Armed Forces of the Philippines Medal of Valor

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Medal of Valor
The AFP Medal of Valor.jpg
Service ribbon (top) and Medal of Valor on neck ribbon
Awarded by the Republic of the Philippines
Type Philippine military medal with neck ribbon
Eligibility AFP military personnel only
Awarded for Conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty.[1]
Status Currently awarded
Description The medal is a disc with golden sea-lion and water waves on its face. The disc is resting on a cross and crossed swords.
Statistics
First awarded 15 November 1935: Moro Rebellion, Philippine Army recipient
Last awarded 20 December 2017: Battle of Marawi, Philippine Army recipient
Total awarded 41
Posthumous
awards
18
Distinct
recipients
41
Precedence
Next (higher) None
Next (lower) Distinguished Conduct Star
Philippine Medal of Valor ribbon.jpg
Service ribbon

The Medal of Valor (Filipino: Medalya ng Kagitingan) is the Armed Forces of the Philippines' highest military honor awarded for a conspicuous deed of personal bravery or self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty that distinguishes the recipient from his comrades.[2] It is defined in the Philippine Army Awards and Decorations reference material FC 1-0062, itself adapted from the Armed Forces of the Philippines Awards and Decorations Handbook, Second Edition published in 1997, as an award for "heroism in combat" and is foremost in the order of precedence of awards and decorations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[1]

The medal is awarded by the President of the Philippines to members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and allied military personnel, including recognized guerrilla forces.[3][4] The Medal of Valor is held in such high regard that the President is required to salute the medal and the individual wearing it.[5]

Under Philippine Republic Act No. 9049,[6] a Medal of Valor awardee is entitled to lifetime monthly gratuity of 20,000 that is separate and distinct from any salary or pension the awardee is receiving or will receive from the government.[7] The amount of this monthly gratuity was increased to ₱75,000 in 2016 by President Rodrigo Duterte.[2][8]

Appearance

The medal is described as a disc adorned with a golden sea-lion in relief holding the eight-rayed Philippine sun, and water waves composed of five blue ripples. The disk rests on a red cross with golden borders and crossed golden swords. The top-most flange of the cross contains three golden stars in a triangular pattern. A golden bar embossed with the phrase "For Valor" connects the medal to a Sampaguita wreath consisting of ten white buds and twenty-two green leaves. The wreath serves as a link to the neck ribbon, which is crimson with eight golden stars arranged horizontally forming two parallel lines. The service ribbon, worn in lieu of the medal itself, is similarly crimson with eight golden stars arranged horizontally forming two parallel lines, five stars on the top line and three on the bottom.[1]

Symbolism

The sea-lion represents the Office of the President of the Philippines. The eight-rayed sun represents the eight Philippine provinces that revolted against Spain. The blue ripples represent the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The crossed swords represent conflict with the enemy in defense of the nation; the three stars represent Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, the three island groups of the Philippines, while the sampaguita wreath symbolizes the highest honor for courage and gallantry. The red coloration signifies bravery.[1]

Recipient's privileges

The Medal of Valor recipient, his widow, or her dependents are privileged to receive preferential treatment when applying for government work, public housing, loans not exceeding ₱500,000, and lease or acquisition of public land.

In addition, they are exempt from tuition fees in public and private schools and other institutions of learning. Children of the recipient who wish to attend the Philippine Military Academy, if qualified, receive priority for commission into the Armed Forces of the Philippines upon graduation. They also receive free medication from both public and private hospitals.

Other privileges include a 20% discount on hotel bills, transportation services, restaurants, theaters, carnivals, and when purchasing pharmaceutical drugs. Government entities or private companies who deny the recipient these privileges are penalized with up to six years imprisonment and a fine not exceeding ₱300,000.

List of recipients

There have been 41 Medal of Valor recipients since 1935. Of these recipients, 17 are living. Five of them remain in active service. They are Cirilito Sobejana, Bartolome Vicente Bacarro, Noel Buan, Herbert Dilag and Custodio Parcon.[9]

The portraits of Medal of Valor recipients are displayed in the Hall of Heroes at Camp Aguinaldo, headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in Quezon City.[10] The Hall of Valor at the Philippine Military Academy also showcases the portraits of PMA Medal of Valor recipients.[11]

Philippine Army

Image Name Rank Place and date of action Unit Year awarded Status Notes[2]
Paulino Santos[12][13] Major General Bayang Cotta, Lanao del Sur
26 July 1917
Philippine Constabulary 1935 Deceased "He and his men engaged its defenders in a bloody hand-to-hand combat, killing 30 of them, and thus preserving the lives of government soldiers."[14]
"In this gallant act, one PC soldier was killed while five others were wounded. Lieutenant Santos sustained a near-fatal gunshot (wound) at the back of the head."[13]
Emigdio C. Cruz[13] Lieutenant Colonel Japanese-occupied Philippines
3 May 1943 to 28 February 1944
Philippine Commonwealth Army, in active service in the United States Army 1944 Deceased "Major Cruz volunteered for the hazardous mission of entering the Philippines and obtaining information there of the great importance to the Government of the Commonwealth and the Southwest Pacific Command. His capture by the enemy would have meant torture and certain death."[13]
Mariano Castañeda[13] Major General Plaza Miranda, Manila
10 March 1947
Philippine Constabulary 1950 Deceased "His presence of mind and display of exemplary courage and bravery in the timely disposal of the lethal grenade saved the life of the First President of the Philippines (Manuel Roxas) and those of his family and other higher ranking officials of the Republic, who at that moment, were all with him on the platform."[13]
Conrado Yap[13] Captain Yeoncheon County, South Korea
(Battle of Yultong)
22-23 April 1951
10th Battalion Combat Team, Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea 1951 Killed in action "He succeeded in recovering the body of Lieutenant Artiaga and that of three (3) other enlisted men when not being satisfied with this and acting above and beyond the call of duty, he proceeded to assault an enemy emplacement about 300 yards away despite the hail of enemy fires until he fell dead from an enemy bullet."[13]
Francisco Camacho Sr Francisco Camacho Sr.[15] Master Sergeant Calauan, Laguna[13]
20 December 1955
1st Scout Ranger Regiment 1955 Died of wounds "... awarded the Medal of Valor after a successful combat mission behind enemy lines which killed a notorious Hukbalahap leader."[15]
"At a pre-arranged signal they immediately opened fire on the Huks and, with concentrated fire, they were able to kill Commander Villapando, Commander Gueverra and one Huk bodyguard. One of the Huks shot back, hitting Master Sergeant Camacho, who died soon afterwards."[13]
Weene Martillana[15] Corporal Calauan, Laguna[13]
20 December 1955
1st Scout Ranger Regiment 1955 Deceased "... awarded the Medal of Valor after a successful combat mission behind enemy lines which killed a notorious Hukbalahap leader."[15]
"Master Sergeant Camacho together with Corporal Martillana, ... posed as civilians and befriended Eddie Villapando, notorious Huk Commander who terrorized Cavite and Batangas for many years. With Master Sergeant Camacho as leader, these enlisted men, after establishing contact with Villapando in September 1955, skillfully and at great risk to themselves, won the confidence of Villapando and his bodyguards."[13]
Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Marcos[16][2][17][18] Third Lieutenant Bataan
22-26 January 1942
United States Army Forces in the Far East 1958 Deceased Marcos had claimed to be the recipient of 300 war medals, a controversial claim due to his contentious war history. The official reason given for Marcos' conferment of the Medal of Valor was reportedly for his:
"... prevention of the possible decimation of withdrawing USAFFE troops in a 'suicidal action against overwhelming enemy forces', thus helping delay the inevitable fall of Bataan."[16]
Miguel Pastolero[13] Staff Sergeant Libacao, Capiz
26 October 1951
Military Intelligence Service 1964 Killed in action "Staff Sergeant Pastolero was able to empty his magazine before he expired and in his dying moments accounted for eight (8) HMBs out of the twenty two (22) dissidents killed during the melee. His coolness under fire, his indomitable courage, his fortitude and his fighting spirit are in keeping with the highest traditions of the Armed Forces of the Philippines."[13]
Bienvenido Fajemolin[13] Corporal Sibuco, Zamboanga del Norte
18 October 1977
3rd Platoon, Charlie Company, 36th Infantry Battalion, 4th Infantry Division 1980 Living "Although wounded, he rallied the demoralized and badly hit group defending the headquarters, reorganized the defensive positions, and evacuated the wounded and the dead to safe areas. He held the attack for five hours until the insurgents disengaged and withdrew from the scene, with 16 killed and 10 Garand rifles and one 12-gauge shotgun lost."[13]
Hilario Estrella[13] First Lieutenant Bayog, Zamboanga del Sur
1 December 1984
Charlie Company, 33rd Infantry Battalion, 1st Infantry Division 1987 Living "Unfazed, First Lieutenant Estrella rallied his men and the fierce fire-fight lasted seven hours until the terrorists withdrew. At the scene of the encounter, they recovered 22 bodies of dead terrorists, including 3 commanders, 12 high-powered firearms, assorted ammunition and subversive documents."[13]
Francisco Granfil[13] Sergeant Tarragona, Davao Oriental
12 February 1988
Operational Team 1103, 11th Special Forces Company, Home Defense Group (Airborne) 1989 Living "Despite his sensing the advance of the reinforcing rebels coming from the main body, he steadfastly stood his ground and fiercely fought with automatic fires and grenade launchers, while interchangeably operating the 60 millimeter mortar until the enemy withdrew, leaving behind 37 terrorists killed and several others wounded. This conspicuous and heroic act of Sergeant Granfil prevented the complete annihilation of the beleaguered troops, the saving of many lives and prevented the loss of government properties."[13]
Robert Salvador[19] Private First Class Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City
3 December 1989
1990 Living Salvador was one of the soldiers defending Camp Aguinaldo during the 1989 Philippine coup attempt. When rebel armored personnel carriers rammed the camp's gate, Salvador fired on the vehicles with a 90mm recoilless rifle, killing several crewmen inside. One of those killed turned out to be Salvador's brother, Rogelio.[19]
Arturo B. Ortiz[11] Captain Murcia, Negros Occidental
6 April 1990
606th Special Forces Company 1990 Living "The two-hour gun battle resulted in 84 terrorists killed with 22 dead bodies counted, including 17 recovered on site, 8 captured, and several others wounded and missing as reported by the Negros Regional Party Committee."[11]
Bartolome Vicente Bacarro[9] Second Lieutenant Isabela
1991
6th CAFGU Active Auxiliary Company, 21st Infantry Battalion 1991 Living "He executed a systematic attack through proper maneuvers and strict adherence to fire discipline by firing only at sure enemy targets to conserve their ammunition and spare the civilians from being caught in the crossfire."[9]
Romualdo Rubi[20] Corporal Claver, Surigao del Norte
18 March 1991
1st Scout Ranger Regiment 1991 Living Rubi single-handedly fought 100 New People's Army guerrillas, killing 26 after a three-hour firefight. He was armed with an M16 rifle with about 200 rounds of ammunition and two grenades.[20]
Jose Bandong Jr.[21] Second Lieutenant Mountain Province
10 April 1992
24th Infantry Battalion 1992 Killed in action Bandong's platoon was overwhelmed by New People's Army guerrillas during a 9-hour firefight. Volunteering to stay behind while his men withdrew, Bandong's last call was for artillery to "Fire on my location."
"By this display of heroism Second Lieutenant Jose Bandong Jr upheld the highest virtue of military leadership and professionalism, thus earning distinct credit for himself and the Armed Forces of the Philippines."[21]
Roy Cuenca[22] Staff Sergeant Tandag, Surigao del Sur
20 October 1991
CAFGU Active Auxiliary Salvacion Patrol Base, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 29th Infantry Battalion, 4th Infantry Division 1992 Living "With his valiant and resolute chivalry and unnerving audacity, Staff Sergeant Cuenca repeatedly repulsed and subdued the enemy's continued attempts to overrun their detachment. Although outnumbered, Staff Sergeant Cuenca was able to hold his ground for almost three hours of heavy firefight with the enemy."[22]
Cirilito Sobejana[9] Captain Isabela, Basilan
13 January 1995
1st Scout Ranger Regiment 1996 Living "He repeatedly maneuvered around, exposing himself to enemy fire to direct the battle and operate the radio."[9]
Robert Edward Lucero[23][15] Captain Carmen, Cotabato
1996
6th Scout Ranger Company 2000 Killed in action "While defending the government's infrastructure project in the area, Lucero paid the ultimate sacrifice but showed the finest traditions of Filipino soldiery."[15]
Herbert Dilag[9] Second Lieutenant Basilan
30 April 2000
1st Scout Ranger Battalion 2000 Living "Uncertain of what will happen to them, the members of the Squads, left their valuables to their supporting comrades to be further given to their loved ones, in anticipation of their deaths."[9]
Claudio Forrosuelo[20] Sergeant Matanog, Maguindanao
3 May 2000
8th Scout Ranger Company, 2nd Scout Ranger Battalion 2000 Killed in action Forrosuelo volunteered to stay behind as a delaying force, inspiring five other soldiers to do the same in an act of self-sacrifice to allow the rest of his unit to re-position at a more advantageous location after being engaged in a firefight with 500-600 members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front that lasted four hours.[20]
Lucio Curig[24][25] Staff Sergeant Basilan
30 April 2000
1st Scout Ranger Battalion 2000 Living Curig was awarded for his actions in the same operation in which his CO Herbert Dilag received his.[25]
"SSgt Curig and 13 other Rangers volunteered for and organized a "suicide squad" to execute the final assault. Thoroughly exhausted yet unmindful of losing their lives, they rushed towards the enemy's fortified defenses and carried out an intense bunker-to-bunker close (quarter) battle."[24]
Noel S. Buan Noel S. Buan[26] Lieutenant Colonel Lantawan, Basilan
8 April 2004
1st Scout Ranger Battalion 2004 Living "With boldness, innovative guerrilla techniques, and a resolve to accomplish the mission, he and his men were able to close in, and dealt with the enemies face to face. "... showed unfaltering will power which inspired his men to fight aggressively, eventually resulting in the successful neutralization of 7 terrorists."[9]
Leopoldo Diokno[27] Staff Sergeant Basilan
8 April 2004
1st Scout Ranger Battalion 2004 Living "Diokno assisted Noel Buan in planning the operation against the Abu Sayyaf ... voluntarily risked his life above and beyond the call of duty by allowing himself to become part of the entrapment operation to accomplish the neutralization of Hamsiraji Sali and his group."[27]
Ian Pacquit[28] Private First Class Zamboanga City
24 September 2013[29]
3rd Scout Ranger Company 2014 Killed in action "With the courage, dedication and sacrifice of Private First Class Ian Pacquit, further casualties were avoided and the neutralization of enemy firing positions greatly contributed to the clearing and capture of enemy strongholds."[28]
Rommel Sandoval[30] Captain Marawi City
10 September 2017
11th Scout Ranger Company 2017 Killed in action "Cpt. Sandoval distinguished himself in combat as he displayed extraordinary courage, bravery, sterling leadership and professionalism by offering the greatest sacrifice of giving his life to a fellow comrade, thereby keeping with the finest tradition of the Filipino soldiery."[30]

Philippine Navy and Marine Corps

Image Name Rank Place and date of action Unit Year awarded Status Notes[2]
Nestor Acero[13] Private First Class Jolo, Sulu
26-27 November 1972
7th Marine Company, Philippine Marine Corps 1983 Killed in action "His gallant defense through ferocious fighting attracted heavy volume of enemy fire to concentrate on him, thus relieving the pressure on the withdrawing elements from incurring further casualty. When recovery teams were sent out after the savage battle, they found 30 or more dead outlaws in the periphery of the dead body of Private First Class Acero whose left arm was cradling the neck of Private First Class Buaya. This display of gallantry and heroism at the sacrifice of his beyond and above the call of duty distinguished Private First Class Acero as among the finest in the military service."[13]
Custodio Parcon[9] Captain Isabela, Basilan
7-15 May 1993
61 Marine Reconnaissance Company 1993 Living "Through skillful direction of friendly fires and maneuvers, his men evaded detection and sowed confusion within enemy lines while dislodging Abu Sayyaf elements from each bunker in close quarter battle."[9]
"... he single-handedly maneuvered forward and delivered fatal burst of fire to the enemy gunner, making the last defense of the Abu Sayyaf group to collapse, and forcing the remaining enemies to scamper in different directions, bringing with them their dead and wounded. The capture of Camp Al Madinah and the neutralization of 46 Abu Sayyaf extremists greatly pressured the enemy to release Luis Anthony Biel III."[31]
Tomas Campo Jr.[31] Sergeant Munai, Lanao del Norte
11 April 2000
20th Marine Company, Marine Battalion Landing Team-10 2000 Killed in action "Just when it seemed that his task was done, the Platoon Commander was hit by enemy fire. Sergeant Campo rushed back to the forward position to attend to and evacuate the officer, exposing himself once again to the intense hostile gunfire. In the process, he was fatally hit by enemy bullets, dying right there at the combat scene. All the 11 Marines he attended to have survived. Only the angel of mercy himself lost his life so that others may live."[31]
Lolinato To-ong[31] First Lieutenant Matanog, Maguindanao
30 April 2000
52nd Marine Company, Force Reconnaissance Battalion 2000 Killed in action "While providing fires, these courageous men were hit, unmindful of their wounds, maneuvered once more to another covered position and fired at the enemies until they were caught by the RPG blast which lifted their lifeless body momentarily from the ground. Their gallantry and act of heroism have greatly helped in extricating their wounded comrades thus minimizing casualties and preventing the possibility of total annihilation from the superior enemy forces."[31]
Domingo Deluana[31] Sergeant Matanog, Maguindanao
30 April 2000
9th Marine Battalion 2000 Killed in action "While providing fires, these courageous men were hit, unmindful of their wounds, maneuvered once more to another covered position and fired at the enemies until they were caught by the RPG blast which lifted their lifeless body momentarily from the ground. Their gallantry and act of heroism have greatly helped in extricating their wounded comrades thus minimizing casualties and preventing the possibility of total annihilation from the superior enemy forces."[31]
Ariel Querubin[32] Lieutenant Colonel Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte
18-19 March 2000
Marine Battalion Landing Team-1 2001 Living "... inspired courage in his men with his daring maneuvers, unmindful of his own safety, moving positions and drawing fire towards himself with the end of pinpointing where the enemy fire was coming from."[33]
"Under his inspiring leadership, his men fought ferociously forcing the enemy's last line of defense to collapse and sending them scampering to different directions along with their dead and wounded and leaving behind their vaunted rocket launchers and high powered firearms as well as documents of high intelligence value."[31]
Herminigildo Yurong[31] Staff Sergeant Matanog, Maguindanao
29 May 2000
Marine Battalion Landing Team-2 2001 Killed in action "Under the hail of heavy enemy fire and relentless RPG attacks, he audaciously moved from one hasty cover to another across the line of fire, crawling, leapfrogging, delivering potent accurate counter-fire, and throwing grenades towards every enemy position. Alone in the advance position, he repulsed the enemy counterattack almost single-handedly. It was unfortunate, however, that in the last instance, an RPG round found its mark near his position. The blast wounded him fatally which caused his instantaneous death."[31]
Laurence Narag Sr.[34] Corporal Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte
3 April 2000
Team 1, 61st Marine Company, Force Reconnaissance Battalion 2001 Died from wounds Narag, serving as radioman for his team during an operation, spied on a Moro rebel camp but was detected and shot at by enemy snipers. Wounded, he nevertheless radioed coordinates for artillery support and airstrikes. "An estimated 200 Moro fighters were then at the rebel camp. If not for Narag's efforts, the 18 other Marines in his team would have just fallen into a trap."[34]
"... he repeatedly rejected the plea of his other comrades that he be evacuated. With all the strength his dying body could ever muster, he gallantly fought back until the Commanding Officer of the unit himself dragged him towards the MEDEVAC vehicle."[31]
Ernesto Layaguin[31] Corporal Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte
3 April 2000
61st Marine Company 2001 Killed in action "... Corporal Layaguin braved all odds, without regard for his own safety, rushed forward to save the wounded Corporal Narag in order to extricate the latter to the rear position. He later on shielded Corporal Narag with his own body to secure the latter... In the process, he was hit by a sniper's bullet in the body. In spite of the wound sustained, he still managed to extricate Corporal Narag... unfortunately, a second sniper's bullet found its mark on his forehead that killed him instantaneously. He tried to save the life of a fellow Marine, never leaving him at the expense of his own life."[31]

Philippine Army Air Corps and Air Force

Image Name Rank Place and date of action Unit Year awarded Status Notes[2]
Jesus A. Villamor Jesús A. Villamor[13] Lieutenant Colonel Japanese-occupied Philippines
27 December 1942 - November 1943
Allied Intelligence Bureau mission to the Philippines 1954 Deceased "General Douglas MacArthur decided to get in touch with members of the resistance movement in the Philippines, and for this purpose he enlisted the services of Lieutenant Colonel Jesus Antonio Villamor to return to the islands. Notwithstanding the knowledge that such a mission was fought with hardships, difficulties, and risks to his own life, Lieutenant Colonel Villamor nevertheless volunteered to lead the first Allied Intelligence Bureau mission to the Philippines."[13]
Danilo Atienza[35] Major Sangley Air Station
1 December 1989[36]
6th Tactical Fighter Squadron 1990 Killed in action Major Atienza led a trio of Northrop F-5 fighter aircraft that attacked the Sangley Air Station during the 1989 Philippine coup attempt resulting in the destruction of rebel air assets.[35] However, Atienza failed to pull out during his last bombing run and crashed. Sangley Air Station was later renamed in his honor.[37]
Ludegario Bactol A2C Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City
December 1989
1990 Deceased Bactol was an airman defending Camp Aguinaldo during the 1989 Philippine coup attempt. He fired on the leading rebel LVT-6 armored fighting vehicle with a 90mm recoilless rifle as the Reform the Armed Forces Movement rebels attempted to enter the base, preventing the following military vehicles from pushing through the gate.

Philippine Constabulary[1]

Image Name Rank Place and date of action Unit Year awarded Status Notes[2]
Desiderio Suson[13] Technical Sergeant Gamay, Northern Samar
31 October 1980
Philippine Constabulary 1981 Deceased "Surrounded on all sides and with no way to escape, then Sergeant Suson ordered his men to make every shot count by aiming accurately, and to hold their ground at all cost. Sensing his men were momentarily paralyzed because of shock, he went leapfrogging from one foxhole to another to direct their fire. Despite the blood oozing from his wounds, he never lost composure."[13]
Isaias Silvestre Jr.[13] Master Sergeant Lupon, Davao Oriental
14 May 1985
433rd Philippine Constabulary Company 1985 Living "Although outnumbered 8 to 1, the beleaguered troops fought with intense ferocity, while their leader, with his exceptional marksmanship, fatally shot one by one the other terrorists as they crawled towards the patrol base. Although wounded, he accounted for six terrorists including Commander Mortar, the leader of the terrorists whom he shot in the forehead at the time when the subversive terrorist leader was calling on the troopers through a megaphone to surrender."[13]
Jacinto Moreno[13] Sergeant Maslog, Eastern Samar
23 May 1985
Maslog Patrol Base 1986 Living "... gallantly fought and successfully defended the patrol base with only six military men and nine members of the Civilian Defense Forces against the attack of an overwhelming number of superior enemy..."[13]

Discrepancies in the record

The official number of Philippine Medal of Valor recipients is currently given as forty-one (41).[2] However, it is should be noted that Mary Grace Baloyo, a Philippine Air Force pilot who died in a crash on 26 March 2001 and is on record as being conferred the medal by former President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on 3 April 2001, is not included in the summary of recipients.[38][39]

Statistics

Composition of recipients, living and deceased.

  Living (41%)
  Deceased (59%)

Composition of recipients, officers and enlisted personnel.

  Officers (46%)
  Enlisted Personnel (54%)

Composition of recipients by service.

  Philippine Army (64%)
  Philippine Navy-Marine Corps (22%)
  Philippine Air Force (7%)
  Philippine Constabulary (7%)

Composition of recipients by type of conferment.

  Posthumous (39%)
  Antemortem (61%)

Notes

1.^ The Philippine Constabulary was merged with the Integrated National Police on 29 January 1991, forming the Philippine National Police.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "FC 1-0062 Awards and Decorations" (PDF). Philippine Army. October 2005. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Fonbuena, Carmela (20 December 2017). "FAST FACTS: List of Medal of Valor awardees and their privileges". Rappler. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  3. ^ The AFP Adjutant General, Awards and Decorations Handbook, 1997, OTAG, p. 11-12.
  4. ^ Presidential Security Group. "Awards and Decorations". Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  5. ^ Soliven, Max (25 August 2005). "Not all men of valor got a medal: We must honor those who did". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. ^ Congress of the Philippines Eleventh Congress (March 22, 2001). "AN ACT GRANTING MONTHLY GRATUITY AND PRIVILEGES TO AN AWARDEE OF THE MEDAL OF VALOR, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES". lawphil. Retrieved March 22, 2001.
  7. ^ Julie M. Aurelio (May 9, 2015). "Medal of Valor eyed for 30 SAF survivors". inquirer. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  8. ^ Philippine News Agency (25 December 2016). "AFP hails hike in Medal of Valor cash award". Manila Standard. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fonbuena, Carmela (21 December 2017). "Living heroes: 5 Filipino soldiers who won the Medal of Valor". Rappler. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  10. ^ Romero, Alexis (7 April 2011). "AFP Hall of Heroes includes Marcos". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Farolan, Ramon (13 February 2017). "Medal of Valor". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  12. ^ Salazar Jr., Melito (18 August 2016). "A contrast of heroes". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Defenders of Bataan and Corredgidor and other USAFFE Fronts Philippines: Heroism". Defenders of Bataan and Corredgidor. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  14. ^ Villegas, CJ (25 May 2016). "Who is General Paulino Santos?". General Santos City Public Library. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Cabunoc, Harold (26 November 2011). "Scout Rangers: The legend continues". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  16. ^ a b "Why Duterte gov't believes Marcos is a war hero". Rappler. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  17. ^ Romero, Alexis (7 April 2011). "AFP Hall of Heroes includes Marcos". Philippine Star. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  18. ^ Legaspi, Amita (12 April 2011). "Palace sees no issue in Marcos' inclusion in AFP Hall of Heroes". GMA News. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Filipino Soldier Who Killed Brother In Coup Attempt Gets Bravery Medal". Deseret News. 22 March 1991. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d "The Lone Ranger At The Port". Armed Forces of the Philippines. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  21. ^ a b Fonbuena, Carmela (13 February 2015). "The legend of the soldier who said: 'Fire on my location'". Rappler. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  22. ^ a b Armed Forces of the Philippines (21 December 1992). "Staff Sergeant Roy L. Cuenca 638602 Philippine Army". Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  23. ^ "Medal for Valor Awardees: CAPTAIN ROBERT EDUARD M LUCERO O-9713 PHILIPPINE ARMY". Philippine Army. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  24. ^ a b "Medal for Valor Awardees: Staff Sewrgeant Lucio G Curig 704115 PA". Philippine Army. 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  25. ^ a b Reyes, Victor (26 April 2008). "Lack of stress therapy blamed for colonel's suicide". Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  26. ^ Jacinto, Al (29 April 2004). "Philippine Army Officer Awarded for Killing of Extremist Leader". Arab News. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  27. ^ a b East, Robert (2013). Terror Truncated: The Decline of the Abu Sayyaf Group from the Crucial Year 2002. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 1-4438-4461-6.
  28. ^ a b Fonbuena, Carmela (20 December 2013). "Soldier killed in Zambo given highest military honor". Rappler. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  29. ^ "AFP Honors 53 Soldiers, Employees in 78th Anniversary Ceremony". Armed Forces of the Philippines. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  30. ^ a b Mangosing, Frances G. (20 December 2017). "Marawi City siege's 'Daredevil' gets Medal of Valor". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Medal for Valor". Philippine Marine Corps. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  32. ^ Medina, Andrei (22 March 2016). "Who Is Colonel Querubin?". Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  33. ^ "Who is Col. Ariel Querubin?". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  34. ^ a b Morelos, Mike (25 October 2011). "A 'Hero' for kids of slain soldiers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  35. ^ a b "Philippine Air Force (PAF)". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  36. ^ December 1989 Coup Fact-Finding Commission. "Final Report of the Fact-Finding Commission (Pursuant to R.A. No. 6832)". Bookmark Inc. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  37. ^ "Major Danilo Atienza Air Base". Philippine Air Force. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  38. ^ Gomez, Carla (4 April 2001). "Gloria Confers Medal of Valor on Heroine Pilot". Philippine Daily Inquirer. pp. A4. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  39. ^ Gomez, Carla (9 April 2001). "She Showed All of Us How a Soldier Should Die". Philippine Daily Inquirer. pp. A6. Retrieved 1 September 2015.

Further reading

  • The AFP Adjutant General, Awards and Decorations Handbook, 1995, 1997, OTAG.
  • Decorations and Medals of the Philippines
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