Armenoid race

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A Syrian Armenian man of Armenoid type, from The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study by William Zebina Ripley (1911)

In the racial anthropology of the early 20th century, the Armenoid type is a subtype of the Caucasian race.[1] According to anthropologist Carleton Coon, the countries of the northern part of Western Asia, namely Anatolia/Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran, Upper Mesopotamia and the Levant, were considered the center of distribution of the Armenoid race.[2]

Origin

Prominent Nazi and racial theorist Hans F. K. Günther used the term 'Near Eastern race' to describe the Armenoid type, and ascribed Near Eastern characteristics to several contemporary peoples, including: Armenians, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Iranians, Assyrians, Kurds, Syrians/Syriacs, and Turks.[3] Günther regarded Jews as people of multiple racial origins but defined the Near Eastern race as their major basis, and described the race's characteristics such as its "commercial spirit" and as being "artful traders" who had strong psychological manipulation capacities that helped their trade, as well as being known to exploit people.[4] Günther's conception has been criticized for pseudoscientific analysis.[5] Zionists historically identified Jews as within the Armenoid type in the name of the Near Eastern race.[6] Zionists utilized the Armenoid type in the name of the Near Eastern race, and identified Jews as a particular group within that type.[7]

Physiognomy

A Lebanese man of Armenoid type, from Ripley (1911)

Renato Biasutti described the Armenoid race as having: "Opaque-white skin, brunet hair and eyes, abundant pilosity; medium stature (166), sturdy body build; wide head with rounded occiput (87); very long face, straight and narrow nose (57) with high bridge; thin lips, narrow eye opening.[8]

Carleton S. Coon wrote that the Armenoid racial type is very similar to the Dinaric race, most probably due to racial mixture with the Mediterraneans (who often have olive skin) and the Alpines (who often have brown skin). The only difference is that Armenoids have a slightly darker pigmentation. He described the Armenoid as a sub-race of the Caucasoid race. Armenoids were said to be found throughout Eurasia. However, the largest concentrations occurred within Anatolia, Transcaucasia, Iran, and Mesopotamia.

Considered to be the "true" Caucasians, Armenoids were relatively tall, usually with medium to dark brown or black hair, light to medium skin colour, large round eyes that were usually brown; a round, brachycephalic head shape with a straight backing (planocciput) (see Cephalic index), high cheekbones and non-prominent chins. Lips were full, and noses were often aquiline. Large minority of Armenoids have blond hair and blue, green, or hazel eyes. This racial type was believed to be prevalent among the Armenians, Assyrians, and Iraqis.[9][10]

Distribution

The Armenoid race type exists to the west and north of the Arabid race, and encompasses the modern Armenians, Assyrians, Maronites, Greeks, Turks, Kurds, Georgians, Iranians, Israelis, Syrian Arabs, Druze, Yazidis, Shabaks, Mandeans, Mhallami and Syriac-Arameans,[11] together with the ancient ancestors and/or predecessors of these peoples, such as the Assyrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Eblaites, Amorites, Canaanites, Kassites, Gutians, Hittites, Hattians, Hurrians, Phrygians, Lydians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Israelites, Samaritans, Judeans, Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines, Cilicians, Cappadocians and Minoans among others.[12]

Types

The Armenoid is divided into four types: Armenid, Anatolid, Assyrid, and Caucasid.


Assyrid - Both Assyrians, Levantine Arabs, and the Maltese people belong to this type. Assyrids are of middling height and generally have a medium build.

Caucasid - Tall slender type prevalent among the people of the Caucasus.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ripley, William Z. (1899). The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study. D. Appleton & Company. p. 444. 
  2. ^ "Carleton Coon, "Racial Distribution map"". Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  3. ^ Alan E Steinweis. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2008. P. 29.
  4. ^ Alan E Steinweis. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2008. P. 29.
  5. ^ Alan E Steinweis. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2008. P. 29.
  6. ^ Mitchell B. Hart. Jews & Race: Writings on Identity & Difference, 1880-1940. Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA: Brandeis University Press, 2011. P. 247.
  7. ^ Mitchell B. Hart. Jews & Race: Writings on Identity & Difference, 1880-1940. Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA: Brandeis University Press, 2011. P. 247.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2012-05-11. 
  9. ^ Fisher, William B. (2003). The Middle East and North Africa, Volume 50. Routledge. p. 444. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1. The northern and eastern hill districts [of Iraq] contain many racial elements—Turkish, Persian, and proto-Nordic, with Armenoid strains predominating. [..] the population of the riverine districts of Iraq displays a mixture of Armenoid and Mediterranean elements. North of the Baghdad district the Armenoid strain is dominant. 
  10. ^ Fisher, William B. (1966). The Middle East: A Physical, Social and Regional Geography. Methuen. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-416-71510-1. Armenoid affinities are easily discerned in the peoples of northern and central Iraq. , extract of page 444
  11. ^ Review: An Introduction to the Anthropology of the Near East by C. U. Ariëns Kappers, American Anthropologist, 37(35) - Pages 148-49 by W.M. Krogman
  12. ^ Hourani, Albert H. (1946). Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay. Oxford University Press. p. 96. 
  13. ^ The Races of Europe by Carleton Stevens Coon - (Chapter XII, section 18)
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