as observe mourning with a blood donation, which is called "Qame Zani", and flailing. This mourning is considered to be a shameless way for most Shiites and most of Shiites are against this kind of mourning.[59]

Ritual scourge for use in the Ashura procession. Syria, before 1974.

Certain traditional flagellation rituals such as Talwar zani (talwar ka matam or sometimes tatbir) use a sword. Other rituals such as zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam involve the use of a zanjeer (a chain with blades).[60]

These religious customs show solidarity with Husayn and his family. Through them, people mourn Husayn's death and express regret for the fact that they were not present at the battle to fight and save Husayn and his family.[61][62]

In some areas, such as in the Shi'a suburb of Beirut, Shi'a communities organize blood donation drives with organizations like the Red Cross or the Red Crescent on Ashura as a replacement for self-flagellation rituals like tatbir and qame zani.[57]

Some Shi'a believe that taking part in Ashura washes away their sins.[63] A popular Shi'a saying has it that "a single tear shed for Husayn washes away a hundred sins".[64]

Popular customs

Indian Shia Muslims carry out a Ta'ziya procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, January 2009.

For Shi'as, commemoration of Ashura is not a festival but rather a sad event, while Sunni Muslims view it as a victory God gave to Moses. This victory is the very reason, as Sunni Muslims believe, that Muhammad recommended fasting on this day according to a Sunni hadith. For Shi'as, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners congregate at a mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya, and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Hussain". Also, Ulamas give sermons with themes of Husayn's personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala to allow his listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Husayn and his family. In Arab countries such as Iraq and Lebanon they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. In some places, such as Iran, Iraq, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, passion plays known as Ta'zieh are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and martyrdom of Husayn at the hands of Yazid.[35][36]

For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (nazri) on certain nights of the month to all people.. People donate food and Middle Eastern sweets to the mosque.These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with God, Hussain, and humanity.[65]

Shias do not fast on the day of Ashura, as per a hadith that prohibits it. Fasting in Islam is reserved for the days where Muslims thank God for things, and the 10th of Muharram is a day when the Prophet's family was slaughtered by Yazid, the son of Muawiya, second Umayyad Sunni caliph.

Shia Muslims carry out an Al'am procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, January 2009.
Tabuiks being lowered into the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims.
Nakhl gardani in cities and villages of Iran

Participants congregate in public processions for ceremonial chest-beating (matham/latmiya) as a display of their devotion to Husayn, in remembrance of his suffering and to preach that oppression will not last in the face of truth and justice.[66] Others pay tribute to the time period by holding a Majlis, during which Surahs from the Quran and Maqtal Al-Husayn are read.

Today in Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (in the Minangkabau language) or Tabut (in Indonesian). Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Shi'a Muslim Mourning of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, particularly in the city of Pariaman. In Iran, people reenact their Imam's funeral by carrying a huge wooden structure called a "nakhl", which is usually carried by several hundred men.[67] In countries like Turkey, there is the custom of eating Noah's Pudding (Ashure) as this day is known as Aşure in Turkish.

There is a tradition among Shia Muslims of bloodletting on the day of Ashura. Practitioners use chains and the blunt end of swords to self-flagellate. This is not without controversy however as some Shia clerics have denounced the practice saying "it creates a backward and negative image of their community.". Believers are instead encouraged to donate blood to those in need.[68]

Significance for Sunni Muslims

In a tradition unrelated to Ashura and Karbala, some Sunni Muslims fast on the day of Ashura based on narrations attributed to Muhammad. Some other Sunnis accept Ashura as an important day due to the martyrdom of Husayn and the significance of the events at Karbala. The fasting is to commemorate the day when Moses and his followers were saved from Pharaoh by Allah by creating a path in the Red Sea, an event not recorded in independent sources.[69] According to Muslim tradition, the Jews also fasted on the tenth day. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrates that Muhammad came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, "What is this?" They said, "This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day." He said, "We are closer to Musa than you." So he fasted on the day and told the people to fast.[9][10][70][71]

This tenth in question is believed to be the tenth of Jewish month of Tishri, which is Yom Kippur in Judaism.[72] The Torah designates the tenth day of the seventh month as holy and a fast (Lev. 16, Lev. 23, Num. 29). The word "tenth" in Hebrew is Asarah or Asharah (He:עשרה), which is from the same semitic root A-SH-R. According to this tradition, Muhammad continued to observe the veneration of Ashura modeled on its Jewish prototype in late September until shortly before his death, which the verse of Nasi' was revealed and the Jewish-type calendar adjustments of the Muslims became prohibited. From then on, Ashura became distinct from its Jewish predecessor of Yom Kippur.[73]

A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s

In some countries, other religious communities commemorate this event. According to hadith record in Sahih Bukhari, Ashura was already known as a commemorative day during which some Makkah residents used to observe customary fasting. Muhammad fasted on the day of Ashura, 10th Muharram, in Makkah. When fasting during the month of Ramadan became obligatory, the fast of Ashura was made non-compulsory. This was narrated by Ayesha, wife of Muhammad Sahih Muslim, (Hadith-2499). In hijrah event, when Muhammad led his followers to Medina, he found the Jews of that area likewise observing fasts on the day of Ashura. Seeing this, Muhammad affirmed the Islamic claim to the fast, and from then on Muslims have fasted on combinations of two or three consecutive days including the 10th of Muharram (e.g. the 9th and 10th or the 10th and 11th).[9][10]

A companion of Muhammad, Ibn Abbas, reports that Muhammad went to Madina and found the Jews fasting on the tenth of Muharram. Muhammad inquired of them, "What is the significance of this day on which you fast?" They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which God rescued the children of Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day." Muhammad said, "We have more claim over Moses than you." Muhammad then fasted on that day and ordered Muslims to fast also.[74]

Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan fast. Sahih Muslim, (Hadith-2499)[75]

Socio-political aspects

Sham Ghariban (the first night in mourn of Husayn) in Imam Reza Shrine, Mashhad, Iran

Commemoration of Ashura has great socio-political value for the Shi'a, who have been a minority throughout their history. According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli military presence and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the Ashura commemorations associate the memory of Al-Husayn's martyrdom with the conditions of Islam and Muslims in reference to Husayn's famous quote on the day of Ashura: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala".[76]

From the period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905–1911) onward, mourning gatherings increasingly assumed a political aspect. Following an old established tradition, preachers compared the oppressors of the time with Imam Husayn's enemies, the umayyads.[77]

The political function of commemoration was very marked in the years leading up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978–79, as well as during the revolution itself. In addition, the implicit self-identification of the Muslim revolutionaries with Imam Husayn led to a blossoming of the cult of the martyr, expressed most vividly, perhaps, in the vast cemetery of Behesht-e Zahra, to the south of Tehran, where the martyrs of the revolution and the war against Iraq are buried.[77]

On the other hand, some governments have banned this commemoration. In the 1930s Reza Shah forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura commemorations for many years. In the 1884 Hosay massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities.

Violence during Ashura

Terrorist attacks against Muslims have occurred in several countries, on the day of Ashurra.[78] The repeated experience of violence at Ashura has produced an "interesting" feedback effect in Shia history.[79]

  • 1994 – explosion of a bomb at the Imam Reza shrine, June 20, in Mashhad, Iran, 20 people killed[80]
  • 2004 – bomb attacks, during Shi'a pilgrimage to Karbala, March 2, Karbala, Iraq, 178 people killed and 5000 injured[81]
  • 2008 – clashes, between Iraqi troops and members of a Shia cult, January 19, Basra and Nasiriya, Iraq, 263 people killed[82]
  • 2009 – explosion of a bomb, during the Ashura procession, December 28, Karachi, Pakistan, dozens of people killed and hundreds injured [83]
  • 2010 – detention of 200 Shia Muslims, at a shop house in Sri Gombak known as Hauzah Imam Ali ar-Ridha (Hauzah ArRidha), December 15, Selangor[84]
  • 2011 – explosion of a bomb, during the Ashura procession, December 28, Hilla and Baghdad, Iraq, December 5, 30 people killed [85]
  • 2011 – suicide attack, during the Ashura procession, Kabul, Afghanistan, December 6, 63 people killed[86]
  • 2015 – three explosions, during the Ashura procession, mosque in Dhaka, Bangladesh, October 24, one person killed and 80 people injured [87]

In the Gregorian calendar

While Ashura is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the appearance of the crescent moon that is used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country due to the different geographic locations.[88]

AH Gregorian date
1437 2015, 24 October (Middle East)
1438 2016, 12 October (Middle East: Lebanon, Iraq, Iran)
1439 2017, 1 October (Middle East: Lebanon, Iraq, Iran) [89]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Except his young son, Ali, who was severely ill during that battle.[34]
  2. ^ Quran, 12:84
  3. ^ From Shaykh as-Sadooq, al-Khisal; quoted in al-Ameen, A’yan, IV, 195. The same is quoted from Bin Shahraashoob's Manaqib in Bih’ar al-Anwar, XLVI, 108; Cf. similar accounts, Ibid, pp. 108–10

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References

  • Litvak, Meir (1998). Shi'i Scholars of Nineteenth-Century Iraq: The Ulama of Najaf and Karbala. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-89296-1
  • al Musawi, Muhsin (2006). Reading Iraq: Culture and Power and Conflict. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-070-6
  • al Mufid, al-Shaykh Muhammad (December 1982 (1st ed.)). Kitab Al-Irshad. Tahrike Tarsile Quran. ISBN 0-940368-12-9, ISBN 978-0-940368-12-5
  • al-Azdi, abu Mikhnaf, Maqtal al-Husayn. Shia Ithnasheri Community of Middlesex (PDF)

External links

  • / Gordon B. Coutts (Scottish/American, 1868-1937) A Large Oil on Canvas Depicting "The Ashura Rituals, Tangier" (Arabic: عاشوراء ʻĀshūrā’ - Urdu: عاشورا - Persian: عاشورا - Turkish: Aşure Günü). Signed and inscribed: 'Gordon Coutts/TANGIER (lower right). Circa: 1920
  • Is Aashura a day of mourning or rejoicing?
  • Ashura the Historical Significance
  • Events on the day of Ashura
  • Ashura Awareness Handouts
  • Ashura An article by Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  • Ashura in Iranian culture An article by Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  • What is Ashura? (BBC News)
  • What is Ashura? – By Abdul-Ilah As-Saadi Al Jazeera
  • Ashura Australia – Official Website of the Annual Ashura Procession in Sydney, Australia
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