Arini (tribe)

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Arini
Blue-and-Yellow-Macaw.jpg
Blue-and-yellow macaw
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Arinae
Tribe: Arini
G. R. Gray, 1840
Genera

Cyanoliseus
Enicognathus
Rhynchopsitta
Pyrrhura
Anodorhynchus
Leptosittaca
Ognorhynchus
Diopsittaca
Guaruba
Conuropsis
Cyanopsitta
Orthopsittaca
Ara
Primolius
Aratinga
Eupsittula
Psittacara
Thectocercus

The Arini tribe of the neotropical parrots is a monophyletic clade of macaws and parakeets (commonly called conures in aviculture) characterized by colorful plumage and long, tapering tails. They occur throughout Mexico, Central America, and South America, and formerly the Caribbean and North America. One genus and several species are extinct; another genus is extinct in the wild. Two species are known only through subfossil remains. About a dozen hypothetical extinct species (see Extinct Caribbean macaws) have been described, native to the Caribbean area.[1][2] Among the Arini are some of the rarest birds in the world, such as Spix's macaw which is extinct in the wild - fewer than 100 specimens survive in captivity. It also contains the largest flighted parrot in the world, the hyacinth macaw.

Molecular studies have dated the divergence of the Arini tribe from the ancestral neotropical parrots to late in the Paleogene period about 30-35 million years ago.

Taxonomy

The Arini are one of three recognized clades in subfamily Arinae of neotropical parrots in the family Psittacidae of Afrotropical and neotropical parrots, one of three families of true parrots.

Image Genus Living Species
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus -zoo de La Palmyre-8a.jpg Anodorhynchus Spix, 1824
Cyanopsitta spixii -Vogelpark Walsrode, Walsrode, Germany-1980.jpg Cyanopsitta Bonaparte, 1854
  • Spix's macaw, Cyanopsitta spixii (probably extinct in the wild)
Ara chloropterus -Manati Park -Dominican Republic-8a.jpg Ara Lacépède, 1799
Ara-rudobřichý.jpg Orthopsittaca Ridgway, 1912
Blue-headed Macaw RWD2.jpg Primolius Bonaparte, 1857
Parrot-Canaima-Venezuela04.JPG Diopsittaca Ridgway, 1912
Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha -captive-8a-4c.jpg Rhynchopsitta Bonaparte, 1854
Ognorhynchus icterotis -Colombia-8.jpg Ognorhynchus Bonaparte, 1857
Guaruba BiahBkw.jpg Guaruba Lesson, 1830
Leptosittaca branickii -Tapichalaca Reserve-8.jpg Leptosittaca Berlepsch & Stolzmann, 1894
Karolinasittich 01.jpg ConuropsisSalvadori, 1891
  • Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis (extinct)
  • Conuropsis fratercula (extinct, proposed genus Conuropsis contested, known from subfossil remains)
Aratinga -San Francisco -feral parrot-8.jpg Psittacara Vigors, 1825
Aratinga solstitialis -Singapore BirdPark-6.jpg Aratinga Spix, 1824
Aratinga canicularis -Costa Rica-8-2c.JPG Eupsittula Bonaparte, 1853
Aratinga acuticaudata -San Isidro -Bolivia -eating-8.jpg Thectocercus Vieillot, 1818
Burrowing Parrot RWD1.jpg Cyanoliseus Bonaparte, 1854
Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) -Sao Paulo.jpg Pyrrhura Bonaparte, 1856
Cachaña.jpg Enicognathus G.R. Gray, 1840

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mystery Macaws of the West Indies".
  2. ^ Turvey, S. T. (2010). "A new historical record of macaws on Jamaica". Archives of Natural History. 37 (2): 348–351. doi:10.3366/anh.2010.0016.
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